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Absence of serotype-specific surface antigen and altered teichoic acid glycosylation among epidemic-associated strains of Listeria monocytogenes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature197060
Source
J Clin Microbiol. 2000 Oct;38(10):3856-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2000
Author
E E Clark
I. Wesley
F. Fiedler
N. Promadej
S. Kathariou
Author Affiliation
Department of Microbiology, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822, USA.
Source
J Clin Microbiol. 2000 Oct;38(10):3856-9
Date
Oct-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Antibodies, Monoclonal
Antigens, Bacterial - analysis
Antigens, Surface - analysis
Cheese - microbiology
Disease Outbreaks
Female
Food Microbiology
Glycosylation
Humans
Listeria monocytogenes - classification - isolation & purification
Listeriosis - epidemiology - microbiology - transmission
Mexico - epidemiology
New England - epidemiology
Nova Scotia - epidemiology
Pregnancy
Serotyping
Teichoic Acids - analysis - chemistry
Abstract
Outbreaks of food-borne listeriosis have often involved strains of serotype 4b. Examination of multiple isolates from three different outbreaks revealed that ca. 11 to 29% of each epidemic population consisted of strains which were negative with the serotype-specific monoclonal antibody c74.22, lacked galactose from the teichoic acid of the cell wall, and were resistant to the serotype 4b-specific phage 2671.
Notes
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PubMed ID
11015420 View in PubMed
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The addition of a cocktail of yeast species to Cantalet cheese changes bacterial survival and enhances aroma compound formation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature154035
Source
Int J Food Microbiol. 2009 Jan 31;129(1):37-42
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-31-2009
Author
Isabelle De Freitas
Nicolas Pinon
Jean-Louis Maubois
Sylvie Lortal
Anne Thierry
Author Affiliation
Les Fromageries Occitanes, Villefranche de Lauragais, France.
Source
Int J Food Microbiol. 2009 Jan 31;129(1):37-42
Date
Jan-31-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Amino Acids - analysis
Cheese - microbiology
Colony Count, Microbial
Food Microbiology
France
Humans
Kluyveromyces - growth & development - physiology
Lipolysis
Odors - analysis
Pichia - growth & development - physiology
Volatilization
Yarrowia - growth & development - physiology
Abstract
Indigenous yeasts can be detected at high populations in raw milk Cantal cheese, a French Protected Denomination of Origin (PDO) hard cheese. To investigate their use as adjunct cultures to promote flavour development in Cantalet (small Cantal) cheese, three strains isolated from raw milk Cantal cheese, Kluyveromyces lactis, Yarrowia lipolytica, and Pichia fermentans were added at 3 (E3) and 5 (E5) log(10) colony-forming units (cfu)/mL to microfiltered milk at a ratio of 80/10/10 viable cells, respectively. The global microbial, compositional and biochemical changes induced by the presence of yeasts in cheese were determined. Adjunct yeasts did not grow but stayed at viable populations of approximately 4 and 6 log(10) cfu/g in E3 and E5 cheeses, respectively, throughout the ripening period. They were mainly constituted of K. lactis, while P. fermentans and Y. lipolytica were not detectable after 3 and 45 days of ripening, respectively. Several species of indigenous yeasts were also detected in E3 cheeses at the beginning of ripening only, and in the control cheeses without yeasts added. Lactoccoci survived for longer periods in the presence of yeast adjuncts, while, conversely, the viability of Streptococcus thermophilus decreased more rapidly. The addition of yeasts did not influence cheese composition and total free amino acid content. In contrast, it slightly increased lipolysis in both E3 and E5 cheeses and markedly enhanced the formation of some volatile aroma compounds. The concentrations of ethanol, ethyl esters and some branched-chain alcohols were 6 to 10 fold higher in E5 cheeses than in the control cheeses, and only slightly higher in E3 cheeses. This study shows that K. lactis has a potential as cheese adjunct culture in Cantalet cheese and that, added at populations of 4-5 log(10) cfu/g cheese, it enhances the formation of flavour compounds.
