A survey was carried out on the activity concentrations of (210)Pb and (210)Po in cereal grains produced in Finland. The cereal species were wheat (Triticum aestivum), rye (Secale cereale), oats (Avena sativa) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), which account for 90% of the Finnish consumption of cereal products. The survey consisted of 18 flour and 13 unprocessed cereal samples and one hulled grain sample from 22 flour mills. According to the results, the mean (210)Pb/(210)Po concentrations in wheat grains, wheat flour, rye flour, oat grains and barley grains were 0.29, 0.12, 0.29, 0.36 and 0.36 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Combined with the consumption rates of the products, we assess that the mean effective doses from (210)Pb and (210)Po in cereal products for the adult male and female population are 22 and 17 µSv per year, respectively.
Alkylresorcinols (AR) have been established as short/medium-term biomarkers for whole grain (WG) wheat and rye intake; and AR metabolites, 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid and 3-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-propanoic acid, have been suggested as complementary biomarkers to AR. The present study examined the medium-term reproducibility and relative validity of urinary AR metabolites as biomarkers for WG and cereal fibre intake. A total of sixty-six free-living Swedes completed 3 d weighed food records and provided single 24 h urine collections and morning urine spot samples on two occasions, 2-3 months apart. The medium-term reproducibility of urinary AR metabolites was moderate when assessed in 24 h collections and lower in creatinine (CR)-adjusted morning urine. Mean AR metabolite 24 h excretions correlated well with total WG (r(s) 0·31-0·52, P
The alkylresorcinol (AR) content and relative homologue composition were determined in 9 Latvian and 11 Finnish soft breads. ARs were extracted with hot 1-propanol and quantified, using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method. The total AR content (µg/g dry matter) varied from 560 to 840 in rye breads, from 500 to 700 in Finnish mixed rye and wheat flour breads, from 200 to 300 in Latvian mixed rye and wheat flour breads and from 25 to 30 in white wheat breads. Rye and white wheat breads in the two countries varied only slightly in AR content, but there were wide variations in AR content in mixed flour breads. The AR contents in soft breads could be indicators of bran or fibre content, but not of whole-grain flour content.
Alternaria alternata has been reported to be the most common fungus on Canadian Western wheat. The Alternaria toxins alternariol (AOH) and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) are mutagenic in vitro and there is also limited evidence for carcinogenic properties. They have been found in wheat from Europe, Argentina, China and Australia, but they have not been looked for in Canadian grains or grain foods. In the present study, 83 samples of grain-based food sold in Canada, including flour, bran, breakfast cereals, infant cereals and bread, were analysed for AOH and AME using extraction with methanol, clean-up on combined aminopropyl/C18 solid phase extraction (SPE) columns, and liquid chromatography (LC) with tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) determination. The overall average recoveries of AOH and AME from a variety of spiked cereal foods (n?=?13) were 45?±?9% and 53?±?9%, which could be attributed mainly to MS matrix effects The instrumental limits of detection (LOD) were 0.34 ng/g and 0.13 ng/g for AOH and AME, respectively, and the instrumental limits of quantitation (LOQ) were 1.1 and 0.43 ng/g. Of 83 samples analysed, 70 were positive for AOH (up to 63 ng/g, in a soft wheat bran) and 64 contained AME (up to 12 ng/g in a bran-based breakfast cereal). Of particular interest was the presence of AOH and/or AME in 27 out of 30 infant foods (up to 4.4 ng/g and 9.0 ng/g, respectively, in a sample of multigrain cereal).
The levels of aluminium have been determined in a number of individual foodstuffs on the Swedish market and in 24 h duplicate diets collected by women living in the Stockholm area. The results show that the levels in most foods are very low and that the level in vegetables can vary by a factor 10. Beverages from aluminium cans were found to have aluminium levels not markedly different from those in glass bottles. Based on the results of the analysis of individual foods, the average Swedish daily diet was calculated to contain about 0.6 mg aluminium, whereas the mean content of the collected duplicate diets was 13 mg. A cake made from a mix containing aluminium phosphate in the baking soda was identified as the most important contributor of aluminium to the duplicate diets. Tea and aluminium utensils were estimated to increase the aluminium content of the diets by approximately 4 and 2 mg/day, respectively. The results also indicate that a considerable amount of aluminium must be introduced from other sources.
Analytical methods are generally developed and optimized for specific commodities. Total Diet Studies, representing typical food products 'as consumed', pose an analytical challenge since every food product is different. In order to address this technical challenge, a selective and sensitive analytical method was developed suitable for the quantitation of ochratoxin A (OTA) in Canadian Total Diet Study composites. The method uses an acidified solvent extraction, an immunoaffinity column (IAC) for clean-up, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for identification and quantification, and a uniformly stable isotope-labelled OTA (U-[(13)C(20)]-OTA) as an internal recovery standard. Results are corrected for this standard. The method is accurate (101% average recovery) and precise (5.5% relative standard deviation (RSD)) based on 17 duplicate analysis of various food products over 2 years. A total of 140 diet composites were analysed for OTA as part of the Canadian Total Diet Study. Samples were collected at retail level from two Canadian cities, Quebec City and Calgary, in 2008 and 2009, respectively. The results indicate that 73% (102/140) of the samples had detectable levels of OTA, with some of the highest levels of OTA contamination found in the Canadian bread supply.
