In this column, the authors review Amphotericin B incidents reported Although amphotericin B may be less commonly used today because to ISMP Canada. In particular, we focus on incidents reported to have of alternative antifungal agents available, incident reports suggest resulted in patient harm due to mix-ups between the conventional there continues to be a need to alert practitioners to the different (non-lipid)formulation and lipid formulations of amphotericin B. formulations, and to implement system safety strategies.
BACKGROUND: Patients with cancer who are treated with chemotherapy or receive a bone marrow transplant have an increased risk of acquiring fungal infections. Such infections can be life-threatening. Antifungal drugs are therefore often given prophylactically to such patients, or when they have a fever. OBJECTIVES: To compare the effect and adverse effects of AmBisome and other lipid soluble formulations of amphotericin B with conventional amphotericin B in cancer patients with neutropenia. SEARCH STRATEGY: MEDLINE and Cochrane Library. Unpublished trials from conference proceedings and contact to industry. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised trials comparing lipid soluble formulations of amphotericin B with conventional amphotericin B. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Data on mortality, invasive fungal infection, nephrotoxicity, serum creatinine and dropouts were extracted by both authors independently. MAIN RESULTS: AmBisome vs conventional amphotericin B (3 trials, 1149 patients): AmBisome tended to be more effective than conventional amphotericin B for invasive fungal infection (relative risk 0.63, 95% confidence interval 0.39 to 1.01, P=0.053) whereas there was no significant difference in mortality (relative risk 0.74, 95% CI 0.52 to 1.07). AmBisome decreased significantly the incidence of nephrotoxicity, defined as a 100% increase in serum creatinine (relative risk 0.51, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.64). Fewer patients dropped out on AmBisome but the difference was not significant (relative risk 0.78, 95% CI 0.56 to 1. 08). Amphotericin B in Intralipid vs conventional amphotericin B (4 trials, 145 patients): There were no significant differences in clinical effect whereas the patients treated with the lipid soluble formulation experienced significantly less nephrotoxicity (relative risk 0.34, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.75) and smaller increases in serum creatinine (weighted mean difference 32 micromol/l, 95% CI 21 to 43 micromol/l). Amphotericin B colloidal dispersion (ABCD) vs conventional amphotericin B (1 trial, 213 patients): There was lower nephrotoxicity with ABCD (relative risk 0.38, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.59). REVIEWER'S CONCLUSIONS: AmBisome is a better drug than conventional amphotericin B but its high cost prohibits routine use in most settings. Furthermore, the advantages of AmBisome may be smaller than indicated in our review if conventional amphotericin B is administered under optimal circumstances. It is not clear whether other lipid formulations of amphotericin B could offer a worthwhile advantage compared to conventional amphotericin B.
Evaluation of the ALOGPS, ACD Labs LogD, and PALLAS PrologD suites to calculate the log D distribution coefficient resulted in high root-mean-squared error (RMSE) of 1.0-1.5 log for two in-house Pfizer's log D data sets of 17,861 and 640 compounds. Inaccuracy in log P prediction was the limiting factor for the overall log D estimation by these algorithms. The self-learning feature of the ALOGPS (LIBRARY mode) remarkably improved the accuracy in log D prediction, and an rmse of 0.64-0.65 was calculated for both data sets.
Patients often experience difficulties in applying topical steroids in orabase to the oral mucosa, particularly when large areas need to be covered. An aqueous hydrocortisone mouthwash solution has been developed, one that was anticipated to be more acceptable to patients. The solution contains hydrocortisone (0.3% w/v) in a 4.5% (w/v) 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin solution. Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (0.5% w/v) was used to increase the viscosity of the solution and to promote the hydrocortisonecyclodextrin complex. One hundred and two patients with aphthous ulceration, lichen planus, and other mucosal conditions used the mouthwash in an open clinical efficacy study. Most patients reported some or considerable improvement following a 2-week course of treatment with the mouthwash: 26 of 33 (78.8%) patients with aphthous ulceration were 'much better', as were 26 of 54 (48.1%) patients with lichen planus and 5 of 16 (31.3%) patients with other mucosal lesions. No serious side effects were reported. Aqueous mouthwash solutions offer a potential vehicle for topical steroid therapy of oral mucosal lesions.
Oxycodone is a semisynthetic opioid agonist used for the relief of moderate to severe pain. A new generic oxycodone hydrochloride (HCl) extended release (ER) tablet is currently being developed by Ranbaxy Pharmaceutical Inc., New Brunswick, NJ, USA.
To assess relative bioavailability of a new generic (test) formulation of oxycodone hydrochloride (HCl) extended release (ER) tablets with that of marketed reference products, OxyContin®, in Canada and USA, in healthy adult subjects under fasting and fed conditions.