PubMed ID
19036465 View in PubMed
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An outbreak of E. coli O157:H7 hemorrhagic colitis associated with unpasteurized gouda cheese.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature174645
Source
Can J Public Health. 2005 May-Jun;96(3):182-4
Publication Type
Article
Author
Lance Honish
Gerry Predy
Nyall Hislop
Linda Chui
Kinga Kowalewska-Grochowska
Larry Trottier
Cornelia Kreplin
Ingrid Zazulak
Author Affiliation
Capital Health-Public Health Division, Edmonton, Alberta. lhonish@cha.ab.ca
Source
Can J Public Health. 2005 May-Jun;96(3):182-4
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alberta - epidemiology
Cheese - microbiology
Cluster analysis
Colitis - epidemiology - microbiology
Disease Outbreaks
Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field
Escherichia coli - isolation & purification
Escherichia coli Infections - epidemiology - microbiology
Food Handling
Food Microbiology
Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage - epidemiology - microbiology
Humans
Abstract
A cluster of E. coli O157:H7 hemorrhagic colitis was identified in metro Edmonton, Alberta through notifiable disease surveillance in late 2002.
Environmental health officers collected food histories and clinical information from cases in the cluster. The provincial public health laboratory conducted pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis on E. coli O157:H7 isolates from cluster cases. Public health and food regulatory agencies conducted an investigation when a food source (unpasteurized gouda cheese) was implicated.
PFGE analysis revealed an "outbreak" profile in 13 cases. Onset dates for the outbreak cases ranged between October 2002 and February 2003. Two cases, aged 22 months and 4 years, developed hemolytic uremic syndrome as a result of their infection. Consumption of unpasteurized gouda cheese produced at a local dairy farm was reported by 12 of 13 outbreak cases in the 2 to 8 days prior to illness. E. coli O157:H7 was isolated from 2 of 26 cheese samples manufactured by the implicated producer. The cheese isolates had indistinguishable PFGE profiles as compared with outbreak case isolates. Implicated cheese was found to be contaminated with E. coli O157:H7 104 days after production, despite having met regulated microbiological and aging requirements.
To our knowledge, this is the first confirmed outbreak of E. coli O157:H7 infection in Canada associated with raw milk hard cheese. A review of federal legislation vis-à-vis raw milk hard cheese may be in order.
PubMed ID
15913080 View in PubMed
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An outbreak of salmonella chester infection in Canada: rare serotype, uncommon exposure, and unusual population demographic facilitate rapid identification of food vehicle.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature125378
Source
J Food Prot. 2012 Apr;75(4):738-42
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2012
Author
John Taylor
Eleni Galanis
Lynn Wilcott
Linda Hoang
Jason Stone
Judi Ekkert
Doug Quibell
Mark Huddleston
Rachel McCormick
Yvonne Whitfield
Bijay Adhikari
Christopher C R Grant
Davendra Sharma
Author Affiliation
Epidemiology Services, School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V6T 1Z3.
Source
J Food Prot. 2012 Apr;75(4):738-42
Date
Apr-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Canada - epidemiology
Cheese - microbiology
Disease Outbreaks
Female
Food contamination - analysis
Food Microbiology
Humans
Male
Salmonella - classification - isolation & purification
Salmonella Food Poisoning - epidemiology
Serotyping
Abstract
Salmonella Chester infection has rarely been reported in the literature. In 2010, 33 case patients were reported in 2 months in four Canadian provinces. We conducted an outbreak investigation in collaboration with public health agencies, food safety specialists, regulatory agencies, grocery store chains, and the product distributor. We used case patient interviews, customer loyalty cards, and microbiological testing of clinical and food samples to identify nationally distributed head cheese as the food vehicle responsible for the outbreak. The rare serotype, a limited affected demographic group, and an uncommon exposure led to the rapid identification of the source. Control measures were implemented within 9 days of notification of the outbreak.
