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282 records – page 1 of 29.

[A complex of blood-sucking mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) in the focus of West Nile fever in the Volgograd Region. III. Species feeding on birds and man and the rhythms of their nocturnal activity].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature158763
Source
Med Parazitol (Mosk). 2007 Oct-Dec;(4):37-43
Publication Type
Article
Author
Iu V Lopatina
O V Bezzhonova
M V Fedorova
T V Bulgakova
A E Platonov
Source
Med Parazitol (Mosk). 2007 Oct-Dec;(4):37-43
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Chickens
Circadian Rhythm
Culicidae - classification
Disease Vectors - classification
Ecosystem
Humans
Insect Bites and Stings - classification
Population Density
Risk factors
Russia - epidemiology
Seasons
Species Specificity
West Nile Fever - prevention & control
Abstract
The rate and nocturnal rhythm of mosquito attacks of birds and human beings were studied in the open biotopes of Volgograd and its vicinity in 2004. Thirteen and 11 species of the subfamily Culicinae were collected under the Berezantsev bell and from the traps containing a chicken (a hen), respectively; of them 9 species were common. The mosquitoes of an Anopheles maculipennis complex were caught in a small portion to the traps of both types. Most species of Aedes were highly anthropophilic, showed the minimum activity at night and their abundance considerably decreased by the early transmission period. Among the species that were active during the transmission period, Ae. vexans, Coq. richiardii, and Cx. modestus more intensively attacked a human being than birds and Cx. pipiens was frequently attracted into the hen traps. The attraction of each species of the caught varied during the transmission period. The maximum attacks of Cx. modestus and Cx. pipiens on man and birds coincide and those of Coq. Richiardii and Cx. pipiens on man was observed earlier than on birds. A possible role of mosquitoes of different species in the epizootic and epidemiological processes is discussed.
PubMed ID
18277420 View in PubMed
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[Activity of asparaginase and glutaminase of chickens with experimental sarcomatosis]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature27979
Source
Ukr Biokhim Zh. 1975 May-Jun;47(3):335-8
Publication Type
Article
Author
V S Antonov
N V Klenina
Source
Ukr Biokhim Zh. 1975 May-Jun;47(3):335-8
Language
Ukrainian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Asparaginase - metabolism
Chickens
Drug Stability
English Abstract
Glutaminase - metabolism
Muscles - enzymology
Sarcoma, Experimental - enzymology
Abstract
It is established that the activity of asparaginase in the chicken pectoral muscle tumours is considerably higher than of that in normal muscle. Dynamics of the asparaginase activity in blood is parallel to the changes in the enzymatic activity in the tumour under experimental sarcomatosis. The higher asparaginase activity is also observed in the vicera except for the liver in the terminal period of sarcomatosis development. The glutaminase activity is found to be more stable.
PubMed ID
1216349 View in PubMed
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Airway toxicity of house dust and its fungal composition.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature30240
Source
Ann Agric Environ Med. 2004;11(1):67-73
Publication Type
Article
Date
2004
Author
Elena Piecková
Ken Wilkins
Author Affiliation
Research Base of the Slovak Medical University-Institute of Preventive and Clinical Medicine, Limbova 12, SK-833 03 Bratislava, Slovakia. pieckova@upkm.sk
Source
Ann Agric Environ Med. 2004;11(1):67-73
Date
2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Microbiology
Air Pollution, Indoor - analysis
Animals
Biological Assay - methods
Butanones
Chickens
Child
Child Welfare
Comparative Study
Denmark
Dimethyl Sulfoxide
Dust
Fungi - isolation & purification - metabolism
Household Articles - standards
Humans
Mycoses - microbiology
Mycotoxins - biosynthesis - toxicity
Organ Culture Techniques - methods
Time Factors
Toxicity Tests, Chronic
Trachea - metabolism
Abstract
House dust is an important source of different toxic metabolites as well as allergens, including those of fungal origin, in the indoor environment. A bio-assay employing 1-day-old chick tracheas was used to characterize airway effects of 2-butanone and dimethylsulphoxide (Me2SO) extracts of 23 dust samples collected from water damaged (13) and control (10) Danish schools. Direct microscopical analysis of samples, followed by cultivation on dichloran 18 % glycerol agar at 25 degrees C for 10 days to establish their mycoflora, was performed. The in vitro ciliostatic potential of the chloroform-extractable endo- and exometabolites of 41 representative fungal isolates was determined. Nine dust extracts in 2-butanone (2 from damp rooms) or 10 (6) in Me(2)SO showed some ciliostatic activity in the 3-days' experiment. Fungal composition of dust from buildings with leakage was almost identical with that from undamaged houses, as well as the fungal colony counts from the damp schools and the control