Risk factors for the development of stroke was studied in a prospective long-term investigation of 855 male in a random population sampled of the same age. After 13 years of follow-up 25 participants had suffered from stroke, which gives an incidence of 19/10,000 annually. At the 1963 year investigation several parametras were studied. The stroke-prone person had higher values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure and had a significant greater total heart volume. Blood parametras as the fasting of serum cholesterole, triglyceride and erytrocyte sedimentation rate were significantly elevated in those who developed stroke. They also tended to consume more coffee and showed a higher tobacco consumption. By applying the multiple regression model it was disclosed that the most predective risk-variables were diastolic blood pressure, erytrocyte sedimentation rate and smoking habits.
BACKGROUND: Muscle strength and body size may be associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke risk. However, perhaps because of a low number of cases, existing evidence is inconsistent. METHODS: Height, weight, systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), elbow flexion, hand grip and knee extension strength were measured in young adulthood in 1 145 467 Swedish men born between 1951 and 1976. Information on own and parental social position was derived from censuses. During the register-based follow-up until the end of 2006, 12 323 CHD and 8865 stroke cases emerged, including 1431 intracerebral haemorrhage, 1316 subarachoid haemorrhage and 2944 intracerebral infarction cases. Hazard ratios (HR) per 1 SD in the exposures of interest were computed using Cox proportional hazard model. RESULTS: Body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)) showed increased risk with CHD and intracerebral infarction, whereas for intracerebral and subarachoid haemorrhage both under- and overweight was associated with increased risk. Height was inversely associated with CHD and all types of stroke. After adjustment for height, BMI, SBP, DBP and social position, all strength indicators were inversely associated with disease risk. For CHD and intracerebral infarction, grip strength showed the strongest association (HR = 0.89 and 0.91, respectively) whereas for intracerebral and subarachoid haemorrhage, knee extension strength was the best predictor (HR = 0.88 and 0.92, respectively). CONCLUSION: Body size and muscle strength in young adulthood are important predictors of risk of CHD and stroke in later life. In addition to adiposity, underweight needs attention since it may predispose to cerebrovascular complications.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebrovascular disease is increasingly recognized as a cause of dementia and cognitive decline. We have previously reported an association between hypertension and diabetes and low cognitive function in the elderly. Atrial fibrillation is another main risk factor for cerebrovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate whether atrial fibrillation is associated with low cognitive function in elderly men with and without previous manifest stroke. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study based on a cohort of 952 community-living men, aged 69 to 75 years, in Uppsala, Sweden. Cognitive functions were assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Trail Making Tests, and a composite z score was calculated. The relation between atrial fibrillation and cognitive z score was analyzed, with stroke and other vascular risk factors taken into account. RESULTS: All analyses were adjusted for age, education, and occupational level. Men with atrial fibrillation (n=44) had lower mean adjusted cognitive z scores (-0.26+/-0.11) than men without atrial fibrillation (+0.14+/-0.03; P=0.0003). The exclusion of stroke patients did not alter this relationship; the mean cognitive z score was -0.24+/-0.12 in the 36 men with atrial fibrillation and +0.17+/-0.03 in those without atrial fibrillation (P=0.0004), corresponding to a difference of 0.4 SDs between groups. Adjustments for 24-hour diastolic blood pressure and heart rate, diabetes, and ejection fraction did not change this relationship. Men with atrial fibrillation who were treated with digoxin (n=27) performed markedly better (-0.05+/-0.21) than those without treatment (n=9; -1.14+/-0.34; adjusted P=0.0005). Previous myocardial infarction was not associated with impaired cognitive results. CONCLUSIONS: In these community-living elderly men, we found an association between atrial fibrillation and low cognitive function independent of stroke, high blood pressure, and diabetes. Interventional studies are needed to answer the question of whether optimal treatment of atrial fibrillation may prevent or postpone cognitive decline and dementia.
An analysis of well-established aspects of stroke prevention is presented. The authors present results of the questionnaire survey of 286 primary care physicians of six regions of Russia (Chelyabinsk, Kurgan, Orenburg, Saratov, Sverdlovsk Oblasts and the Republic of Bashkortostan). Most of respondents (71.68%, 95% CI: 66.08-76.83) have reported that ischemic stroke often develops due to vasospasm and / or reduction of the cerebral blood flow during systemic hypotension; 91.26% (95% CI: 87.37-94.26) of surveyed physicians use vasodilators and metabolic agents for prevention of stroke and 67.48% (95% CI: 61.72-72.88) administer treatment similar to that used after a transient ischemic attack. Approximately half of the physicians prefers maintaining the normal blood pressure in elderly as a preventive measure of the first and second stroke events.
An analysis of frequency, structure and risk factors of cerebrovascular disease (CVD) in women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is presented. A study included 143 women (mean age 36.7±12.7 years) with confirmed systemic lupus erythematosus. Acute or chronic CVD was found almost in a half of cases. Among acute blood circulation disorders, there was a high frequency of brain ischemia with equal number of cases with transitory ischemic attacks and ischemic strokes. Chronic cerebrovascular disease was mostly represented by chronic brain ischemia. The basic (standard) and some specific (non-standard) risk factors of the development of cerebrovascular disease in women with SLE are revealed. Based on the features of a clinical course of SLE, we identified the correlations of acute blood circulation disorders with duration, course and activity of disease. The paper presents original methods of the mathematical prediction of the development of chronic brain ischemia in women with SLE without clinical manifestations of cerebrovascular pathology. The tactics of prophylactic medical examinations depending on the results of the prediction model was proposed. The authors present an approximate list of preventive measures based on the use of systems of individual prediction.