PubMed ID
22488063 View in PubMed
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An outbreak of Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus associated with consumption of fresh goat cheese.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature170516
Source
BMC Infect Dis. 2006;6:36
Publication Type
Article
Date
2006
Author
Markku Kuusi
Elina Lahti
Anni Virolainen
Maija Hatakka
Risto Vuento
Leila Rantala
Jaana Vuopio-Varkila
Eija Seuna
Matti Karppelin
Marjaana Hakkinen
Johanna Takkinen
Veera Gindonis
Kyosti Siponen
Kaisa Huotari
Author Affiliation
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, National Public Health Institute (KTL), Helsinki, Finland. markku.kuusi@ktl.fi
Source
BMC Infect Dis. 2006;6:36
Date
2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Animals
Cheese - microbiology
Disease Outbreaks
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Food Microbiology
Goats - microbiology
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Streptococcal Infections - epidemiology - microbiology
Streptococcus equi - isolation & purification
Abstract
Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus is a rare infection in humans associated with contact with horses or consumption of unpasteurized milk products. On October 23, 2003, the National Public Health Institute was alerted that within one week three persons had been admitted to Tampere University Central Hospital (TaYS) because of S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus septicaemia. All had consumed fresh goat cheese produced in a small-scale dairy located on a farm. We conducted an investigation to determine the source and the extent of the outbreak.
Cases were identified from the National Infectious Disease Register. Cases were persons with S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus isolated from a normally sterile site who had illness onset 15.9-31.10.2003. All cases were telephone interviewed by using a standard questionnaire and clinical information was extracted from patient charts. Environmental and food specimens included throat swabs from two persons working in the dairy, milk from goats and raw milk tank, cheeses made of unpasteurized milk, vaginal samples of goats, and borehole well water. The isolates were characterized by ribotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE).
Seven persons met the case definition; six had septicaemia and one had purulent arthritis. Five were women; the median age was 70 years (range 54-93). None of the cases were immunocompromized and none died. Six cases were identified in TaYS, and one in another university hospital in southern Finland. All had eaten goat cheese produced on the implicated farm. S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus was isolated from throat swabs, fresh goat cheese, milk tank, and vaginal samples of one goat. All human and environmental strains were indistinguishable by ribotyping and PFGE.
The outbreak was caused by goat cheese produced from unpasteurized milk. Outbreaks caused by S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus may not be detected if streptococcal strains are only typed to the group level. S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus may be a re-emerging disease if unpasteurized milk is increasingly used for food production. Facilities using unpasteurized milk should be carefully monitored to prevent this type of outbreaks.
Notes
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PubMed ID
16504158 View in PubMed
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A community outbreak of Salmonella berta associated with a soft cheese product.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature206107
Source
Epidemiol Infect. 1998 Feb;120(1):29-35
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1998
Author
A. Ellis
M. Preston
A. Borczyk
B. Miller
P. Stone
B. Hatton
A. Chagla
J. Hockin
Author Affiliation
Bureau of Surveillance and Field Epidemiology, Laboratory Centre for Disease Control, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario.
Source
Epidemiol Infect. 1998 Feb;120(1):29-35
Date
Feb-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Animals
Cheese - microbiology
Chickens - microbiology
Child
Child, Preschool
DNA Fingerprinting
DNA, Bacterial - analysis
Disease Outbreaks - statistics & numerical data
Female
Food Inspection
Humans
Infant
Male
Middle Aged
Ontario - epidemiology
Population Surveillance
Poultry Diseases - microbiology - transmission
Salmonella - classification - genetics
Salmonella Food Poisoning - epidemiology - microbiology - transmission - veterinary
Abstract
In September 1994, a complaint was registered at a public health unit concerning a cheese product. In addition, public health laboratories in Ontario reported an increase in the number of isolates of Salmonella berta from patients with diarrhoeal illness. A clinical, environmental and laboratory investigation was initiated to determine the nature of this outbreak. Isolates of Salmonella berta were compared using large fragment genomic fingerprinting by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). By late October, 82 clinical cases had been identified including 35 confirmed, 44 suspected and 3 secondary. The investigation linked illness to consumption of an unpasteurized soft cheese product produced on a farm and sold at farmers' markets. Subtyping results of patient, cheese and chicken isolates were indistinguishable, suggesting that the cheese was contaminated by chicken carcasses during production. The outbreak illustrates the potential role of uninspected home-based food producers and of cross-contamination in the transmission of foodborne bacterial pathogens.
