Department of Emergency Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Internal Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with death, end-stage renal disease, and heart failure in patients with coronary heart disease. This study investigated the association between AKI and long-term risk of stroke.
50,244 patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in Sweden between 2000 and 2008 were identified from the SWEDEHEART registry. After exclusions 23,584 patients without prior stroke who underwent elective, primary, isolated, CABG were included. AKI was categorized according to absolute increases in postoperative creatinine values compared with preoperative values: stage 1, 0.3-0.5 mg/dL (26-44 µmol/L); stage 2, 0.5-1.0mg/dL (44-88 µmol/L); and stage 3, >1.0 mg/dL (=88 µmol/L). Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for stroke. There were 1156 (4.9%) strokes during a mean follow-up of 4.1 years. After adjustment for confounders, HRs (95% CIs) for stroke in AKI stages 1, 2 and 3 were 1.12 (0.89-1.39), 1.31 (1.04-1.66) and 1.31 (0.92-1.87), respectively, compared with no AKI. This association disappeared after taking death into account in competing risk analysis. There was a significant association between AKI and stroke in men (HR: 1.26 [1.05-1.50]) but not in women (HR: 1.07 [0.75-1.53]), and in younger (
Patients receiving oral anticoagulants run a higher risk of cerebral hemorrhage with a poor outcome. Serotonin-modulating antidepressants (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors [SSRIs], serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors [SNRIs]) are frequently used in combination with warfarin, but it is unclear whether this combination of drugs influences outcome after primary intracerebral hemorrhage (PICH). The authors investigated case fatality in PICH among patients from a defined population who were receiving warfarin alone, with aspirin, or with serotonin-modulating antidepressants.
Nine hundred eighty-two subjects with PICH were derived from the population of Northern Ostrobothnia, Finland, for the years 1993-2008, and those with warfarin-associated PICH were eligible for analysis. Their hospital records were reviewed, and medication data were obtained from the national register of prescribed medicines. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were drawn to illustrate cumulative case fatality, and a Cox proportional-hazards analysis was performed to demonstrate predictors of death.
Of the 176 patients eligible for analysis, 17 had been taking aspirin and 19 had been taking SSRI/SNRI together with warfarin. The 30-day case fatality rates were 50.7%, 58.8%, and 78.9%, respectively, for those taking warfarin alone, with aspirin, or with SSRI/SNRI (p = 0.033, warfarin plus SSRI/SNRI compared with warfarin alone). Warfarin combined with SSRI/SNRI was a significant independent predictor of case fatality (adjusted HR 2.10, 95% CI 1.13-3.92, p = 0.019).
Concurrent use of warfarin and a serotonin-modulating antidepressant, relative to warfarin alone, seemed to increase the case fatality rate for PICH. This finding should be taken into account if hematoma evacuation is planned.
The Turku Stroke Register included stroke events at all ages during the years 1982-1992. The incidence of stroke declined in all age groups, even in the oldest one. An even steeper decline was observed in mortality from stroke. Ischemic strokes contributed most to the observed decline, while subarachnoid and intracerebral hemorrhage showed mainly flat trends. Flat trends were also observed for recurrent strokes. The absolute number of strokes remained stable through the study years, but the population above 75 years of age doubled. More than half of the strokes occurred in people aged 75 years or older, and three fourths of them occurred in women. The incidence and mortality rate of ischemic stroke declined steeply in all age groups. Due to an increase in elderly people in the background population, the total number of strokes remained stable. Thus, in spite of the observed declining trends in incidence, the need for stroke care has not diminished.
The prognostic impact of preadmission use of calcium channel blockers (CCBs) and beta blockers (BBs) on stroke mortality remains unclear. We aimed to examine whether preadmission use of CCBs or BBs was associated with improved short-term mortality following ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), or subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH).
We conducted a nationwide population-based cohort study using Danish medical registries. We identified all patients with a first-time inpatient diagnosis of stroke between 2004 and 2012 and their comorbidities. We defined CCB/BB use as current use, former use, or non-use. Current use was further classified as new or long-term use. We used Cox regression modeling to compute 30-day mortality rate ratios (MRRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), controlling for potential confounders.
