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Achieving a public health recommendation for preventing neural tube defects with folic acid.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature200166
Source
Am J Public Health. 1999 Nov;89(11):1637-40
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-1999
Author
M M Werler
C. Louik
A A Mitchell
Author Affiliation
Slone Epidemiology Unit, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Mass., USA. mwerler@slone.bu.edu
Source
Am J Public Health. 1999 Nov;89(11):1637-40
Date
Nov-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Boston - epidemiology
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.)
Female
Folic Acid - administration & dosage - therapeutic use
Food, Fortified
Guidelines as Topic
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Hematinics - administration & dosage - therapeutic use
Humans
Male
Neural Tube Defects - epidemiology - prevention & control
Ontario - epidemiology
Philadelphia - epidemiology
Population Surveillance
Preconception Care - methods
Public Health
United States
Abstract
This study examined 3 approaches to achieving the public health recommendation that all women of child-bearing age ingest 0.40 mg of folic acid per day to reduce the occurrence of neural tube defects (NTDs).
A total of 1136 mothers of infants with major malformations from the Boston and Philadelphia areas, whose pregnancies began from 1993 to 1995, were interviewed within 6 months of delivery about vitamin supplementation, dietary intakes, and other factors.
Seventy-one percent of the 1136 women in the study did not take folic acid--containing supplements daily before conception, but the proportion decreased over the years of the study. Women not taking supplements consumed an average of 0.25 mg of naturally occurring folates daily. On the basis of dietary intakes reported by women not taking folic acid supplements, a simulation of cereal grain fortification with folic acid at the level required by the US Food and Drug Administration showed that an average of only 0.13 mg of folic acid would be ingested daily.
With consumption of folic acid only through dietary intake, sizeable portions of the childbearing population would receive less than the level of folic acid recommended for preventing NTDs. Even with food fortification, women of childbearing age should be advised to take folic acid--containing supplements on a daily basis.
Notes
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Cites: JAMA. 1988 Dec 2;260(21):3141-53184392
Cites: Am J Clin Nutr. 1989 Aug;50(2):353-82667316
Cites: JAMA. 1989 Nov 24;262(20):2847-522478730
Cites: N Engl J Med. 1992 Dec 24;327(26):1832-51307234
Cites: JAMA. 1993 Mar 10;269(10):1257-618437302
Cites: JAMA. 1997 Feb 19;277(7):548-529032161
Cites: Epidemiology. 1995 May;6(3):205-77619922
Cites: Lancet. 1995 Aug 12;346(8972):393-67623568
Cites: JAMA. 1995 Dec 6;274(21):1698-7027474275
Cites: Lancet. 1996 Mar 9;347(9002):657-98596381
Cites: Pediatrics. 1996 Nov;98(5):911-78909485
Cites: BMJ. 1993 Jun 19;306(6893):1645-88324432
PubMed ID
10553381 View in PubMed
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Advancing HIV/AIDS prevention among American Indians through capacity building and the community readiness model.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature166148
Source
J Public Health Manag Pract. 2007 Jan;Suppl:S49-54
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2007
Author
Pamela Jumper Thurman
Irene S Vernon
Barbara Plested
Author Affiliation
Center for Applied Studies in American Ethnicity, Colorado State University, Ft Collins 80523, USA. pjthurman@aol.com
Source
J Public Health Manag Pract. 2007 Jan;Suppl:S49-54
Date
Jan-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.)