PubMed ID
9528815 View in PubMed
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Epidemiologic typing of Salmonella enterica serotype enteritidis in a Canada-wide outbreak of gastroenteritis due to contaminated cheese.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature198385
Source
J Clin Microbiol. 2000 Jun;38(6):2403-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2000
Author
R. Ahmed
G. Soule
W H Demczuk
C. Clark
R. Khakhria
S. Ratnam
S. Marshall
L K Ng
D L Woodward
W M Johnson
F G Rodgers
Author Affiliation
National Laboratory for Enteric Pathogens, Bureau of Microbiology, Laboratory Centre for Disease Control, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E 3R2, St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada. Rafiq_Ahmed@hc.,sc.gc.ca
Source
J Clin Microbiol. 2000 Jun;38(6):2403-6
Date
Jun-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Bacterial Typing Techniques
Bacteriophage Typing
Canada - epidemiology
Cheese - microbiology
Disease Outbreaks
Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field
Gastroenteritis - epidemiology - microbiology
Humans
Molecular Epidemiology
Salmonella Food Poisoning - epidemiology - microbiology
Salmonella enteritidis - classification
Abstract
A major Canada-wide outbreak of gastroenteritis due to Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis phage type (PT) 8 occurred in 1998, and this was traced to contaminated cheese in a commercial lunch pack product. Phage typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis linked the clinical and cheese isolates of serotype Enteritidis but failed to differentiate outbreak from nonoutbreak PT 8 strains. Further differentiation was made by biotyping based on melibiose fermentation.
Notes
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PubMed ID
10835016 View in PubMed
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Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreak linked to raw milk cheese in Quebec, Canada: use of exact probability calculation and casecase study approaches to foodborne outbreak investigation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature124611
Source
J Food Prot. 2012 May;75(5):812-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2012
Author
Colette Gaulin
Eric Levac
Danielle Ramsay
Réjean Dion
Johanne Ismaïl
Suzanne Gingras
Christine Lacroix
Author Affiliation
Ministère de la Santé et des Services sociaux, 1075 chemin Ste-Foy, Québec, Province de Québec, Canada G1S 2M1. colette.gaulin@msss.gouv.qc.ca
Source
J Food Prot. 2012 May;75(5):812-8
Date
May-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Bacterial Typing Techniques
Cattle
Cheese - microbiology
Disease Outbreaks
Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field
Escherichia coli Infections - epidemiology
Escherichia coli O157 - isolation & purification
Female
Food contamination - analysis
Food Microbiology
Humans
Milk - microbiology
Probability
Quebec - epidemiology
Abstract
The analytical studies used to investigate foodborne outbreak are mostly case-control or retrospective cohort studies. However, these studies can be complex to perform and susceptible to biases. This article addresses basic principles of epidemiology, probability, and the use of case-case design to identify the source of an Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreak linked to raw milk cheese consumption in Quebec, Canada; a small number of cases with the same pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profile were involved. Between 4 December 2008 and 15 January 2009, a cumulative total of 16 E. coli O157:H7 cases with the same PFGE profile were reported to Quebec public health authorities. Among the first six cases reported, three had consumed raw milk cheese from the same producer (cheese A). Raw milk cheese is consumed by about 2 % of the Quebec population. By using the exact probability calculation, it was found that a significantly higher proportion of E. coli O157:H7 cases (with the specific PFGE profile) than expected had consumed cheese A (P
PubMed ID
22564928 View in PubMed
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Fate of Listeria monocytogenes on fully ripened Greek Graviera cheese stored at 4, 12, or 25 degrees C in air or vacuum packages: in situ PCR detection of a cocktail of bacteriocins potentially contributing to pathogen inhibition.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature151703
Source
J Food Prot. 2009 Mar;72(3):531-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2009
Author
Eleni Giannou
Athanasia Kakouri
Bojana Bogovic Matijasic
Irena Rogelj
John Samelis
Author Affiliation
National Agricultural Research Foundation, Dairy Research Institute, Katsikas, 45221 Ioannina, Greece.