Incidence and mortality from cerebrovascular diseases (CVD) (430-438 ICD-9 codes) have been studied in a cohort of 18,763 workers first employed at the Mayak Production Association (Mayak PA) in 1948-1972 and followed up to the end of 2005. Some of the workers were exposed to external gamma-rays only while others were exposed to a mixture of external gamma-rays and internal alpha-particle radiation due to incorporated (239)Pu. After adjusting for non-radiation factors, there were significantly increasing trends in CVD incidence with total absorbed dose from external gamma-rays and total absorbed dose to liver from internal alpha radiation. The CVD incidence was statistically significantly higher among workers with total absorbed external gamma-ray doses greater than 0.20 Gy compared to those exposed to lower doses; the data were consistent with a linear trend in risk with external dose. The CVD incidence was statistically significantly higher among workers with total absorbed internal alpha-radiation doses to liver from incorporated (239)Pu greater than 0.025 Gy compared to those exposed to lower doses. There was no statistically significant trend in CVD mortality risk with either external gamma-ray dose or internal alpha-radiation dose to liver. The risk estimates obtained are generally compatible with those from other large occupational studies, although the incidence data point to higher risk estimates compared to those from the Japanese A-bomb survivors. Further studies of the unique cohort of Mayak workers chronically exposed to external and internal radiation will allow improving the reliability and validating the radiation safety standards for occupational and public exposure.
With the improved prognosis in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), causes of death and the risk of cancer might have changed. This was investigated in a Danish population with ADPKD and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) between 1 January 1993 and 31 December 2008.
Data were retrieved from three Danish national registries and a total of 823 patients were identified of which 431 had died during the study period. The 16 years were divided into two 8-year periods and the causes of death were divided into six categories: cancer, cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, infection, other and unknown.
Cardiovascular disease was the major cause of death. A multivariate competing risk model comparing the two 8-year periods, adjusted for age at ESRD, gender and treatment modality, showed that deaths from cardiovascular disease decreased by 35% [hazard ratios (HR) 0.65, P=0.008] and deaths from cerebrovascular disease decreased by 69% (HR 0.31, P=0.0003) from the first to the second time period. There were no significant changes between the time periods in death from cancer, infection, other or unknown. From the first to the second 8-year interval, the prevalence of cancer increased by 35% (P=0.0002) while the cancer incidence was stable.
In Danish patients with ADPKD and ESRD, there was a significant reduction in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular deaths from 1993 to 2008. The prevalence of cancer increased without significant change in cancer incidence or deaths from cancer.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We wished to test the validity of a stroke probability point system from the Framingham Study for a sample of the population of Copenhagen, Denmark. In the Framingham cohort, the regression model of Cox established the effect on stroke of the following factors: age, systolic blood pressure, the use of antihypertensive therapy, diabetes mellitus, cigarette smoking, prior cardiovascular disease, atrial fibrillation, and left ventricular hypertrophy. Derived from this model, stroke probabilities were computed for each sex based on a point system. The authors claimed that a physician can use this system for individual stroke prediction. METHODS: The Copenhagen City Heart Study is a prospective survey of 19,698 women and men aged 20 years or older invited to two cardiovascular examinations at 5-year intervals. The baseline examination included 3015 men and 3501 women aged 55 to 84 years; 474 stroke events occurred during 10 years of follow-up. In both cohorts initial cases of stroke and transient ischemic attack recorded during 10 years of follow-up were used. We used the statistical model from the Framingham Study to establish a corresponding stroke probability point system using data from the Copenhagen City Heart Study population. We then compared the effects of the relevant risk factors, their combinations, and the corresponding stroke probabilities. We also assessed stroke events during 10 years of follow-up in several subgroups of the Copenhagen population with different combinations of risk factors. RESULTS: For the Copenhagen City Heart Study population some of the risk factors (diabetes mellitus, cigarette smoking, atrial fibrillation, and left ventricular hypertrophy) had regression coefficients different from those of the Framingham Study population. Consequently, the probability of stroke for persons presenting these risk factors and their combinations varied between the two studies. For some other risk factors (age, blood pressure, and cardiovascular disease), no major differences were found. The recorded frequency of stroke events in subgroups of the Copenhagen population was compatible with the estimated probability intervals of stroke from the Copenhagen City Heart Study and with those from the Framingham Study, but these intervals were very large. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of risk factors for stroke identified by the Framingham Study also had a significant effect in the Copenhagen City Heart Study population. The differences found could be due partly to different definitions of these factors used by the two studies. Although estimated stroke probabilities based on point systems from the Copenhagen City Heart Study and the Framingham Study were similar, the points scored in the two systems did not always correspond to the same combination of risk factors. Such systems can be used for estimating stroke probability in a given population, provided that the statistical confidence limits are known and the definitions of risk factors are compatible. However, because of the large statistical uncertainty, a prognostic index should not be applied for individual prediction unless it is used as an indicator of high relative risk associated with the simultaneous presence of several risk factors.