samples. Aspergillus spp. were prevalent in the samples - 31 or 40 % of all fungi, followed by Penicillium spp. and Cladosporium cladosporioides. Alternaria spp., Chaetomium spp., Mucor spp., Mycelia sterilia, Paecilomyces variotii, Rhizopus sp., Ulocladium sp. and yeasts were each isolated in less than 8 % of the fungal content. No Aspergillus flavus isolate (8 in total) was aflatoxigenic,em>in vitro. Alternaria spp., Aspergillus spp., Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium spp., C. cladosporioides, Chaetomium spp. and Ulocladium sp.; in total, 88 % of all fungi tested, produced ciliostatically active metabolites. These toxigenic strains were also present in 4 dust samples from controls and 5 dust samples from water damaged buildings. Extracts of these dust samples were also toxic in bioassay. There were bio-detectable concentrations (10-20 microg of extracts/ml of the organ culture medium) of toxic compounds in house dust. Contribution of fungal metabolites to its toxic effect should be studied further.
PubMed ID
15236501 View in PubMed
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Analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of the genetic diversity among Clostridium perfringens isolates from chickens.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature56605
Source
Vet Microbiol. 2003 Jul 17;94(3):257-66
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-17-2003
Author
B. Nauerby
K. Pedersen
M. Madsen
Author Affiliation
Department of Poultry, Danish Veterinary Institute, Fish and Fur Animals, Hangøvej 2, DK-8200 Aarhus N, Denmark. bn@vetinst.dk
Source
Vet Microbiol. 2003 Jul 17;94(3):257-66
Date
Jul-17-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Bacterial Typing Techniques - veterinary
Carrier State - veterinary
Chickens - microbiology
Clostridium perfringens - classification - genetics - isolation & purification
DNA, Bacterial - analysis
Denmark
Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field - methods - veterinary
Enteritis - microbiology - veterinary
Enterotoxins - genetics
Phylogeny
Poultry Diseases - microbiology
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Variation (Genetics)
Abstract
The aim of this study was to analyse the genetic diversity among Clostridium perfringens isolates from Danish broiler chickens since both sick and presumably healthy animals were investigated. Isolates (n=279) collected from chickens from 25 farms were analysed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with the restriction enzyme SmaI. A high genetic diversity was found. Isolates with different PFGE types were toxin typed by PCR and all were found to be of type A. The results showed that healthy broiler chickens carried several different C. perfringens clones both within a flock and even within individual birds, whereas flocks suffering from necrotic enteritis (NE) or cholangio-hepatitis carried only one or two clones.
PubMed ID
12814893 View in PubMed
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Analysis of simultaneous space-time clusters of Campylobacter spp. in humans and in broiler flocks using a multiple dataset approach.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature140580
Source
Int J Health Geogr. 2010;9:48
Publication Type
Article
Date
2010
Author
Malin E Jonsson
Berit Tafjord Heier
Madelaine Norström
Merete Hofshagen
Author Affiliation
National Veterinary Institute, Department for Health Surveillance, POB 750 Sentrum, 0106 Oslo, Norway. malin.jonsson@vetinst.no
Source
Int J Health Geogr. 2010;9:48
Date
2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Campylobacter - isolation & purification - pathogenicity
Campylobacter Infections - epidemiology - transmission - veterinary
Chickens
Cluster analysis
Data Collection - methods
Data Interpretation, Statistical
Disease Outbreaks - prevention & control - statistics & numerical data - veterinary
Disease Reservoirs - microbiology - veterinary
Food contamination - analysis
Humans
Incidence
Meat - microbiology
Molecular Epidemiology
Monte Carlo Method
Multivariate Analysis
Norway - epidemiology
Poisson Distribution
Poultry Diseases - epidemiology - microbiology - transmission
Registries
Seasons
Time Factors
Zoonoses
Abstract
Campylobacteriosis is the most frequently reported zoonosis in the EU and the epidemiology of sporadic campylobacteriosis, especially the routes of transmission, is to a great extent unclear. Poultry easily become colonised with Campylobacter spp., being symptom-less intestinal carriers. Earlier it was estimated that internationally between 50% and 80% of the cases could be attributed to chicken as a reservoir. In a Norwegian surveillance programme all broiler flocks under 50 days of age were tested for Campylobacter spp. The aim of the current study was to identify simultaneous local space-time clusters each year from 2002 to 2007 for human cases of campylobacteriosis and for broiler flocks testing positive for Campylobacter spp. using a multivariate spatial scan statistic method. A cluster occurring simultaneously in humans and broilers could indicate the presence of common factors associated with the dissemination of Campylobacter spp. for both humans and broilers.
