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Modern toxic antipersonnel projectiles.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature264633
Source
Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2014 Dec;35(4):258-64
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2014
Author
Yvan Gaillard
Philippe Regenstreif
Laurent Fanton
Source
Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2014 Dec;35(4):258-64
Date
Dec-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Chemical Warfare - history
Chemical Warfare Agents - history
Europe
Firearms - history
Forensic Ballistics - history
History, 20th Century
Humans
Russia
World War II
Wounds, Gunshot - history
Abstract
In the spring of 1944, Kurt von Gottberg, the SS police chief in Minsk, was shot and injured by 2 Soviet agents. Although he was only slightly injured, he died 6 hours later. The bullets were hollow and contained a crystalline white powder. They were 4-g bullets, semi-jacketed in cupronickel, containing 28 mg of aconitine. They were later known as akonitinnitratgeschosse. The Sipo (the Nazi security police) then ordered a trial with a 9-mm Parabellum cartridge containing Ditran, an anticholinergic drug with hallucinogenic properties causing intense mental confusion. In later years, QNB was used and given the NATO code BZ (3-quinuclidinyl-benzylate). It was proven that Saddam Hussein had this weapon (agent 15) manufactured and used it against the Kurds. Serbian forces used the same type of weapon in the Bosnian conflict, particularly in Srebrenica.The authors go on to list the Cold War toxic weapons developed by the KGB and the Warsaw pact countries for the discreet elimination of dissidents and proindependence leaders who had taken refuge in the West. These weapons include PSZh-13 launchers, the Troika electronic sequential pistol, and the ingenious 4-S110T captive piston system designed by the engineer Stechkin. Disguised as a cigarette case, it could fire a silent charge of potassium cyanide. This rogues gallery also includes the umbrella rigged to inject a pellet of ricin (or another phytalbumin of similar toxicity, such as abrin or crotin) that was used to assassinate the Bulgarian writer and journalist Georgi Markov on September 7, 1978, in London.During the autopsy, the discovery of a bullet burst into 4 or 5 parts has to make at once suspecting the use of a toxic substance. Toxicological analysis has to look for first and foremost aconitine, cyanide, suxamethonium, Ditran, BZ, or one of the toxic phytalbumins. The use of such complex weapons has to make suspect a powerful organization: army, secret service, terrorism. The existence of the Russian UDAR spray gun in the present day, however, shows that these weapons are still present. The possibility that one might be used to spray a charge of cyanide is still very real, especially as it would not be very difficult for an informed amateur to produce homemade toxic ammunition by adapting existing civil or military cartridges.
PubMed ID
25354227 View in PubMed
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[Mustard gas bombs found astray in the Faxaflói bay. Mustard gas: usage and poisonings].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature151082
Source
Laeknabladid. 2009 May;95(5):359-65
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2009
Author
Jakop Kristinsson
Thorkell Jóhannesson
Author Affiliation
Rannsóknastofu í lyfja-og eiturefnafraedi, Reykjavik. jakobk@hi.is
Source
Laeknabladid. 2009 May;95(5):359-65
Date
May-2009
Language
Icelandic
Geographic Location
Iceland
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Occupational
Antidotes - therapeutic use
Bombs - history
Burns, Chemical - etiology - therapy
Chemical Warfare Agents - history - poisoning
Decontamination
Environmental Pollutants - history - poisoning
Explosions - history
Eye Injuries - etiology
Foot Injuries - etiology
History, 20th Century
Humans
Iceland
Mustard Gas - history - poisoning
Occupational Exposure - history
Skin - injuries
World War II
Abstract
The finding in 1972 of two World War II mustard gas artillery shells in crushed shell sediment dredged in the Faxaflói Bay and transported as raw material for cement production at Akranes (Western Iceland) is reported. One of the shells was wedged in a stone crusher in the raw material processing line and was ruptured. As a result dark fluid with a garlic like smell seeped out from the metal canister. The attending employees believed the metal object to be inert and tried to cut it out with a blow torch. This resulted in the explosion of the shell charge and in the exposure of four employees to mustard gas. All suffered burns on their hands and two of them in the eyes also. The second shell was detonated in the open at a distance from the factory. Emphasis is given to the fact that instant, or at least as soon as possible, cleansing and washing is the most efficient measure to be taken against the debilitating effects of mustard gas. It is also pointed out that the active principle in mustard gas (dichlorodiethyl sulphide) can easily be synthesized and none of the precursor substances are subjected to any restrictions of use. The authors conclude that mustard gas bombs may still be found in the arsenals of some military powers in spite of an international convention that prohibits the production, stockpiling and the use of chemical weapons. Terrorist groups have also seemingly tried to aquire mustard gas bombs and other chemical weapons. Therefore cases of mustard gas poisoning might still occur.
PubMed ID
19430031 View in PubMed
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