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The 2006 Canadian Hypertension Education Program recommendations for the management of hypertension: Part II - Therapy.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature168976
Source
Can J Cardiol. 2006 May 15;22(7):583-93
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-15-2006
Author
N A Khan
Finlay A McAlister
Simon W Rabkin
Raj Padwal
Ross D Feldman
Norman Rc Campbell
Lawrence A Leiter
Richard Z Lewanczuk
Ernesto L Schiffrin
Michael D Hill
Malcolm Arnold
Gordon Moe
Tavis S Campbell
Carol Herbert
Alain Milot
James A Stone
Ellen Burgess
B. Hemmelgarn
Charlotte Jones
Pierre Larochelle
Richard I Ogilvie
Robyn Houlden
Robert J Herman
Pavel Hamet
George Fodor
George Carruthers
Bruce Culleton
Jacques Dechamplain
George Pylypchuk
Alexander G Logan
Norm Gledhill
Robert Petrella
Sheldon Tobe
Rhian M Touyz
Author Affiliation
Division of General Internal Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
Source
Can J Cardiol. 2006 May 15;22(7):583-93
Date
May-15-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Advisory Committees
Alcohol Drinking
Antihypertensive Agents - therapeutic use
Calcium, Dietary - administration & dosage
Canada
Cerebrovascular Disorders - therapy
Diabetes Mellitus - therapy
Diet
Exercise
Humans
Hypertension - therapy
Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular - therapy
Kidney Diseases - therapy
Life Style
Magnesium - administration & dosage
Myocardial Ischemia - therapy
Patient compliance
Potassium, Dietary - administration & dosage
Sodium, Dietary - administration & dosage
Stress, Psychological - prevention & control
Weight Loss
Abstract
To provide updated, evidence-based recommendations for the management of hypertension in adults.
For lifestyle and pharmacological interventions, evidence from randomized, controlled trials and systematic reviews of trials was preferentially reviewed. Changes in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality were the primary outcomes of interest. For lifestyle interventions, blood pressure (BP) lowering was accepted as a primary outcome given the lack of long-term morbidity/mortality data in this field. For treatment of patients with kidney disease, the development of proteinuria or worsening of kidney function was also accepted as a clinically relevant primary outcome.
MEDLINE searches were conducted from November 2004 to October 2005 to update the 2005 recommendations. In addition, reference lists were scanned and experts were contacted to identify additional published studies. All relevant articles were reviewed and appraised independently by content and methodological experts using prespecified levels of evidence.
Lifestyle modifications to prevent and/or treat hypertension include the following: perform 30 min to 60 min of aerobic exercise four to seven days per week; maintain a healthy body weight (body mass index of 18.5 kg/m2 to 24.9 kg/m2) and waist circumference (less than 102 cm for men and less than 88 cm for women); limit alcohol consumption to no more than 14 standard drinks per week in men or nine standard drinks per week in women; follow a diet that is reduced in saturated fat and cholesterol and that emphasizes fruits, vegetables and low-fat dairy products; restrict salt intake; and consider stress management in selected individuals. Treatment thresholds and targets should take into account each individual's global atherosclerotic risk, target organ damage and comorbid conditions. BP should be lowered to less than 140/90 mmHg in all patients, and to less than 130/80 mmHg in those with diabetes mellitus or chronic kidney disease (regardless of the degree of proteinuria). Most adults with hypertension require more than one agent to achieve these target BPs. For adults without compelling indications for other agents, initial therapy should include thiazide diuretics. Other agents appropriate for first-line therapy for diastolic hypertension with or without systolic hypertension include beta-blockers (in those younger than 60 years), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (in nonblack patients), long-acting calcium channel blockers or angiotensin receptor antagonists. Other agents for first-line therapy for isolated systolic hypertension include long-acting dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers or angiotensin receptor antagonists. Certain comorbid conditions provide compelling indications for first-line use of other agents: in patients with angina, recent myocardial infarction or heart failure, beta-blockers and ACE inhibitors are recommended as first-line therapy; in patients with diabetes mellitus, ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor antagonists (or in patients without albuminuria, thiazides or dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers) are appropriate first-line therapies; and in patients with nondiabetic chronic kidney disease, ACE inhibitors are recommended. All hypertensive patients should have their fasting lipids screened, and those with dyslipidemia should be treated using the thresholds, targets and agents recommended by the Canadian Hypertension Education Program Working Group on the management of dyslipidemia and the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Selected patients with hypertension, but without dyslipidemia, should also receive statin therapy and/or acetylsalicylic acid therapy.
All recommendations were graded according to strength of the evidence and voted on by the 45 members of the Canadian Hypertension Education Program Evidence-Based Recommendations Task Force. All recommendations reported here achieved at least 95% consensus. These guidelines will continue to be updated annually.
Notes
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PubMed ID
16755313 View in PubMed
Less detail
Source
Cerebrovasc Dis. 1998 Jan;8 Suppl 1:6-8
Publication Type
Conference/Meeting Material
Article
Date
Jan-1998
Author
M G Hennerici
Author Affiliation
Department of Neurology, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Deutschland. Hennerici@neuropc1.neuroma.uni-heidelberg.de
Source
Cerebrovasc Dis. 1998 Jan;8 Suppl 1:6-8
Date
Jan-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Conference/Meeting Material
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Cerebrovascular Disorders - therapy
Europe
Humans
Quality Assurance, Health Care
Sweden
Treatment Outcome
World Health Organization
PubMed ID
9547028 View in PubMed
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Are more complex study designs needed for future acute stroke trials?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature205973
Source
Cerebrovasc Dis. 1998 Jan;8 Suppl 1:17-22
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-1998
Author
J P Mohr
H. Mast
J L Thompson
R L Sacco
Author Affiliation
Stroke Unit, Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, USA. jpm10@columbia.edu
Source
Cerebrovasc Dis. 1998 Jan;8 Suppl 1:17-22
Date
Jan-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Canada
Cerebrovascular Disorders - therapy
Clinical Trials as Topic
Forecasting
Humans
Middle Aged
Nimodipine - therapeutic use
Research Design - trends
United States
PubMed ID
9547023 View in PubMed
Less detail