Local space-time clusters of humans and broilers positive for Campylobacter spp. occurring simultaneously were identified in all investigated years. All clusters but one were identified from May to August. Some municipalities were included in clusters all years.
The simultaneous occurrence of clusters of humans and broilers positive for Campylobacter spp. combined with the knowledge that poultry meat has a nation-wide distribution indicates that campylobacteriosis cases might also be caused by other risk factors than consumption and handling of poultry meat.Broiler farms that are positive could contaminate the environment with further spread to new broiler farms or to humans living in the area and local environmental factors, such as climate, might influence the spread of Campylobacter spp. in an area. Further studies to clarify the role of such factors are needed.
Notes
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PubMed ID
20860801 View in PubMed
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[An assessment of epidemic outbreaks of salmonellosis connected with poultry plant production].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature225422
Source
Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 1991 Nov;(11):27-30
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-1991
Author
V I Sergevnin
L V Kovalevskaia
R A Mikhaeleva
V I Frizen
V A Petrov
N D Pozdeeva
T V Kovaleva
G A Dobrokhotova
Source
Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 1991 Nov;(11):27-30
Date
Nov-1991
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Chickens - microbiology
Disease Outbreaks - statistics & numerical data
Disease Vectors
Eggs - microbiology
Food Microbiology
Humans
Incidence
Meat-Packing Industry - statistics & numerical data
Occupational Diseases - epidemiology - etiology
Poultry Products - microbiology
Russia - epidemiology
Salmonella Infections - epidemiology - transmission
Salmonella enteritidis
Seroepidemiologic Studies
Abstract
The causes of the simultaneous rise of salmonellosis morbidity induced by S. enteritidis among the population of three towns in the Perm region were studied. The study revealed the leading role of eggs and chicken meat as factors contributing to the transfer of this infection to the population of different territories, commonly supplied with the products of one poultry plant. The contamination of eggs and chickens with S. enteritidis occurred at the plant due to Salmonella infection of chickens, parallel with the use of nonbalanced mixed fodder, originally intended for feeding swine. Analysis of the epidemic and epizootic processes of Salmonella infection in this epidemic situation made it possible to reliably establish the factors contributing to the transfer of the infective agent and the site of contamination.
PubMed ID
1839812 View in PubMed
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[An assessment of the connection between the annual population morbidity of salmonellosis due to Salmonella enteritidis and the dynamics of the epizootic process among chickens in commercial poultry plants].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature214739
Source
Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 1995 Jul-Aug;(4):60-3
Publication Type
Article
Author
V I Sergevnin
I S Sharipova
L A Gladkikh
R Kh Khasanov
Source
Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 1995 Jul-Aug;(4):60-3
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animal Husbandry
Animals
Antibodies, Bacterial - blood
Chickens
Disease Outbreaks - statistics & numerical data - veterinary
Humans
Incidence
Poultry Diseases - epidemiology
Russia - epidemiology
Salmonella Infections - epidemiology
Salmonella Infections, Animal - epidemiology
Salmonella enteritidis - immunology
Seasons
Seroepidemiologic Studies
Urban Population - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
The dynamics of annual morbidity in salmonellosis caused by S. enteritidis among the population of Perm during the period of 1987-1992 was analyzed. Blood sera taken from 4,689 practically healthy donors and from 6,997 hens at poultry breeding complexes were studied in the passive hemagglutination test with the use of complex Salmonella diagnosticum. The study revealed that seasonal rises in morbidity caused by S. enteritidis in winter and spring months, as well as in autumn months, were linked with the activation of the epizootic process of Salmonella infection among hens at poultry-breeding complexes during these periods of the year. A rise in the level of anti-Salmonella antibodies in poultry and human blood sera was found to be the precursor of the aggravation of the epidemic situation.
