The effect of chewing gum containing xylitol on the incidence and progression of dental caries was tested in a sample of 274 children, aged eight and nine years, of low socio-economic status and high caries rate. They were divided into two experimental groups (15% and 65% xylitol chewing gum distributed three times a day at school) and one control group (without chewing gum). The three groups were exposed to the same basic preventive program. Children who chewed gum had a significantly lower net progression of decay (progressions-reversals) over a 24-month period than did the controls. Results for the two groups chewing gum were similar. Chewing xylitol gum had a beneficial effect on the caries process for all types of tooth surfaces, and especially for bucco-lingual surfaces. The two experimental groups had a DMF(S) increment of 2.24 surfaces, compared with 6.06 surfaces for the control group. For this indicator, there was no difference between the two experimental groups. Results for the plaque index were in agreement with those of the DMF(S) increment and the net progression of decay.
OBJECTIVE: To compare the absorption rate of nicotine in volunteer blood, and determine the clinical trial on smoking cessation. MATERIAL AND METHOD: This method using reverse phase C18 column and buffer pH 5.05 as the mobile phase, flow rate 0.9 ml/min. The UV-visible detector found the retention time of nicotine in gum and volunteer blood was 5.0756 min. The linear calibration curves of nicotine in human blood were obtained over the concentration range of 2.0-20.0 microg/ml. The coefficient variability for Nicotine gum 6.74% (2 mg/g). Extraction recovery was over 86% in blood, correlation coefficient of determination (r2) > 0.9999 and the detection limit 0.0060 microg/ml. The 24 healthy volunteer men, 27 to 55 years of age, were habitual cigarette smokers. They were randomized into two groups, 12 subjects chewed two 2 mg pieces, Nicomild-2 Sugar Free Gum (Millimed, Thailand), the other chewed two 2 mg, pieces, Nicorette Sugar Free (Pharmacia AB, Helsingborg, Sweden.) Volunteers' blood samples were withdrawn at 0, 15, 30, 40 min, concentration of nicotine in blood were measured by HPLC. The 199 subjects were openly recruited under the project of "The smoking cessation for Phor Laung" (5-December). All of them received Nicomild-2 (nicotine polyestex gum) between November 2007 and December 2007. RESULTS: The absorption rate of nicotine in volunteers' blood Nicomild-2 and Nicorette at 0, 15, 30, 40 minutes were 0, 51.84, 26.73, 21.012 and 0, 56.603, 21.83, 15.183 (ng/min). Both of them were found to have maximum absorption rate at 15 minutes. When comparing the maximum absorption rate at 15 minute of Nicomild-2 (sugar free) with Nicorette (sugar free) didn't have significant differences detected. Treatment with nicotine polyestex gum were reported 65.3% (130/199) at 4 weeks compared with failure 30.15% (60/199)[ 65.3% vs 30.15%; p = 0.005]. The authors found 9 (4.5%) subjects successfully quit smoking free nicotine replacement therapy (NRT).
The aim of this study was first to investigate the relationship at group level between approximal caries, restorations in posterior regions and consumption of sweets during the past 3 yr in 15-yr-old schoolchildren selected for different caries experience. An interview method was used with the sweets on display. Secondly, the aim was to reinterview the subjects as 18-yr-olds using the same method in order to study the correlation between caries incidence and consumption of sweets during the past 3 yr. Seventy-five individuals from three groups, 30 with 0, 25 with 4-6, and 20 with 12-15 approximal DFS, were selected for the first interview. Sixty-nine of them were reinterviewed 3 yr later. Caries incidence during the 3-yr period was expressed as a percentage of the number of caries-free approximal surfaces of premolars and molars at the age of 15. The results showed no statistically significant differences in mean number of intakes of sweets per day (2.2, 2.2, and 2.8) between the original DFS groups. The correlation coefficient between caries incidence and number of intakes of sweets in the second part of the study was 0.25 (P less than 0.05). After correction for the modifying effect of oral hygiene, the coefficient was 0.51 (P less than 0.01) in the less favorable fraction and 0.11 (P greater than 0.05) in the favorable fraction.
The piped water of Kuopio, Finland, was fluoridated in 1959. Owing to strong opposition by different civic groups, water fluoridation was stopped at the end of 1992. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the consequences of the discontinuation on dental health. METHODS: In 1992 and 1995, independent random samples of all children aged 6, 9, 12 and 15 years were drawn from Kuopio and Jyv?skyl?, a nearby low fluoride town whose distribution of demographic and socio-economic characteristics was fairly similar to Kuopio's. The total number of subjects examined was 550 in 1992 and 1198 in 1995. Caries was registered clinically and radiographically by the same two calibrated dentists in both towns. RESULTS: In 1992, the mean DMFS values were lower in the fluoridated town for the two older age groups, the percentage differences for 12- and 15-year-olds being 37% and 29%, respectively. For the two younger age groups no meaningful differences could be found. In 1995, the only difference with possible clinical significance was found in the 15-year-olds in favor of the fluoridated town (18%). In 1995, a decline in caries was seen in the two older age groups in the nonfluoridated town. In spite of discontinued water fluoridation, no indication of an increasing trend of caries could be found in Kuopio. The mean numbers of fluoride varnish and sealant applications decreased sharply in both towns between 1992 and 1995. In spite of that caries declined. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the decline of caries has little to do with professional preventive measures performed in dental clinics.
