The cDNA sequence and serological data for HLA-B73 are reported. Anti-B73 sera are found relatively frequently, considering the rarity of the antigen. It was noted early that in some cases the antibodies in sera of multiparous women did not react with the eliciting cells (fathers) and thus all behaved as a naturally occurring antibody. We report on 18 B73 antisera found during the screening of 55,000 Danish sera. Only one of the 17 stimulators typed also had the B73 tissue type. Ten of the stimulators had antigens from the B7 CREG (B7, B22, B27, B42, B67, B73), whereas none of the responders had such tissue types. In seven cases the serum was not able to react with the stimulator's lymphocytes in a cytotoxicity assay and in four cases the stimulator lymphocytes could not deplete the anti-B73 activity from the serum in absorption experiments. The cDNA of B73 was expressed correctly in COS cells and was recognized on the cell surface by a monospecific serum. The alpha 1 alpha 2 domains of B73 are most similar to those of the HLA-B22 family. Interestingly, the alpha 3 and transmembrane domains of HLA-B73 are not standard human domains, but are most similar to the corresponding domains of some gorilla and chimpanzee HLA-B genes.
Recent studies have shown that in developed countries rotaviruses are the single most important etiologic agents of acute gastroenteritis that requires hospitalization of infants and young children. Although deaths from gastroenteritis are, in general, infrequent in the developed countries, an effective rotavirus vaccine would clearly be of benefit to reduce the heavy toll of morbidity from gastroenteritis due to rotavirus. In the developing countries the impact of diarrheal diseases is staggering. It was recently estimated that in Asia, Africa, and Latin-America during a one-year period there would be 3.5 billion cases of diarrhea and 5-10 million deaths associated with diarrhea; in addition, diarrhea was ranked first in freqency in the categories of disease and mortality. In the developing countries rotaviruses are known to cause diarrhea, but their relative role in this high mortality rate is not yet known. epidemiologic data indicate that development of an effective rotavirus vaccine would reduce morbidity, and they suggest that a vaccine would also reduce a portion of the mortality from diarrheal disease. The prospects and approaches for the development of an effective rotavirus vaccine are presented. The recent successful propagation of rotavirus type 2 in cell culture represents an important step in this regard. In addition, the antigenic relation between human and animal strains offers another possible approach. The need for a live attenuated vaccine is indicated by the prime role played by local intestinal immunity in resistance to rotavirus disease.
The subcellular localization of topoisomerase I and topoisomerase II has been compared in Simian virus (SV40)-infected and uninfected TC7 monkey cells. In SV40-infected cells, both of these enzymes are preferentially associated with the chromatin. Some topoisomerase I is associated with the nuclear matrix, whereas topoisomerase II shows no such association. In uninfected TC7 cells, topoisomerase I is present in both the chromatin and nuclear matrix fractions. Topoisomerase II, on the other hand, is not detected in any of the subcellular fractions of uninfected cells. After SV40 infection, there is a marked increase in the level of chromatin-associated topoisomerase II.
Two spotted fever group rickettsia strains, A-108 and A-167, were isolated from the hemolymph of Rhipicephalus pumilio ticks collected in the Astrakhan region of Russia, which is area endemic for Astrakhan fever. These tick isolates were compared with a strain isolated from a patient suffering from Astrakhan fever and with reference spotted fever group rickettsiae strains. New tick isolates and the human strain were identical in their serologic, antigenic, and genetic characteristics by several methods: microimmunofluorescence, protein gel electrophoresis with immunoblotting, polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction endonuclease fragment length polymorphism analysis, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Astrakhan fever rickettsiae were found to be serologically and antigenically similar to Israeli spotted fever rickettsiae. Both of them probably belong to a single Rickettsia conorii pathotype complex. Only PFGE pattern analysis could clearly discriminate Astrakhan fever rickettsiae from other isolates.
Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified gene fragments was used to characterize 24 isolates of spotted fever group rickettsiae previously identified as Rickettsia sibirica from their serologic properties. These strains were obtained in Russia between 1946 and 1991 from humans and different species of Ixodid ticks. The RFLP analysis was performed using amplified DNA products obtained with a genus-specific primer pair derived from the R. prowazekii citrate synthase gene and two group-specific primer pairs from the R. rickettsii 190-kD and 120-kD surface protein antigen genes followed by Alu I, Pst I, and Rsa I restriction endonuclease digestions. Although some differences were detected in biological characteristics among the examined strains, only a single R. sibirica genotype was found with these molecular tools of identification.
The clinical relevance of Campylobacter concisus in gastrointestinal disease has not been determined definitively. This study investigated the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of 39 C. concisus isolates from Danish patients with diarrhoea, three isolates from healthy individuals and the type strain. A cytolethal distending toxin (CDT)-like effect on Vero cells was observed in 35 (90%) isolates from patients with diarrhoea, in all three isolates from healthy individuals and in the type strain. Analysis of SDS-PAGE protein profiles and PCR amplification of 23S rDNA assigned the isolates into two distinct, but discordant groups. Automated ribotyping (RiboPrinting) identified 34 distinct patterns among the 43 isolates, but cluster analysis did not separate isolates from patients with diarrhoea from isolates from healthy patients. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis with three primers identified 37 unique profiles, but requires further evaluation. The isolates obtained from healthy carriers were distinguished by cluster analysis from the isolates obtained from patients with diarrhoea. All the isolates were susceptible to 11 antimicrobial agents tested. Overall, there was considerable variability between the C. concisus isolates, but there were no clear phenotypic or genotypic differences between isolates from patients with diarrhoea and isolates from healthy carriers. Further evidence is needed to support the possible role of C. concisus as a human enteric pathogen.
Three enterotoxic components have been isolated from a strain of Bacillus cereus which was involved in a large food poisoning outbreak in Norway in 1995. The components were purified by chromatography on three different columns. Three proteins of 39, 45 and 105 kDa, respectively, were found to be necessary for maximum cytotoxicity. The amino acid N-terminal sequences of the 39 and 45 kDa proteins were determined. The 45 kDa component was the same protein as the main antigen detected in the Bacillus Diarrhoeal Enterotoxin Visual Immunoassay (Tecra). The 39 kDa protein showed some similarity to the L1 protein of haemolysin BL from B. cereus. Furthermore, the three toxic components were all recognised by a polyclonal antiserum reported to detect enterotoxin from B. cereus. The proteins were different from the B- and L2-components of haemolysin BL, previously suggested to be a primary virulence factor, and had no detectable haemolytic activity.
Two strains of parotitis virus were isolated from patients with clinical symptoms of the disease in epidemiological screening which was carried out during an outbreak of epidemic parotitis in the village of Koltsovo in 1994. The strains were isolated from the saliva of children aged 7 and 8 years vaccinated with live parotitis vaccine at the age of 1.5 years. Primers for the genome site coding for the gene F terminal and the SH gene (a total of 509 n. p.) were estimated and synthesized and the site was amplified. Electron-microscopic examination of purified virus and Vero cells infected with it and serological tests showed a similarity of the newly isolated virus with the Anders strain of parotitis virus. The Dragun-1 and Dragun-2 strains of parotitis virus have been deposited in the collection of viruses at the Vektor State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology in the village of Koltsovo, Novosibirsk district.
Viruses of the tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) antigenic complex, within the family Flaviviridae, cause a variety of diseases including uncomplicated febrile illness, encephalitis, meningo-encephalitis, hemorrhagic fever and chronic disease in humans, domesticated animals or wildlife species. TBE is a serious problem in Latvia with up to a 1,000 patients confirmed serologically annually 1994-1995. No previous data had been reported on the causative agent of TBE in Latvia. In the present study, a virus was isolated from serum of a patient with clinical symptoms of an acute TBE infection. Nucleotide sequence information obtained by direct reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and the serological characteristics of the isolated virus strain, designated TBE-Latvia-1-96, indicated a closer relationship to the Vasilchenko strain, isolated in Novosibirsk (Siberia, Russia), as compared to the western European or far eastern subtypes of TBE viruses. In a mouse neurovirulence assay, a significant difference in survival rates (days) was shown between Latvia-1-96 and the western European TBE virus subtype.