Community Health Planning - organization & administration
Cultural Diversity
Evidence-Based Medicine
Financing, Government
HIV Infections - ethnology - prevention & control
Health Behavior - ethnology
Health Planning Technical Assistance
Health Services, Indigenous - organization & administration
Humans
Indians, North American - education
Models, organizational
Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care)
Preventive Health Services - organization & administration
Public Health Administration
Social Marketing
United States - epidemiology
Abstract
Although HIV/AIDS prevention has presented challenges over the past 25 years, prevention does work! To be most effective, however, prevention must be specific to the culture and the nature of the community. Building the capacity of a community for prevention efforts is not an easy process. If capacity is to be sustained, it must be practical and utilize the resources that already exist in the community. Attitudes vary across communities; resources vary, political climates are constantly varied and changing. Communities are fluid-always changing, adapting, growing. They are "ready" for different things at different times. Readiness is a key issue! This article presents a model that has experienced a high level of success in building community capacity for effective prevention/intervention for HIV/AIDS and offers case studies for review. The Community Readiness Model provides both quantitative and qualitative information in a user-friendly structure that guides a community through the process of understanding the importance of the measure of readiness. The model identifies readiness- appropriate strategies, provides readiness scores for evaluation, and most important, involves community stakeholders in the process. The article will demonstrate the importance of developing strategies consistent with readiness levels for more cost-effective and successful prevention efforts.
PubMed ID
17159467 View in PubMed
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Advancing infection control in dental care settings: factors associated with dentists' implementation of guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature120263
Source
J Am Dent Assoc. 2012 Oct;143(10):1127-38
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2012
Author
Jennifer L Cleveland
Arthur J Bonito
Tammy J Corley
Misty Foster
Laurie Barker
G. Gordon Brown
Nancy Lenfestey
Linda Lux
Author Affiliation
Division of Oral Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, MS F-10, 4770 Buford Highway, Atlanta, Ga. 30341, USA. JLCleveland@cdc.gov
Source
J Am Dent Assoc. 2012 Oct;143(10):1127-38
Date
Oct-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Administrative Personnel
Canada
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.)
Dental Instruments
Dentist's Practice Patterns - statistics & numerical data
Education, Dental, Continuing
Female
Guideline Adherence
Guidelines as Topic
Health Plan Implementation
Humans
Infection Control, Dental - methods - standards - statistics & numerical data
Male
Middle Aged
Needlestick Injuries - prevention & control
Questionnaires
United States
United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration
Water Microbiology
Abstract
The authors set out to identify factors associated with implementation by U.S. dentists of four practices first recommended in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Guidelines for Infection Control in Dental Health-Care Settings-2003.
In 2008, the authors surveyed a stratified random sample of 6,825 U.S. dentists. The response rate was 49 percent. The authors gathered data regarding dentists' demographic and practice characteristics, attitudes toward infection control, sources of instruction regarding the guidelines and knowledge about the need to use sterile water for surgical procedures. Then they assessed the impact of those factors on the implementation of four recommendations: having an infection control coordinator, maintaining dental unit water quality, documenting percutaneous injuries and using safer medical devices, such as safer syringes and scalpels. The authors conducted bivariate analyses and proportional odds modeling.
Responding dentists in 34 percent of practices had implemented none or one of the four recommendations, 40 percent had implemented two of the recommendations and 26 percent had implemented three or four of the recommendations. The likelihood of implementation was higher among dentists who acknowledged the importance of infection control, had practiced dentistry for less than 30 years, had received more continuing dental education credits in infection control, correctly identified more surgical procedures that require the use of sterile water, worked in larger practices and had at least three sources of instruction regarding the guidelines. Dentists with practices in the South Atlantic, Middle Atlantic or East South Central U.S. Census divisions were less likely to have complied.
Implementation of the four recommendations varied among U.S. dentists. Strategies targeted at raising awareness of the importance of infection control, increasing continuing education requirements and developing multiple modes of instruction may increase implementation of current and future Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines.
Notes
Erratum In: J Am Dent Assoc. 2012 Dec;143(12):1289
PubMed ID
23024311 View in PubMed
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AIDS incidence rates in Europe and the United States.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature7962
Source
AIDS. 1994 Aug;8(8):1173-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1994
Author
S. Franceschi
L. Dal Maso
C. La Vecchia
E. Negri
D. Serraino
Author Affiliation
Servizio di Epidemiologia, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico, Aviano, Italy.
