The cheese industry faces many challenges to optimize cheese yield and quality. A very precise standardization of the cheese milk is needed, which is achieved by a fine control of the process and milk composition. Thorough analysis of protein composition is important to determine the amount of protein that will be retained in the curd or lost in the whey. The fluorescence-based Amaltheys analyzer (Spectralys Innovation, Romainville, France) was developed to assess pH 4.6-soluble heat-sensitive whey proteins (sWP*) in 5 min. These proteins are those that can be denatured upon heat-treatment and further retained in the curd after coagulation. Monitoring of sWP* in milk and subsequent adaptation of the process is a reliable solution to achieve stable cheese yield and quality. Performance of the method was evaluated by an accredited laboratory on a 0 to 7 g/L range. Accuracy compared with the reference Kjeldahl method is also provided with a standard error of 0.25 g/L. Finally, a 4-mo industrial trial in a cheese plant is described, where Amaltheys was used as a process analytical technology to monitor sWP* content in ingredients and final cheese milk. Calibration models over quality parameters of final cheese were also built from near-infrared and fluorescence spectroscopic data. The Amaltheys analyzer was found to be a rapid, compact, and accurate device to help implementation of standardization procedures in the dairy industry.
In Finland, official recommendations state that reduced-fat cheese should be used in the everyday diet. Finnish consumers are increasingly willing to consume food with a reduced fat content, and sales of reduced-fat cheeses have been increasing. The consumers who participated in this study (n=153; 17 to 78 yr old) ate reduced-fat cheeses on a weekly basis. They were recruited from supermarket customers living in a metropolitan area in Finland. The object of this study was to determine which kind of reduced-fat Havarti-type cheeses were most liked. The study consisted of a consumer test, sensory descriptive analysis, and chemical analysis of commercial reduced-fat Havarti-type cheeses (n=10). The results of the sensory quantitative descriptive analysis were compared with consumer hedonic ratings by external preference mapping. In addition, information on composition (fat, salt, and free amino acids) was gathered and compared with the hedonic ratings. The preferred sensory properties were a pale appearance, sticky texture, and rich flavor. However, the consumers could be grouped according to their preferences on appearance and consistency. The main attributes contributing to the grouping of consumers were stickiness, hardness, and yellow color. The least preferred cheeses among all Finnish consumers were those with the lowest flavor intensities. The consumers preferred the cheeses with the highest salt content.
Comparison between genetic parameters of cheese yield and nutrient recovery or whey loss traits measured from individual model cheese-making methods or predicted from unprocessed bovine milk samples using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy.
Cheese yield is an important technological trait in the dairy industry. The aim of this study was to infer the genetic parameters of some cheese yield-related traits predicted using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectral analysis and compare the results with those obtained using an individual model cheese-producing procedure. A total of 1,264 model cheeses were produced using 1,500-mL milk samples collected from individual Brown Swiss cows, and individual measurements were taken for 10 traits: 3 cheese yield traits (fresh curd, curd total solids, and curd water as a percent of the weight of the processed milk), 4 milk nutrient recovery traits (fat, protein, total solids, and energy of the curd as a percent of the same nutrient in the processed milk), and 3 daily cheese production traits per cow (fresh curd, total solids, and water weight of the curd). Each unprocessed milk sample was analyzed using a MilkoScan FT6000 (Foss, Hillerød, Denmark) over the spectral range, from 5,000 to 900 wavenumber × cm(-1). The FTIR spectrum-based prediction models for the previously mentioned traits were developed using modified partial least-square regression. Cross-validation of the whole data set yielded coefficients of determination between the predicted and measured values in cross-validation of 0.65 to 0.95 for all traits, except for the recovery of fat (0.41). A 3-fold external validation was also used, in which the available data were partitioned into 2 subsets: a training set (one-third of the herds) and a testing set (two-thirds). The training set was used to develop calibration equations, whereas the testing subsets were used for external validation of the calibration equations and to estimate the heritabilities and genetic correlations of the measured and FTIR-predicted phenotypes. The coefficients of determination between the predicted and measured values in cross-validation results obtained from the training sets were very similar to those obtained from the whole data set, but the coefficient of determination of validation values for the external validation sets were much lower for all traits (0.30 to 0.73), and particularly for fat recovery (0.05 to 0.18), for the training sets compared with the full data set. For each testing subset, the (co)variance components for the measured and FTIR-predicted phenotypes were estimated using bivariate Bayesian analyses and linear models. The intraherd heritabilities for the predicted traits obtained from our internal cross-validation using the whole data set ranged from 0.085 for daily yield of curd solids to 0.576 for protein recovery, and were similar to those obtained from the measured traits (0.079 to 0.586, respectively). The heritabilities estimated from the testing data set used for external validation were more variable but similar (on average) to the corresponding values obtained from the whole data set. Moreover, the genetic correlations between the predicted and measured traits were high in general (0.791 to 0.996), and they were always higher than the corresponding phenotypic correlations (0.383 to 0.995), especially for the external validation subset. In conclusion, we herein report that application of the cross-validation technique to the whole data set tended to overestimate the predictive ability of FTIR spectra, give more precise phenotypic predictions than the calibrations obtained using smaller data sets, and yield genetic correlations similar to those obtained from the measured traits. Collectively, our findings indicate that FTIR predictions have the potential to be used as indicator traits for the rapid and inexpensive selection of dairy populations for improvement of cheese yield, milk nutrient recovery in curd, and daily cheese production per cow.
