Little research has examined seasonal differences in physical activity (PA) levels among children. Proxy reports of PA were completed by 1,715 parents on their children in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Total PA (TPA) minutes were calculated, and each participant was classified as active, somewhat active, or inactive. Logistic regression models were conducted to examine associations between PA status and seasons. Significant seasonal differences were observed for TPA, weekday PA, weekend PA, and active play. Children were significantly more likely to be physically active in the summer and spring and somewhat physically active in the summer and fall, relative to winter Children living in cold climates are less likely to be physically active in the winter.
Although there are reports on the use of fissure sealants in the United States, little information is available about the extent to which this preventive measure is used in Canada. This study reports the results of a survey of sealant use. Based upon the responses from 589 Canadian dental practitioners, it was found that 84.8% used sealants in their practices. There was no statistically significant difference in sealant use between dentists in fluoridated and non-fluoridated areas. However, usage increased with the number of dental auxiliaries in the practice. There also was more use of sealants in patients covered by dental insurance. Sealant usage declined the longer dentists had been in practice. Light-cured, tinted sealants appeared to be the most popular types.
The study covered Bashkortostan Republic Internal Ministry staffers including special mission unit, criminal police, road police, minors crime unit, district police officers. Intellectual load assessment assigned work of the examinees to 3.2 class of work conditions, as the work is connected with time and information deficit, with increased responsibility for outcome. According to emotional load parameters including degree of responsibility for the activities outcome and importance of mistakes, risk for life, responsibility for safety of others and number of conflicts caused by professional activities, the work should be assigned to hazardous and dangerous category.
This study investigated the similarity of Icelandic and English versions of the Basic Personality Inventory (BPI), a 240-item measure of psychopathology. Eighty-nine native Icelandic graduate students studying in North America completed both language versions of the BPI in a counterbalanced order with a retest interval of approximately one month. The results of this bilingual retest study confirmed the adequacy of the Icelandic translation. Specifically, scale means, test-retest coefficients, and reliability coefficients demonstrated that the BPI performed highly similarly in both language versions. These findings provide additional support for the adequacy and applicability of the Icelandic translation of the BPI.
Given the downward trend in age at menarche and its implications for the reproductive health and wellbeing of women, little is known about menarcheal age in Canada. Most Canadian studies are only representative of specific populations. The present study, therefore, aims to assess the distribution of age at menarche for Canadian girls and explore its variation across socio-economic and demographic factors.
The analysis of the study was based on all female respondents aged 14 to 17 years during Cycle 4 (2000/2001) of the National Longitudinal Survey of Children & Youth (NLSCY). The main outcome was age at menarche assessed as the month and year of the occurrence of the first menstrual cycle. Kaplan Meier was used to estimate the mean and median of age at menarche. Chi-square test was used to assess the differences in early, average and later maturers across the different levels of socio-economic and demographic variables. Bootstrapping was performed to account for the complex sampling design.
The total number of girls analyzed in this study was 1,403 weighted to represent 601,911 Canadian girls. The estimated mean and median of age at menarche was 12.72 years (standard deviation = 1.05) and 12.67 years, respectively. The proportions of early ( 13.91 years) were 14.6% (95% confidence interval (CI): 11.92-17.35), 68.0% (95% CI: 63.82-72.17) and 17.4% (95% CI: 14.10-20.63), respectively. Variations across the menarcheal groups were statistically significant for the province of residence, household income and family type.
The findings of the study pave the way for future Canadian research. More studies are warranted to understand menarcheal age in terms of its variation across the provinces, the secular trend over time and its potential predictors.