PubMed ID
9381875 View in PubMed
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An evaluation of sampling- and culturing methods in the Norwegian action plan against Campylobacter in broilers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature75458
Source
Int J Food Microbiol. 2006 Feb 15;106(3):313-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-15-2006
Author
Marianne Sandberg
Øyvin Østensvik
Agnete Lien Aunsmo
Eystein Skjerve
Merete Hofshagen
Author Affiliation
Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, P.O.Box 8146 Dep., N-0033 Oslo, Norway.
Source
Int J Food Microbiol. 2006 Feb 15;106(3):313-7
Date
Feb-15-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Campylobacter - growth & development - isolation & purification
Cecum - microbiology
Chickens - microbiology
Cloaca - microbiology
Colony Count, Microbial - methods - veterinary
Consumer Product Safety
Feces - microbiology
Food Contamination - analysis - prevention & control
Food-Processing Industry - methods - standards
Humans
Meat - microbiology
Norway
Sensitivity and specificity
Temperature
Abstract
The Norwegian Action Plan against Campylobacter in broilers was implemented in May 2001 with the objective of reducing human exposure to Campylobacter through Norwegian broilers. From each flock, samples collected at the farm about one week prior to slaughter, and then again at the slaughter plant, are examined for the presence of Campylobacter. All farmers with positive flocks are followed up with bio-security advice. Sampling of broiler products at retail level is also included in the Action Plan. The aim of this study was to evaluate the existing sampling and culturing methods of the Norwegian Action Plan against Campylobacter in broilers. The material collected was pooled faecal samples, pooled cloacae samples and caecae samples from individuals. The highest number of positives, from culturing of the pooled faecal samples, the pooled cloacae swabs and the caecae swabs from individuals, were obtained at incubation temperature 41.5 degrees C. When comparing the results at incubation temperature 37 and 41.5 degrees C, the faecal samples from the farms demonstrated a high concordance, with a kappa value of 0.88. The results from culturing cloacae swabs and caecae samples from slaughter plant level at two temperatures did not agree very well with a kappa value of 0.21 and moderate value of 0.57, respectively, but were both disconcordant at a level of 0.05. Modelling farm level data indicated that if increasing the number of pooled samples per flock from two (in existing regime) to three, the flock sensitivity increases from 89% to 95%. Modelling of slaughter plant data indicated that three pooled cloacae swabs are needed to identify 90% of the positive flocks. The results from the modelling of caecae data indicated that samples from seven individuals are sufficient to identify 90% of the positive flocks and caecae samples could thus be an alternative to cloacae sampling at slaughter plant level.