Five studies were conducted in all, three of which were designed to comply with the regulatory criteria for marketing a new generic formulation of OxyContin® in Canada and the remaining two to comply with regulatory criteria for marketing a new generic formulation of OxyContin® in the USA. Each study was a balanced, randomized two-period, two-treatment, two-sequence, crossover design. A single oral dose of test or reference product was given in Period 1, followed by a 7-day washout period, after which subjects received the alternative product in Period 2. In order to block the pharmacological effects of oxycodone, subjects were administered naltrexone HCl (1 × 50 mg tablet) 12 hours prior to oxycodone HCl administration, concurrent with oxycodone HCl administration, and 12 hours after oxycodone HCl administration. Throughout the confinement portion of the study, adverse events were closely monitored. Serial blood samples were collected, following which oxycodone in plasma was estimated using a validated analytical procedure.
Oxycodone was well tolerated by subjects in both periods of each study under both fed and fasted conditions. No serious adverse events were observed. The ratios of geometric means for AUC0-t and Cmax and the affiliated 90% confidence intervals for AUC were within acceptance range recommended by Health Canada. These criteria were met for both the raw data as well as data corrected for measured drug content (potency). The ratios of geometric means and the 90% confidence intervals for AUC0-t, AUC0-8 and Cmax were within acceptance range recommended by United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
Results demonstrate that the test formulation of oxycodone HCl ER tablets is bioequivalent to marketed OxyContin® reference formulations in Canada and USA, when administered both under fasted and fed conditions. Additionally, oxycodone HCl ER tablets were well tolerated as a single oral dose when administered to healthy adult subjects under fasted and fed conditions.
The study evaluated the quality of compounded sachets and hard gelatine capsules and their feasibility in paediatric drug administration.
Commercial tablets were compounded to sachets and capsules in hospital environment, and the uniformity of content and simulated drug dose were determined.
Compounded formulations were successfully obtained for a range of drug substances; dipyridamole, spironolactone, warfarin and sotalol formulations were within acceptable limits for uniformity of content, in most cases. However, some loss of drug was seen. The type and amount of excipients were found to affect uniformity of content; good conformity of capsules was obtained using lactose monohydrate as filler, whereas microcrystalline cellulose was a better choice in sachets. In capsules, content uniformity was obtained for a range of drug doses. If the drug is aimed to be administered through a nasogastric tube, solubility of the drug and excipients should be considered, as they were found to affect the simulated drug dose in administration.
Compounded sachets and capsules fulfilled the quality requirements in most cases. In compounding, the choice of excipients should be considered as they can affect conformity of the dosage form or its usability in practice. Quality assurance of compounded formulations should be taken into consideration in hospital pharmacies.
Department of Medicine, Saint Louis University School of Medicine and National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Vaccine Treatment and Evaluation Unit, 1100 S. Grand Blvd (DRC-8), St. Louis, MO 63104, USA. email@example.com
Smallpox vaccination with replication deficient vaccinia strains such as Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) may induce protective immunity with improved safety and tolerability profiles compared with currently available smallpox vaccines. Ninety subjects were randomized equally to six groups in a partially blinded, randomized, controlled clinical trial. IMVAMUNE (MVA-BN, Bavarian Nordic A/S, Kvistgård, Denmark) vaccine or placebo was administered at Study Days 0 and 28 by subcutaneous or intramuscular injection and five groups were challenged with Dryvax at study Day 112. Vaccination with two doses of IMVAMUNE was safe and well tolerated compared to Dryvax. IMVAMUNE produced comparable cellular and humoral immune responses to one dose of Dryvax and the immunity induced appears robust 90 days post-vaccination by evidence of attenuated primary cutaneous reaction responses following Dryvax. IMVAMUNE vaccination prior to Dryvax reduced virus replication at the Dryvax site, decreased the size of the primary cutaneous lesion, and decreased the time to healing but did not completely ameliorate the immune response.
In a previous randomized controlled trial (LOGIP trial) the addition of local collagen-gentamicin reduced the incidence of postoperative sternal wound infections (SWI) compared with intravenous prophylaxis only. Consequently, the technique with local gentamicin was introduced in clinical routine at the two participating centers. The aim of the present study was to re-evaluate the technique regarding the prophylactic effect against SWI and to detect potential shifts in causative microbiological agents over time. All patients in this prospective two-center study received prophylaxis with application of two collagen-gentamicin sponges between the sternal halves in addition to routine intravenous antibiotics. All patients were followed for 60 days postoperatively. From January 2007 to May 2008, 1359 patients were included. The 60-day incidences of any SWI was 3.7% and of deep SWI 1.5% (1.0% mediastinitis). Both superficial and deep SWI were significantly reduced compared with the previous control group (OR=0.34 for deep SWI, P