Energy-generating nutrients and total energy were computed and analytically determined for four widely used foods in Greece (mousaka, bean soup, infant food, and feta cheese), as well as for the individual food items necessary for their preparation. Standard procedures were used for chemical analyses, whereas computed values were generated through the Unilever Dietary Analysis Program--UNIDAP (Barrow et al., 1988) on the basis of the British food composition tables. Pesticides and pesticide residues were also determined in the studied samples. A very good agreement was noted with respect to the nutrient composition of the four prepared foods, whereas the agreement was somewhat weaker for the individual food items used for the preparation of the composite foods. It is concluded that the UNIDAP program generates reliable nutrient composition data for composite foods and for time integrated dietary intakes in Greece. The concentrations of several of the determined pesticides were towards the higher end of the spectrum of levels reported in the literature. This project has demonstrated the value of collaboration between academic institutions, industry, and state laboratories towards the development and validation of food composition databases.
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) food-wrapping films plasticized with di-(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA) are commonly used by grocery stores in Canada to rewrap meat, poultry, fish, cheese, and other foods. DEHA was assessed as part of the Government of Canada's Chemicals Management Plan. The main source of exposure for most age groups was expected to be food. Although the margin of exposure from food and beverages is considered to be adequately protective, the Government of Canada committed to performing targeted surveys of DEHA in foods and food packaging materials to better define Canadian exposure to DEHA through dietary intake. In order to determine whether more-comprehensive targeted surveys on DEHA in foods should be conducted, 26 food composite samples from the 2011 Canadian total diet study were selected and analyzed for DEHA using a method based on solvent and dispersive solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. These 26 food composites include cheese, meat, poultry, fish, and fast foods, and PVC films were likely used in packaging the individual foods used to make the composites. DEHA was detected in most of the meat, poultry, and fish composite samples, with the highest concentration found in ground beef (11 µg/g), followed by beef steak (9.9 µg/g), freshwater fish (7.8 µg/g), poultry liver pâté (7.4 µg/g), fresh pork (6.9 µg/g), cold cuts and luncheon meats (2.8 µg/g), veal cutlets (2.1 µg/g), roast beef (1.3 µg/g), lamb (1.2 µg/g), and organ meats (0.20 µg/g). Targeted surveys should be conducted to investigate the presence of DEHA in various foods packaged with PVC films in more detail and provide updated occurrence data for accurate human exposure assessment.
Expression of virulence-related genes in Listeria monocytogenes incubated on cheese was assessed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The objective of the study was to investigate the impact of sodium chloride concentration in cheese on transcription of virulence genes and, thereby, virulence potential of L. monocytogenes. The expression studies were performed with L. monocytogenes strains characterized by different tolerance to salt stress. Strains ATCC(®) 51779 and DSMZ 15675 were incubated on the Danish hard-cheese type Samsoe, with low (
The objective of this study was to determine the main flavor components of different natural aged cheese types from various countries and determine whether a unique sensory characteristic exists within specific countries for European cheeses. The flavor of 152 cheeses from Estonia, France, Italy, Germany, Holland, Austria, England, Greece, Ireland, Spain, Switzerland, Sweden, Belgium, and Denmark were described during 4 independent studies. The sensory data from these studies were combined. The cheeses were sorted according to milk type and texture, and flavor characteristics of these groups were described. The main flavor characteristics of the cheeses tested were salty, sweet, sour, astringent, biting, pungent, sharp, nutty, musty/earthy, dairy fat, buttery, and dairy sweet. The cluster analysis divided the cheeses into 4 clusters: clusters 1 and 2 were sour, dairy sour, salty, astringent, biting, and varied in buttery (cluster 1) and sharp notes (cluster 2). Cluster 1 and 2 were mainly composed of French cheeses, while clusters 3 and 4 represented cheeses from various countries. Cluster 3 and 4 were sweet, with cooked milk and nutty characteristics and varied from buttery (cluster 3) to sharp notes (cluster 4). Cheeses from some countries, for example, France and Estonia, generally exhibited common sensory characteristics within the specific country, but cheeses from some other countries, such as Italy, varied widely, and seemed to have no common sensory theme. Most regional cheese standards are not specific about flavor profiles and these results suggest it may be possible to start a further characterization of cheeses in some countries.