PubMed ID
16263188 View in PubMed
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An oral sensitization model in Brown Norway rats to screen for potential allergenicity of food proteins.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature57536
Source
Methods. 1999 Sep;19(1):78-82
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1999
Author
L M Knippels
G F Houben
S. Spanhaak
A H Penninks
Author Affiliation
Department of Target Organ Toxicology, TNO Nutrition and Food Research Institute, AJ Zeist, 3700, The Netherlands. Knippels@voeding.tno.nl
Source
Methods. 1999 Sep;19(1):78-82
Date
Sep-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Administration, Oral
Allergens - administration & dosage - toxicity
Animals
Antibodies - blood
Blood pressure
Cattle
Chickens
Dietary Proteins - administration & dosage - immunology - toxicity
Digestive System - immunology - physiopathology
Disease Models, Animal
Egg Proteins - administration & dosage - immunology - toxicity
Food Hypersensitivity - etiology - immunology
Humans
Immunization
Immunologic Techniques
Male
Milk Proteins - administration & dosage - immunology - toxicity
Ovalbumin - administration & dosage - immunology - toxicity
Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis
Rats
Rats, Inbred BN
Respiratory Function Tests
Abstract
We developed an oral sensitization protocol for food proteins for the rat. Young Brown Norway (BN) rats were exposed to 1 mg ovalbumin (OVA) by daily gavage dosing for 42 days without the use of an adjuvant. OVA-specific IgE and IgG responses were determined by ELISA. On an oral challenge with OVA some clinical symptoms of food allergy-like effects on the respiratory system, blood pressure, and permeability of the gastrointestinal barrier were studied. In addition, BN rats were orally exposed to a total hen egg white protein (HEW) extract and cow's milk (CM) and the specificities of induced antibody responses were compared with the specificities of antibodies in sera from egg- and milk-allergic patients using immunoblotting. Animals orally exposed to the allergens developed specific IgE and IgG antibodies which recognized the same proteins compared with antibodies from egg- or CM-allergic patients. Among the various clinical symptoms of food allergy, gut permeability was increased after an oral challenge. In addition, some animals demonstrated a temporary decrease in breathing frequency or systolic blood pressure. The results obtained show that the Brown Norway rat is a suitable animal model for inducing specific IgG and IgE responses on daily intragastric dosing of OVA without the use of an adjuvant. Moreover, local immune-mediated effects on oral challenge are observed. The observation that enterally exposed BN rats and food-allergic patients demonstrate antibody responses to a comparable selection of proteins on exposure to different protein mixtures (HEW and CM) further supports the suitability of the BN rat as an animal model for food allergy research and for the study of the allergenicity of (novel) food proteins.
PubMed ID
10525441 View in PubMed
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An outbreak of Campylobacter jejuni associated with consumption of chicken, Copenhagen, 2005.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature168945
Source
Euro Surveill. 2006;11(5):137-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
2006
Author
A. Mazick
S. Ethelberg
E Møller Nielsen
K. Mølbak
M. Lisby
Author Affiliation
European Programme for Intervention Epidemiology Training (EPIET), Department of Epidemiology, Statens Serum Institut, Denmark.
Source
Euro Surveill. 2006;11(5):137-9
Date
2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Campylobacter Infections - epidemiology - microbiology
Campylobacter jejuni - isolation & purification
Chickens - microbiology
Cohort Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Disease Outbreaks - statistics & numerical data
Food Contamination - statistics & numerical data
Foodborne Diseases - epidemiology - microbiology
Gastroenteritis - epidemiology - microbiology
Humans
Incidence
Meat - microbiology
Population Surveillance
Retrospective Studies
Risk Assessment - methods
Risk factors
Abstract
In May/June 2005 an outbreak of diarrhoeal illness occurred among company employees in Copenhagen. Cases were reported from seven of eight companies that received food from the same catering kitchen. Stool specimens from three patients from two companies were positive for Campylobacter jejuni. We performed a retrospective cohort study among employees exposed to canteen food in the three largest companies to identify the source of the outbreak and to prevent further spread. Using self-administered questionnaires we collected information on disease, days of canteen food eaten and food items consumed. The catering kitchen was inspected and food samples were taken. Questionnaires were returned by 295/348 (85%) employees. Of 247 employees who ate canteen food, 79 were cases, and the attack rate (AR) was 32%. Consuming canteen food on 25 May was associated with illness (AR 75/204, RR=3.2, 95%CI 1.3-8.2). Consumption of chicken salad on this day, but not other types of food, was associated with illness (AR=43/97, RR=2.3, 95%CI 1.3-4.1). Interviews with kitchen staff indicated the likelihood of cross-contamination from raw chicken to the chicken salad during storage. This is the first recognised major Campylobacter outbreak associated with contaminated chicken documented in Denmark. It is plausible that food handling practices contributed to transmission, and awareness of safe food handling and storage has since been raised among kitchen staff. The low number of positive specimens accrued in this outbreak suggests a general underascertainment of adult cases in the laboratory reporting system by a factor of 20.
Notes
Erratum In: Euro Surveill. 2006 May;11(5):1 p following 139
PubMed ID
16757851 View in PubMed
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282 records – page 1 of 29.