The analysis of meningococcal strains of different serogroups, isolated from the liquor of patients in Moscow, which was carried out with the method of multilocus sequencing-typing (MLST), was presented. At the periods of epidemic morbidity rises in Moscow the prevalence of group A meningococcal strains, belonging to subgroups III with sequence-types 5 (in the 1970s) and 7 (in 1996), was noted, and at a period between epidemics strains of genetic subgroups VI and X were isolated. Meningococcal strains, groups B and C, isolated in 1995 - 2002, had, as a rule, unique sequence-types, differing both one from another and from N. meningitidis sequence-types detected in other countries. Among group B meningococci the prevalence of strains belonging to clonal complex ST-18 was noted, while for group C meningococcci strains belonging to clonal complex ST-41/44 were most typical. Such genetic variability of circulating meningococci was regarded as characteristic of the period between epidemics, observed in Moscow since the end of the 1980s.
Blood and CSF isolates (n = 629) from Swedish infants up to one year of age were tested in vitro against 13 antimicrobial agents in order to update the guidelines for empiric therapy of septicaemia and meningitis. Ampicillin plus gentamicin provided inadequate empiric therapy for meningitis, due to the poor CSF penetration of the aminoglycoside and the frequent occurrence of bacterial resistance to ampicillin. Ceftazidime and cefuroxime were moderately active, particularly against isolates from small infants. Cefotaxime today seemed to provide the best empiric therapy of septicaemia and meningitis in infants. Because of the occurrence of Listeria and enterococcal infections, ampicillin should initially be added and other combinations are also advisable for the occasional cases of Enterobacter, Citrobacter, Serratia, and Pseudomonas infections. For coagulase-negative staphylococci only vancomycin offered a broad activity (100% at achievable serum levels).
One hundred and sixty-nine blood and cerebrospinal fluid isolates of Haemophilus influenzae, collected in the Province of Ontario from children and adults from 1976 to 1983, were tested for susceptibility to six conventional and eight newer antibacterial drugs. Most active were ceftriaxone, ceftizoxime and cefotaxime (MIC90 less than or equal to 0.02 mg/l); latamoxef (moxalactam), acrosoxacin and ceftazidime were close behind with MIC90s in the 0.05-0.09 mg/l range. Twenty-five strains (14.8%) were beta-lactamase-producing and thus resistant to ampicillin. There were no chloramphenicol-resistant strains. The isolates showed intermediate but still clinically useful susceptibility to trimethoprim, rifampicin, cefuroxime, piperacillin and chloramphenicol and were least susceptible to gentamicin and sulphamethoxazole.
The emergence of ampicillin and chloramphenicol resistant Haemophilus influenzae type b in Denmark has created demands for alternative treatments of serious infections with H. influenzae. In this study 102 strains of H. influenzae recovered from cerebrospinal fluid (85) and blood (17) were tested for susceptibility to ampicillin, piperacillin, erythromycin, rifampicin, chloramphenicol, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, moxalactam, aztreonam, and netilmicin by means of the agar dilution method. The majority (97%) was H. influenzae type b and of these strains 94% belonged to biotype I. Nine of the investigated strains were beta-lactamase producers. Ceftriaxone and cefotaxime were the most active agents (MIC90 less than or equal to 0.025 microliter/ml) followed by moxalactam and aztreonam (MIC90 = 0.1 microgram/ml). Except for ampicillin and piperacillin, the MIC was similar for beta-lactamase producers and non-producers. Several of the investigated antibiotics, especially some of the third generation cephalosporins, might constitute valid therapeutical alternatives to conventional drugs in the treatment of severe H. influenzae infections.
OBJECTIVES: To identify to what degree in-hospital delay of antibiotic therapy correlated to outcome in community acquired bacterial meningitis. METHODS: All cases of culture-positive cerebrospinal fluids in east Denmark from 2002 to 2004 were included. Medical records were collected retrospectively with 98.4% case completeness. Glasgow Outcome Scale was used. Multiple regression outcome analyses included the hypothesised factors: delay of therapy, age, bacterial aetiology, adjuvant steroid therapy, coma at admission and the presence of risk factors. RESULTS: One hundred and eighty seven cases were included. Adult mortality was 33% and the proportion of unfavourable outcome in adults was 52%, which differed significantly from that of children (
A nation-wide survey of the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in Haemophilus influenzae was conducted on isolates collected in 1988-90 from middle ear fluid (MEF), blood, or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in infected children or throat samples of healthy children. Altogether 885 strains were examined regarding capsular type b, beta-lactamase production and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ampicillin, cefaclor, erythromycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for these strains was determined by the agar dilution method. 99% (578/585) of MEF isolates, 93% (112/121) of throat isolates, but only 6% (10/179) of blood/CSF isolates were not of type b (Hib). The rate of beta-lactamase production was 11.4% among Hib strains, 8.0% among non-type b MEF isolates, and 4.5% among non-type b throat isolates. No increase in the prevalence of beta-lactamase production in H. influenzae has taken place in Finland since the early 1980s. Resistance to ampicillin among strains that lacked beta-lactamase activity was rare (0.2%). Of the non-type b MEF and throat isolates, 5.9% and 2.7%, respectively, were resistant to trimethoprim and 3.6% and 2.7%, respectively, to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Resistance to other drugs was rare (