AIM: To evaluate the effect of maternal use of chewing gums containing combinations of xylitol, sorbitol, chlorhexidine and fluoride on caries prevalence in a group of mother's 4-year-old children. STUDY DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial. METHODS: After screening 416 women with newborn babies, 173 mothers with high counts of salivary mutans streptococci (MS) were randomly assigned into three experimental chewing gum groups containing A) xylitol (n=61), B) chlorhexidine/xylitol/sorbitol (n=55), and C) sodium fluoride/xylitol/sorbitol (n=57). The intervention started when each child was 6 months old, was terminated one year later. All of the mothers were instructed to chew one piece of the appropriate gum for 5 minutes, three times a day. The outcome measure was the presence of cavitated and non-cavitated (enamel) lesions in the primary dentitions of the children at the age of 4 years. RESULTS: The drop-out rate in the experimental groups was 15-20%. The mean defs, on examination at aged 4 years was 0.4 +/-1.0 in group A, 0.7 +/-1.7 in group B and 1.4 +/-3.0 in group C. The difference between group A and C was statistically significant (p
Two-hundred and thirty-two workers who had taken part in a comprehensive study on occupational risks in the Finnish confectionery industry and who were still in the same employment, were tested for their willingness to use xylitol-containing products for caries prevention and for the effects of voluntary use of these products on their caries-promoting salivary characteristics. Xylitol-sorbitol chewing-gum and xylitol tablets were provided at the places of work for free use over a three-month period. The consumption was measured, the workers were asked for their opinions of the xylitol, and the effects of the products used on salivary characteristics were studied by means of a caries-risk index. Eighty-six per cent of the workers on the production lines reported having used xylitol-containing products during the study period. About 70 per cent consumed on average either 6.9 pieces of chewing-gum (range 0-20) or 1.2 tablets (range 0-15) per day. Eighty-one per cent thought that use of xylitol was good for their dental health. Five per cent thought the opposite. Use of xylitol-containing products was found to increase salivary flow and salivary buffer capacity of the subjects. A decrease in the number of workers with high salivary S. mutans count was observed. On examining shifts from risk groups to non-risk groups, a statistically significant positive change was noted. The results indicate that an ordinary commercial xylitol-containing chewing-gum can be used to decrease caries risk factors in confectionery workers.
The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that chewing gum is associated with risk of oesophageal and cardia adenocarcinoma. A Swedish nationwide, population-based, case-control study was conducted in 1995-1997. All patients were prospectively and uniformly documented and classified shortly after diagnosis. In all, 189 and 262 patients with oesophageal and cardia adenocarcinoma, respectively, and 820 population-based control subjects were interviewed. These patients together constituted 85% of eligible cases occurring in Sweden. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated by multivariable logistic regression with adjustment for plausible confounders. Regular users of chewing gum (P3 times/week for P6 months) were not at increased risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OR 1.0, 95% CI 0.6-2.2), and no duration-response relation was observed (P = 0.38). No association between regular gum chewing and cardia adenocarcinoma was found (OR 1.0, 95% CI 0.6-1.7), irrespective of duration of use (P = 0.56). In conclusion, with regard to risk of oesophageal or cardia adenocarcinoma, gum chewing seems harmless.
Children have chewed gum since the Stone Age. Black lumps of prehistoric tar with human tooth impressions have been found in Northern Europe dating from approximately 7000 BC (Middle Stone Age) to 2000 BC (Bronze Age). The bite impressions suggest that most chewers were between 6 and 15 years of age. The Greeks chewed resin from the mastic tree (mastic gum). North American Indians chewed spruce gum. The first manufacturing patent for chewing gum was issued in 1869 for a natural gum, chicle, derived from the Sopadilla tree, indigenous to Central America. Chewing gum sold today is a mixture of natural and synthetic gums and resins, with added color and flavor sweetened with corn syrup and sugar. Chewing gum is big business. A significant amount of the $21 billion US candy industry sales is from chewing gums, many of which appeal almost exclusively to children. Despite the history and prevalence of gum chewing, the medical literature contains very little information about the adverse effects of chewing gum. In the present report, we briefly review gum-chewing complications and describe three children who developed intestinal tract and esophageal obstruction as a consequence of swallowing gum.
The adoption of xylitol chewing gum in Finland was studied using data from two comparable postal surveys for national samples of 12- to 18-year-olds in 1977 (response rate 79%, n = 2,528) and 1991 (77%, n = 7,672). In 1977 only 12% of this age group used xylitol chewing gum but, by 1991 it had become common (64% of boys, 81% of girls). Daily use increased from 1 to 15% among boys and from 1 to 32% among girls. Use of sucrose chewing gum decreased; in 1991 only 2% used it daily. Daily use of xylitol chewing gum did not vary according to socioeconomic status or level of urbanization. The increase in use of xylitol chewing gum is an example of the positive effect of health education given by a comprehensive, preventively oriented system of dental health care in association with commercial interests.