The effects of added copper in the manufacture of Finnish Emmental cheese were studied. Consequently, cheeses were produced with or without the copper supplement and a facultative heterofermentative strain, Lactobacillus rhamnosus Lc705, which is currently utilized as a protective culture in large-scale manufacture in Finland. Cheeses were examined at 1, 7, 30, 60, and 90 d from the microbiological, chemical, and sensory points of view. Organic acid production was affected by the presence of copper in the cheeses. The addition of copper to cheesemilk increased the level of primary proteolysis and slowed secondary proteolysis as measured by nitrogen content in different extracts after citrate fractionation of cheeses, in pH 4.4-soluble nitrogen and 5% phosphotungstic acid-soluble nitrogen, respectively. The presence of copper appears to positively regulate the sensory characteristics of the cheese produced in our conditions; in particular, consistency was affected significantly. The role of the Lb. rhamnosus Lc705 protective strain has not been shown to have important effects on most of the parameters that influence the final quality of the cheeses. Although the traditional plating systems for revealing bacterial populations during cheese manufacture did not reveal any drastic differences caused by the presence of copper, the results from chemical and sensory analyses suggest that its use plays a significant role in the regulation of bacterial physiological and biochemical activities, which in turn affect the sensory quality of Emmental cheese.
Epidemiological and clinical studies have shown that angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibiting peptides derived from dairy products may decrease blood pressure. These peptides have been identified in many cheeses, and Gamalost, a traditional Norwegian cheese, is particularly rich in these peptides. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine whether frequency of Gamalost intake was associated with blood pressure in a Norwegian population sample. Blood pressure and other clinical measurements, including the factors of metabolic syndrome, were obtained from 168 participants (56% female, mean age = 51 yr) who completed a questionnaire about dietary habits and other health-related factors. Mean Gamalost intake was 2 servings per week. The prevalence of hypertension was 23.8% in the population, with mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures of 128 and 78 mmHg, respectively. Intake of Gamalost was inversely associated with systolic blood pressure. Each increase in frequency unit of Gamalost intake corresponded to a reduction in systolic blood pressure of 0.72 mmHg, after controlling for sex, age, education, waist circumference, physical activity, smoking status, and dairy food intake. Results from this study indicate that consumption of Gamalost (or other foods rich in ACE-inhibiting peptides) may reduce blood pressure.
An excessive consumption of fat has been associated with an increased risk of health problems such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Cheese is a highly concentrated product which is rich in protein and minerals such as calcium and phosphorus and essential amino acids, therefore it is an important food in the diet. But low fat cheeses are usually characterized as having poor body and flavour. Therefore, it is crucial to find ways of improving the acceptability of the product. The aim of this research was to investigate the possibility of using of tapioca maltodextrin in the production of soft cheese made from ultrafiltrated skimmed milk and to create organoleptic properties of a fat product in a non-fat product.
To estimate the possibility of using tapioca maltodextrin in the production of soft cheese, the influence of tapioca maltodextrin on rennet flocculation time (RFT) and rennet clotting time (RCT), pH values, moisture content were estimated. Improving the quality of cheese, rheological and sensory characteristics in the course of soft unripened cheese manufacturing has to be focused on.
Using tapioca maltodextrin led to decrease in RFT and RCT. The concentration increase of the maltodextrin in milk for cheese production led to increase in moisture-binding capacity and moisture content of the cheeses, but led to decrease in RFT, RCT and pH-value. Based on the experiments data the optimal doses of tapioca maltodextrin were recommended.
An addition of tapioca maltodextrin resulted in a tendency of decreasing RFT and RCT, pH-value for cheese made with different concentrations of tapioca maltodextrin when compared to cheese made without maltodextrin addition. At the same time an increased amount of tapioca maltodextrin led to moisture content increase of cheese samples. Inclusion of tapioca maltodextrin in natural, low fat cheese may improve texture and acceptability as compared to low fat control cheeses without maltodextrin. The recommended level of tapioca maltodextrin is 1.1% of the mixture weight.