Our objective was to explore whether the radiation fallout in Finland after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in April 1986 led to an increased incidence of trisomy 21. In this geographic and temporal cohort study, the country was divided into three zones according to the amounts of radioactive fallout and internal radiation caused by two cesium isotopes. The 518 cytologically verified cases of trisomy 21 were divided into a control group (conceived before the accident), and a study group of children whose expected dates of birth were in the post-accident years 1987-1988, i.e., pregnancies commenced after May 1986. The cases were also divided into three subgroups according to the zones of radiation. There were no significant differences in prevalence of trisomy 21 between the control and study groups nor between the three zones in spite of the significant differences in the levels of radiation and in the body burden that prevailed throughout the study period. Power estimates showed that in the two zones of lower radiation, an increase of 0.5% in the prevalence would have been detected with a power of 0.85, and in the somewhat smaller zone of the highest radiation, with a power of 0.70. The study lends no further support to the view that the low radiation fallout in western Europe would have been causally associated with trisomy 21.
Irritable bowel syndrome is observed mostly in Ukrainian children and may be related to adverse health effects as a result of the Chernobyl disaster. The aim of this study was to determine status of T-cell population lymphocytes in children with clinical symptom of irritable bowel syndrome. The test population consisted of 95 participants: 75 rural patients aged 4 to 18 who lived in a contaminated area exposed to natural environmental radiation with clinical symptom of irritable bowel syndrome (categorized in three groups) and 20 healthy urban participants from Kiev aged 5 to 15 as control group. Internal radiation activity has been measured by gamma-ray spectrometry. Peripheral blood leukocytes were analyzed for T-lymphocytes subset such as T-lymphocytes (CD3(+)), T-helper (CD4(+)) and T-cytotoxic (CD8(+)) and then CD4/CD8 ratio was calculated. Percentage of CD3(+) and CD4(+) in all study groups decreased significantly in comparison to control group (p
The experience gained in the aftermath of serious radiation accidents shows that forests are an important source of external and internal exposure of the affected population. This paper presents the results of an assessment of the major radiological consequences for forests of Russia, most heavily contaminated after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (ChNPP) accident. Illustrated in the Novozybkovsky district of the Russian Federation, the significance of different forest exposure pathways is estimated and the doses resulting from forest pathways are compared with the doses from agricultural products. It has been found that the contribution of mushrooms and berries to the internal doses of the population, relative to the doses from agricultural products, varied from 10-15% in 1987 to 40-45% in 1996. The results indicate large differences in internal exposure of members of the "critical groups" and "normal population", increasing with time after deposition. Data are presented that give information on the contribution of forests to the collective doses of inhabitants of the area under consideration. It has been shown that for 10 years after the accident (1987-1996), the contribution of forest products to the collective dose of the rural population living in contaminated forests of the Novozybkovsky district, amounts to about 20% (213 person Sv) of the total collective dose of internal and external exposures. However, a potential impact of these products including the dose from exported products is much higher and might reach 659 person Sv. It has been found that in the long-term after the ChNPP accident, serious attention should be given to forest countermeasures, and restoration strategies should be selected on the basis of a combined analysis of the effectiveness of forest and agricultural countermeasures.
Cancer has long been known to be a hazard of exposure to ionizing radiation. However, the assessment of health effects from exposure to radiation is a matter of considerable controversy. This paper presents results of a retrospective study of leukemia incidence (203-207, ICD-9) around the highest 137Cs pollution in Poland (as an effect of the Czarnobyl disaster and/or military bomb tests). The data relating to all the registered leukemias in males and females originated from the Regional Cancer Registry in Opole. The information on 137Cs concentration rates in Opole province was derived from the state monitoring provided by the Polish Geological Institute in Warsaw. The spatial analysis--based on the random-effects Poisson regression model--was carried out via the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique (Gibbs sampling) using BUGS software. The model incorporated epidemiological data and an ecological covariate--isotope concentrations--and provided a framework for estimating the strength of a dose-response relationship. The differences in incidence levels were quantified by traditional standardized morbidity ratios (SMRs) and presented in thematic maps as well as in combined charts of distance-disease-dose relations. Additionally, to assess spatial disease clustering, a Tango test was adopted. The results of this ecological study suggest that the 137Cs concentrations did not have any negative influence on the exposed population.
A retrospective analysis was carried out of failure for a woman to be delivered of a child at the natural time in those female workers engaged in agricultural production in controlled territories of Ukraine (Narodichi and Ovruch districts of Zhytomir Province). Data files were studied of 5371 histories of labor (2440 those before and 2931 after the Chernobyl accident) and 525 records of spontaneous abortion (255 those before and 27 after the ChNPP breakdown). There has been found relationship between the frequency of incomplete pregnancies and density of contamination of soil with cesium-137 in certain settlements.
After the nuclear accident of Chernobyl, in the population of zones contaminated the malignant renal tumors was increased from 4.7 to 7.5 per 100,000 of total population. Cesium 137 (137Cs) constitutes 80-90% of the internal exposure of these people as well as eliminated through kidneys becomes an important risk factor. We present a case of a patient, residing in radiocontamined area, who consulted for abdominal pain and left flank mass. We review relevant literature and the management of these patients.