Barley husks, rye bran, and a fiber residue from oat milk production were processed by heat pretreatment, various separation steps, and treatment with an endoxylanase in order to improve the prebiotic potential of these cereal byproducts. Metabolic functions were intended to improve along with improved microbial activity. The products obtained were included in a high-fat mouse diet so that all diets contained 5% dietary fiber. In addition, high-fat and low-fat controls as well as partially hydrolyzed guar gum were included in the study. The soluble fiber product obtained from rye bran caused a significant increase in the bifidobacteria (log copies of 16S rRNA genes; median (25-75 percentile): 6.38 (6.04-6.66) and 7.47 (7.30-7.74), respectively; p
Cereal grains and their products provide around 30% of total energy intake in British adults, (much more than any of the other major food groups). Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the largest single cause of death in Britain and many other Western countries. This review examines the question whether there is a relation between cereal consumption and CHD. Several of the nutrients in cereals have known potential for reducing risk factors for CHD: the linoleic acid, fibre, vitamin E, selenium and folate. Cereals also contain phytoestrogens of the lignan family and several phenolic acids with antioxidant properties. Processing generally reduces the content of these nutrients and bioprotective substances. Although cereals at the farm gate are very low in salt, processed cereal foods, eg bread and some breakfast cereals, are high-salt foods and thus could contribute to raising blood pressure. Human experiments have clearly shown that oat fibre tends to lower plasma total and LDL cholesterol but wheat fibre does not. Rice bran and barley may also lower cholesterol but most people do not eat enough barley to have an effect. Cereal foods with low glycaemic index such as pasta and oats are beneficial for people with diabetes and might lower plasma lipids. Between 1996 and 2001 an accumulation of five very large cohort studies in the USA, Finland and Norway have all reported that subjects consuming relatively large amounts of whole grain cereals have significantly lower rates of CHD. This confirms an earlier report from a small British cohort. The protective effect does not seem to be due to cholesterol-lowering. While cohort studies have shown this consistent protective effect of whole grain cereals, there has been (only one) randomised controlled secondary prevention trial of advice to eat more cereal fibre. In this there was no reduction of the rate of reinfarction. The trial had some weaknesses, eg there were eight different diets, compliance was not checked objectively, and duration was for only 2 y. It appears valid to make health claims (as now permitted by the US FDA) that whole grain cereal foods and oat meal or bran may reduce the risk of CHD.
The major storage proteins from six rye varieties, grown under the same conditions in 1997 and 1998 in Rønhave, Denmark, were analyzed by two-dimensional (2-D) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The proteins were extracted from ground rye kernels with 70% ethanol and separated by 2-D electrophoresis. The gels were scanned, compared using ImageMaster software and the data sets were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) using THE UNSCRAMBLER software. Afterwards MATLAB was used to make a cluster analysis of the varieties based on PCA. The analysis of the gels showed, that the protein patterns (number of different proteins and their isoelectric points and molecular weights) from the six rye varieties were different. Based on the presence of unique cultivar-specific spots it was possible to differentiate between all six varieties if the two harvest years were investigated separately. When the results were combined from the two years five varieties could be differentiated. The results from the PCA confirmed the finding of the unique spots and cluster analysis was made in order to illustrate the results. The combination of the results from 2-D electrophoresis and other grain characteristics showed that one protein spot was located close to the parameters bread volume and bread height.
The aim of the study is to evaluate the potential cumulative effects of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides that act through a common mechanism of toxicity, and to assess the long- and short-term risks for the Danish population. The intake estimates are based on dietary intake data collected in the Danish nation-wide food consumption survey in 1995. The pesticide data are based on the Danish pesticide residue-monitoring programme from 1996-2001. The amount of 35 organophosphorus pesticides and carbamates were included in the cumulative risk assessment. Processing factors, such as reduction of pesticide levels by rinsing and peeling, were applied in the exposure assessment. The "Toxicity Equivalence Factor" (TEF) approach was used to normalise the toxicity of the different organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides. Cumulative chronic exposure of organophosphorus and carbamates pesticides via fruit, vegetables and cereals is for adults 0.8-2% of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) in chlorpyrifos equivalents, and 0.03-11% of the ADI in methamidophos equivalents; and for children 2-5% of the ADI in the chlorpyrifos equivalents, and 0.07-27% of the ADI in methamidophos equivalents. Neither Acute Reference Dose (ARfD) nor ADI was exceeded for any of the compounds studied. The results indicate that the Danish population is neither exposed to any cumulative chronic risk, nor at risk of acute exposure, from consumption of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides from fruit, vegetables and cereals.