We identified 100,043 patients with a first-time stroke. Of these, 83,736 (83.7%) patients had ischemic stroke, 11,779 (11.8%) had ICH, and 4,528 (4.5%) had SAH. Comparing current users of CCBs or BBs with non-users, we found no association with mortality for ischemic stroke [adjusted 30-day MRR?=?0.99 (95% CI: 0.94-1.05) for CCBs and 1.01 (95% CI: 0.96-1.07) for BBs], ICH [adjusted 30-day MRR?=?1.05 (95% CI: 0.95-1.16) for CCBs and 0.95 (95% CI: 0.87-1.04) for BBs], or SAH [adjusted 30-day MRR?=?1.05 (95% CI: 0.85-1.29) for CCBs and 0.89 (95% CI: 0.72-1.11) for BBs]. Former use of CCBs or BBs was not associated with mortality.
Preadmission use of CCBs or BBs was not associated with 30-day mortality following ischemic stroke, ICH, or SAH.
Newer Scandinavian data on intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) are scarce. We aimed at providing updated community-based data on the incidence, characteristics and outcome of ICH leading to hospitalization in the southernmost region in Norway.
We analyzed data from all consecutive patients hospitalized with a first-ever ICH in the five-year period 2005-2009 in a well-defined area served by one single hospital. Cases were found by computerized search in a register covering all in- and outpatients.
Adjusted to the standard European population the annual incidence rate per 100,000 was 16.9 for men, 8.8 for women (p
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Whether physical activity reduces stroke risk remains controversial. We used a meta-analysis to examine the overall association between physical activity or cardiorespiratory fitness and stroke incidence or mortality. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE from 1966 to 2002 and identified 23 studies (18 cohort and 5 case-control) that met inclusion criteria. We estimated the overall relative risk (RR) of stroke incidence or mortality for highly and moderately active individuals versus individuals with low levels of activity using the general variance-based method. RESULTS: The meta-analysis documented that there was a reduction in stroke risk for active or fit individuals compared with inactive or unfit persons in cohort, case-control, and both study types combined. For cohort studies, highly active individuals had a 25% lower risk of stroke incidence or mortality (RR=0.75; 95% CI, 0.69 to 0.82) compared with low-active individuals. For case-control studies, highly active individuals had a 64% lower risk of stroke incidence (RR=0.36; 95% CI, 0.25 to 0.52) than their low-active counterparts. When we combined both the cohort and case-control studies, highly active individuals had a 27% lower risk of stroke incidence or mortality (RR=0.73; 95% CI, 0.67 to 0.79) than did low-active individuals. We observed similar results in moderately active individuals compared with inactive persons (RRs were 0.83 for cohort, 0.52 for case-control, and 0.80 for both combined). Furthermore, moderately and highly active individuals had lower risk of both ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes than low-active individuals. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that moderate and high levels of physical activity are associated with reduced risk of total, ischemic, and hemorrhagic strokes.
Studies on the temporal variation in stroke incidence have reported inconsistent results. Few have studied the temporal variations in case fatality. No study on incidence and case fatality of stroke by season in Sweden has been found. This study explores the weekly, monthly and seasonal variations in incidence and 28-day case fatality of stroke.
A total of 7,129 patients with first-ever stroke during the period 1989-1999 were retrieved from the Stroke Register of Malmo, Sweden. chi(2) test was performed to test the seasonal differences and Poisson regression analysis was used to calculate the case fatality ratios adjusted for sex and age.
The stroke cases were on the whole randomly distributed over the study period of 4,017 days. Incidence of all types of stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage showed no variation by season, month or weekday, but incidence of cerebral infarction for the total population was higher in autumn and winter. Twenty-eight-day case fatality (930 fatal events, 13%) clustered significantly over the study period. Winter emerged as the peak season among men (12.5%), women (17.2%) and total population (15.1%). No consistent variation of incidence and case fatality of stroke by month or weekday was found.
Case fatality after stroke demonstrates a seasonal variation with a peak in winter. Incidence of stroke showed no consistent association with season, month or weekday.
The age-standardized incidence of stroke has decreased globally but, for reasons unknown, conflicting results have been observed regarding trend in incidence of major stroke subtypes in young adults. We studied these trends among people of working age in a population-based setting in Finland, where cardiovascular risk factor profiles have developed favorably.
All hospitalizations for stroke in 2004-2005 and 2013-2014 for persons 18-64 years of age were identified from a national register. The search included all hospitals that provide acute stroke care on mainland Finland.
Hospitalizations for both intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH; -15.2%; p = 0.0008) and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH; -26.5%; p