Source
AIDS. 1994 Aug;8(8):1173-7
Date
Aug-1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome - epidemiology
Age Factors
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.)
Comparative Study
Europe - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Incidence
Information Systems
Male
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sex Factors
Time Factors
United States - epidemiology
World Health Organization
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To facilitate the quantitative comparison of AIDS incidence statistics between countries and with other diseases using statistics based on age-standardized incidence rates instead of absolute number of cases. DESIGN: AIDS incidence rates for 19 countries belonging to the World Health Organization (WHO) European region, and for comparative purposes, the United States. METHODS: Incidence rates were standardized using the world standard population for all ages, from 1985 to 1992. The data were derived from the WHO European Non-Aggregate AIDS Dataset and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) AIDS Public Information Dataset, adjusted for reporting delays in each country. RESULTS: The AIDS incidence rate for men (81 in 1,000,000) in the United States was fourfold higher than the highest rate in a European country (Switzerland) in 1985; incidence rates in all other European countries, except France and Denmark, were below 10 in 1,000,000. Subsequently, AIDS incidence has increased more rapidly in southern Europe than in the rest of the continent. The estimated incidence rate for men in Spain (243 in 1,000,000) approached that in the United States (304 in 1,000,000) in 1992, and three additional countries (France, Switzerland and Italy) showed rates above 100 per million. The spread of the AIDS epidemic among women in some southern European countries was faster than in the United States. In Switzerland and Spain the standardized incidence rates in women were higher than in the United States by 1988 and 1992, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis trends in incidence rates avoids some weaknesses of AIDS statistics based on absolute numbers, and should become one of the standard tools for AIDS surveillance.
PubMed ID
7986418 View in PubMed
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Analysis of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for the eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome in a geographically defined population.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature210964
Source
J Rheumatol Suppl. 1996 Oct;46:73-9; discussion 79-80
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-1996
Author
W O Spitzer
J L Haggerty
L. Berkson
W. Davis
W. Palmer
R. Tamblyn
R. Laprise
L J Mulder
Author Affiliation
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.
Source
J Rheumatol Suppl. 1996 Oct;46:73-9; discussion 79-80
Date
Oct-1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.)
Eosinophilia-Myalgia Syndrome - diagnosis - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Ontario
Patient Selection
Prevalence
Quebec
Tryptophan - therapeutic use
United States
Abstract
To test whether individuals can be identified in a geographically defined population who would meet criteria for the eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome (EMS) established by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), i.e, (1) eosinophil count > 1 x 10(9)/l, (2) myalgia severe enough to limit usual activities of daily living, and (3) no evidence of infection or neoplasm that could explain the first 2 findings.
To discover the number of individuals who would meet CDC criteria, the population was exhaustively searched using methods adapted from active pharmacoepidemiologic surveillance. Medical consultants and primary care practitioners were questioned as many as 5 times in a search for patients with severe myalgia. A predetermined protocol was used to screen those patients who appeared to meet CDC criteria for EMS using active surveillance methods. The study population was limited to Québec and Ontario (combined population 18,980,000) with special attention to the period July 1, 1992, to June 30, 1993.
The prevalence of severe incapacitating myalgia was 43 per 100,000 persons, including 19 individuals with eosinophilia > 1 x 10(9)/l, who met CDC criteria for EMS. None of these individuals were reported to have taken L-tryptophan (LT).
The CDC criteria for EMS are met by individuals in the general population who have never been exposed to LT.
PubMed ID
8895183 View in PubMed
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Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, 1975-2001, with a special feature regarding survival.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature3895
Source
Cancer. 2004 Jul 1;101(1):3-27
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1-2004
Author
Ahmedin Jemal
Limin X Clegg
Elizabeth Ward
Lynn A G Ries
Xiaocheng Wu
Patricia M Jamison
Phyllis A Wingo
Holly L Howe
Robert N Anderson
Brenda K Edwards
Author Affiliation
Epidemiology and Surveillance Research Department, American Cancer Society, 1599 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA. ajemal@cancer.org
Source
Cancer. 2004 Jul 1;101(1):3-27
Date
Jul-1-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
American Cancer Society
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.)