Source
J Food Prot. 2009 Mar;72(3):531-8
Date
Mar-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Bacteriocins - isolation & purification
Cheese - microbiology
Colony Count, Microbial
Consumer Product Safety
Enterococcus faecium - metabolism
Food Microbiology
Food Packaging - methods
Food Preservation - methods
Humans
Listeria monocytogenes - drug effects - growth & development
Oxygen - metabolism
Polymerase Chain Reaction - methods
Risk assessment
Temperature
Time Factors
Vacuum
Abstract
The behavior of Listeria monocytogenes on fully ripened Greek Graviera cheese was evaluated. Three batches (A, B, and C) were tested. Batches A and C were prepared with a commercial starter culture, while in batch B the starter culture was combined with an enterocin-producing Enterococcus faecium Graviera isolate. Cheese pieces were surface inoculated with a five-strain cocktail of L. monocytogenes at ca. 3 log CFU/cm2, packed under air or vacuum conditions, stored at 4, 12, or 25 degrees C, and analyzed after 0, 3, 7, 15, 30, 60, and 90 days. L. monocytogenes did not grow on the cheese surface, regardless of storage conditions. However, long-term survival of the pathogen was noted in all treatments, being the highest (P
PubMed ID
19343941 View in PubMed
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Febrile gastroenteritis after eating on-farm manufactured fresh cheese--an outbreak of listeriosis?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature13906
Source
Epidemiol Infect. 2003 Feb;130(1):79-86
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2003
Author
J J Carrique-Mas
I. Hökeberg
Y. Andersson
M. Arneborn
W. Tham
M L Danielsson-Tham
B. Osterman
M. Leffler
M. Steen
E. Eriksson
G. Hedin
J. Giesecke
Author Affiliation
Department of Epidemiology, Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, SE-17182 Solna, Sweden.
Source
Epidemiol Infect. 2003 Feb;130(1):79-86
Date
Feb-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Cheese - microbiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Dairying
Disease Outbreaks
Feces - microbiology
Female
Fever
Food Microbiology
Gastroenteritis - epidemiology - microbiology
Humans
Listeria Infections - epidemiology - microbiology
Listeria monocytogenes - genetics - isolation & purification
Male
Middle Aged
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Questionnaires
Seasons
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
An outbreak of febrile gastroenteritis affected consumers of on-farm manufactured dairy products from a summer farm in Sweden. Symptoms included diarrhoea, fever, stomach cramps and vomiting in 88, 60, 54 and 21% of cases identified. The median incubation period was 31 h. A cohort study with 33 consumers showed an attack rate of 52% and an association between the total amount of product eaten and illness (P=0.07). Twenty-seven of 32 (84%) stool samples cultured for Listeria monocytogenes tested positive, although there was no association between clinical disease and the isolation of L. monocytogenes. In addition, gene sequences for VTEC and ETEC were detected in 6 and 1 subjects, respectively. Bacteriological analysis of cheese samples revealed heavy contamination with L. monocytogenes and coagulase positive staphylococci in all of them and gene markers for VTEC in one of them. Molecular profiles for L. monocytogenes isolated from dairy products, stool samples and an abscess from 1 patient who developed septic arthritis were identical. Results of both microbiological and epidemiological analyses point to L. monocytogenes as the most likely cause of this outbreak. The finding of markers for VTEC in some humans and cheese samples means that a mixed aetiology at least in some cases cannot be conclusively ruled out.
PubMed ID
12613748 View in PubMed
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22 records – page 1 of 3.