[Emergency medical services for acute cerebral circulatory disorders].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature250249
Source
Zh Nevropatol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 1977;77(9):1292-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
1977
Author
N K Bogolepov
D K Lunev
E I Gusev
N M Kaverin
A I Fedin
Source
Zh Nevropatol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 1977;77(9):1292-7
Date
1977
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Cerebrovascular Disorders - therapy
Emergency medical services
Hospitalization
Humans
Intracranial Embolism and Thrombosis - therapy
Moscow
Abstract
An analysis of annual reports of the station of ambulance and emergency medical aid during the past 6 years demonstrated a significant increase in the number of patients with acute cerebral circulation disorders due to reorganization of ambulance medical aid services. The authors discuss some scientific-methodological organizational problems of neurological emergency medical services, the tasks of specialized neurological teams questions of the diagnosis of brain stroke and the necessary level of eupplementary studies and treatment measures in the prehospital stage. A certain importance is allocated to a continuity of patient treatment in the hospital and perfection of the system of hospital care to patients with acute disorders of cerebral circulation.
PubMed ID
919949 View in PubMed
Less detail

[Experiences from the cerebrovascular unit of the medical clinic of the Serafim Hospital].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature246999
Source
Lakartidningen. 1979 Jul 25;76(30-31):2622-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-25-1979

Hospitalization and case-fatality rates for subarachnoid hemorrhage in Canada from 1982 through 1991. The Canadian Collaborative Study Group of Stroke Hospitalizations.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature208921
Source
Stroke. 1997 Apr;28(4):793-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1997
Author
T. Ostbye
A R Levy
N E Mayo
Author Affiliation
Department of Epidemiology, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada. ostbye@uwo.ca
Source
Stroke. 1997 Apr;28(4):793-8
Date
Apr-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Canada
Cerebrovascular Disorders - therapy
Cooperative Behavior
Female
Hospitalization
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Mortality
Sex Distribution
Subarachnoid Hemorrhage - mortality - therapy
Abstract
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) has a different epidemiological profile from other types of stroke and a different etiology. Although there has been a general decline in overall stroke incidence since the 1950s, secular trends for SAH have been modest. In contrast to other stroke types, changes in incidence over the last few decades have been less clear. The purpose of this study was to estimate hospitalization and case-fatality rates of SAH according to age, sex, calendar year, and season.
Data were obtained for each of Canada's 10 provinces for the 10 fiscal years 1982 through 1991. All hospitalizations of persons 15 years of age or older with a primary diagnosis at discharge coded 430 according to the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, were included. Rates of SAH per 100,000 population were calculated for men and women for 5-year age groups, by calendar year, and by season. Annual age- and sex-specific (hospital) case-fatality rates up to 30 days were also calculated. Additionally, hospital deaths from this study were related to national SAH mortality statistics.
A total of 14145 women and 8995 men were discharged with a primary diagnosis of SAH during the 10-year period. In contrast to other types of stroke, the rates of SAH were higher for women than for men at all ages. The age-standardized rates of SAH in 1991-1992 were 11.2 per 100000 women and 8.0 per 100000 men. For women, there was a 6% (95% confidence interval [CI], -12% to 0%) decline in hospitalization rates over that period; for men, the decline was 15% (95% CI, -21% to -8%). The peak season for SAH among women was winter; for men the peaks were in the fall and spring. For both sexes, the lowest occurrence was in the summer. Over this period, 30-day case-fatality rates declined somewhat (statistically significant only in the age group of 35 to 44 years). The number of deaths enumerated from hospital discharges was 20% to 50% lower than the number recorded on national mortality statistics, indicating that a proportion of SAH deaths occurred before (or after) the hospital stay.
Although rates of hospitalization for SAH declined over this period, SAH remains an important neurological event affecting individuals at relatively young ages. The rates were higher for women than for men at all ages. Total (in-hospital) case-fatality rate remains high.
PubMed ID
9099198 View in PubMed
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[Hospital medical service to patients with cerebrovascular disorders].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature251100
Source
Zdravookhr Ross Fed. 1976 May;(5):28-30
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1976

[Improved treatment of stroke can reduce the number of days in bed].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature245789
Source
Nord Med. 1980 May;95(5):141-3
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1980
Author
M. Kaste
Source
Nord Med. 1980 May;95(5):141-3
Date
May-1980
Language
Swedish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cerebrovascular Disorders - therapy
Finland
Humans
Length of Stay
Prognosis
PubMed ID
7402885 View in PubMed
Less detail

[Neurologic services should exist at every central hospital].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature256081
Source
Lakartidningen. 1971 Sep 22;68(39):4330-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-22-1971
Author
L H Blomberg
Source
Lakartidningen. 1971 Sep 22;68(39):4330-4
Date
Sep-22-1971
Language
Swedish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cerebrovascular Disorders - therapy
Hospital Planning
Humans
Skull Fractures - surgery
State Medicine
Sweden
PubMed ID
5130321 View in PubMed
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21 records – page 1 of 3.