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A new practice philosophy for pharmacists, pharmaceutical care, encourages pharmacists to ensure that medication-related health outcomes are optimized. However, its adoption by community pharmacists has been slow due to numerous barriers including the economic structure of retail pharmacy, interprofessional conflicts, information limitations, gaps in pharmacy training and uneven patient demand. The specific study objectives were to (1) describe self-efficacy, beliefs, evaluations and perceived behavioral control in the provision of pharmaceutical care, (2) quantify intention and behavior to provide pharmaceutical care in a period of two weeks and (3) examine the relationships between intention and behavior. A 20% sample of Alberta community pharmacists received an attitude survey followed in two weeks by a behavior survey. Both surveys were developed for this study. Of the 320 pharmacists receiving the attitude survey, 230 completed surveys were obtained (71.9%). The behavior survey was received from 182 of those completing the attitude survey (79.1%). A causal model was constructed predicting pharmaceutical care behavior/s from pharmacists' self-efficacy, beliefs, evaluations and behavioral control. Behavioral control exerted its effect upon behavior via three pathways and its direct effect on belief was strongest. The only direct predictor of behavior was self-efficacy. The chi2 measure indicated that the model was not a perfect fit (chi2 = 99.24, df = 67, p
Attempts have been made to identify factors influencing the sex ratio at birth (number of males per 100 females). Statistical analyses have shown that comparisons between sex ratios demand large data sets. The secondary sex ratio has been believed to vary inversely with the frequency of prenatal losses. This hypothesis suggests that the ratio is highest among singletons, medium among twins and lowest among triplets. Birth data in Sweden for the period 1869-2004 showed that among live births the secondary sex ratio was on average 105.9 among singletons, 103.2 among twins and 99.1 among triplets. The secondary sex ratio among stillbirths for both singletons and twins started at a high level, around 130, in the 1860s, but approached live birth values in the 1990s. This trend is associated with the decrease and convergence of stillbirth rates among males and females. For detailed studies, we considered data for Sweden in 1869-1878 and in 1901-1967. Marital status or place of residence (urban or rural) had no marked influence on the secondary sex ratio among twins. For triplets, the sex ratio showed large random fluctuations and was on average low. During the period 1901-1967, 20 quadruplet, two quintuplet and one sextuplet set were registered. The sex ratio was low, around 92.0.
BACKGROUND: It has been reported that acromial morphology and age have an independent association with rotator cuff pathology. In a recent study, we found the acromial angle of patients with stage III impingement syndrome (tear in the rotator cuff, according to the Neer classification of shoulder impingement syndrome) to be significantly greater than the acromial angle of their age-matched healthy controls. PURPOSE: To find out if acromial shape also changes, i.e., becomes more curved with age, in shoulders without any rotator cuff problems or previous shoulder surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Standard supraspinatus outlet view (SOV) was obtained from both shoulders of healthy persons with no shoulder-related problems or previous shoulder surgery (n = 305; 36 SOVs for subjects aged 21-30 years, 60 for 31-40 years, 67 for 41-50 years, 52 for 51-60 years, 48 for 61-70 years, and 42 for over 71 years of age). Acromial angle, tilt, and the type of the acromion were evaluated. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences in the evaluated morphological parameters between the different age groups. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the shape of the acromion does not change with age in individuals who do not have any rotator cuff pathology. According to our results, the changes in acromial morphology seem to be similar in each age group.
This pilot study describes the evaluation of an 88-page Toolkit that was developed to guide nursing leaders, including advanced practice nurses, managers and steering committees, who were responsible for coordinating implementation of selected best-practice guidelines (BPG) in their respective agencies.
The self-administered questionnaire was mailed to all clinical resource nurses and steering committee members involved in implementing best-practice guidelines. The questionnaire evaluated the usefulness of the content of five chapters (and the case scenarios and worksheets included with each chapter).
Sixty-eight percent of respondents returned the questionnaire. More than 85% of them found the Toolkit helpful during the implementation process; 83% reported using it, 80% said they would use it again. The Toolkit was used primarily to identify, analyze and engage stakehoLders, and to assess environmental readiness. Fifty-seven percent of respondents said they used the Toolkit to plan the implementation strategy.
The Toolkit assessed in this evaluation shows promise as a useful guide for those charged with BPG implementation. Like other guidelines that are based on evidence, the Toolkit will require occasional updates to ensure that the strategies proposed reflect current evidence. Nursing leaders have a responsibility to keep up to date and to provide efficient and effective healthcare services. Best-practice guidelines or clinical practice guidelines are useful tools that synthesize the latest evidence and provide recommendations for care providers aiming to improve the quality of patient care (Grol 2001). Many leaders are challenged to know how and when to implement the increasing numbers of practice guidelines. The purpose of this article is to describe a pilot study to evaluate a Toolkit that was developed to guide nursing leaders in implementing selected best-practice guidelines (BPGs) in their respective agencies.