Continental Population Groups
Female
Humans
Incidence
Male
Neoplasms - epidemiology - mortality
Registries
SEER Program
Survival Rate
United States
Abstract
BACKGROUND: The American Cancer Society (ACS), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the National Cancer Institute (NCI), and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACCR) collaborate annually to provide updated information regarding cancer occurrence and trends in the U.S. This year's report features a special section on cancer survival. METHODS: Information concerning cancer cases was obtained from the NCI, CDC, and NAACCR and information concerning recorded cancer deaths was obtained from the CDC. The authors evaluated trends in age-adjusted cancer incidence and death rates by regression models and described and compared survival rates over time and across racial/ethnic populations. RESULTS: Incidence rates for all cancers combined decreased from 1991 through 2001, but stabilized from 1995 through 2001 when adjusted for delay in reporting. The incidence rates for female lung cancer decreased (although not statistically significant for delay adjusted) and mortality leveled off for the first time after increasing for many decades. Colorectal cancer incidence rates also decreased. Death rates decreased for all cancers combined (1.1% per year since 1993) and for many of the top 15 cancers occurring in men and women. The 5-year relative survival rates improved for all cancers combined and for most, but not all, cancers over 2 diagnostic periods (1975-1979 and 1995-2000). However, cancer-specific survival rates were lower and the risk of dying from cancer, once diagnosed, was higher in most minority populations compared with the white population. The relative risk of death from all cancers combined in each racial and ethnic population compared with non-Hispanic white men and women ranged from 1.16 in Hispanic white men to 1.69 in American Indian/Alaska Native men, with the exception of Asian/Pacific Islander women, whose risk of 1.01 was similar to that of non-Hispanic white women. CONCLUSIONS: The continued measurable declines for overall cancer death rates and for many of the top 15 cancers, along with improved survival rates, reflect progress in the prevention, early detection, and treatment of cancer. However, racial and ethnic disparities in survival and the risk of death from cancer, and geographic variation in stage distributions suggest that not all segments of the U.S. population have benefited equally from such advances.
PubMed ID
15221985 View in PubMed
Less detail
Source
J Can Dent Assoc. 2003 May;69(5):286-91
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2003
Author
Steven M Levy
Author Affiliation
College of Dentistry, University of Iowa, Preventive and Community Dentistry, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA. steven-levy@uiowa.edu
Source
J Can Dent Assoc. 2003 May;69(5):286-91
Date
May-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Cariostatic Agents - administration & dosage - adverse effects - analysis
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.)
Child
Child, Preschool
Dental Caries - prevention & control
Dentifrices - chemistry
Dietary Supplements
Esthetics, Dental
Fluoridation - adverse effects
Fluorides - administration & dosage - adverse effects - analysis
Fluorosis, Dental - epidemiology - etiology
Guidelines as Topic
Humans
Infant
Infant Food - analysis
Iowa - epidemiology
Mouthwashes - chemistry
United States
Abstract
Decisions concerning use of fluoride in its many forms for caries prevention are more complicated now than in the past because of the need to balance these benefits with the risks of dental fluorosis. This article reviews pertinent literature concerning dental fluorosis (definition, appearance, prevalence), pre- and post-eruptive use of fluoride, esthetic perceptions of dental fluorosis, fluoride levels of beverages and foods, the Iowa Fluoride Study, and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's "Recommendations for Using Fluoride to Prevent and Control Dental Caries in the United States." Water fluoridation and use of fluoride dentifrice are the most efficient and cost-effective ways to prevent dental caries; other modalities should be targeted toward high-risk individuals.
PubMed ID
12734021 View in PubMed
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88 records – page 1 of 9.