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17beta-estradiol induces the proliferation of the in vitro cultured human urothelium.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature89268
Source
Scand J Urol Nephrol. 2009;43(3):179-85
Publication Type
Article
Date
2009
Author
Koskela Sanna
Lehtonen Siri
Santala Markku
Venhola Mika
Parpala-Spårman Teija
Lehenkari Petri
Author Affiliation
Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland. sannako@paju.oulu.fi
Source
Scand J Urol Nephrol. 2009;43(3):179-85
Date
2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Blotting, Western
Cell Nucleus - metabolism
Cell Proliferation - drug effects
Cells, Cultured
Child
Child, Preschool
Cytoplasm - metabolism
Estradiol - pharmacology
Female
Humans
Immunohistochemistry
Keratin-7 - metabolism
Male
Middle Aged
Urothelium - cytology
Young Adult
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: The genitourinary tract is considered to be a target for the actions of sex steroid hormones. Decreased ovarian function and lack of estrogen after menopause are associated with lower genitourinary tract symptoms as well as bladder dysfunctions such as incontinence. Estrogen may also affect urothelial cells. The estrogen receptors (ERs) are found in the mucosa of the urinary tract. The purpose of this study was to culture human urothelial cells (HUCs) originating from urothelial tissue biopsies and to use them as a reproducible test platform to evaluate the effect of 17beta-estradiol (E2). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Urothelial tissue biopsies were obtained from 95 patients undergoing gynaecological open surgery for urinary incontinence, paediatric vesicoureteral reflux or transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) for benign prostatic hyperplasia. HUCs originating from biopsies were cultured in vitro in the absence or in the presence of 0.1 nmol, 0.01 micromol and 1 micromol of E2. ER expression of the cultured HUCs was examined by Western analysis and immunofluorescence microscopy, which was also used for HUC characterization. The effect of E2 in the proliferation of the HUCs was determined by tetrazolium salt 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT)-assay. RESULTS: HUCs were cultured successfully in four to six passages but there was variation between samples. The cultured cells showed expression of beta(4)-integrin, E-cadherin and cytokeratins 7, 8, 9 and 19, indicating the epithelial origin of the cells. Both types of ERs, ERalpha and ERbeta, were found in the in vitro cultured HUCs. E2 treatment of HUCs did not affect remarkably the expression of ERalpha but cell proliferation was induced. However, no concentration-dependent effect was seen. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that HUCs originating from small tissue biopsies can be cultured in several passages in vitro and could have potential in repairing or restoring urinary tract tissue by tissue engineering therapy. HUCs serve as a good in vitro test platform, as shown by analysing E2-treated HUCs. E2 induced the proliferation of cultured HUCs even though concentration dependency was not observed. The findings of this study may have relevance in determining the mechanisms of estrogen therapy in postmenopausal urinary tract symptoms and in the future development of tissue engineering technology.
PubMed ID
19384677 View in PubMed
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Adrenergic regulation of erythropoiesis during cytostatic-induced myelosuppressions.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature88844
Source
Bull Exp Biol Med. 2008 Oct;146(4):405-10
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2008
Author
Skurikhin E G
Pershina O V
Minakova M Yu
Ermakova N N
Firsova T V
Dygai A M
Gol'dberg E D
Author Affiliation
Institute of Pharmacology, Tomsk Research Center, Siberian Division of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Tomsk, Russia.
Source
Bull Exp Biol Med. 2008 Oct;146(4):405-10
Date
Oct-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Bone Marrow - drug effects - metabolism
Cell Differentiation - drug effects
Cell Proliferation - drug effects
Central Nervous System - drug effects - physiology
Cyclophosphamide - pharmacology
Cytostatic Agents - pharmacology
Erythroid Precursor Cells - cytology - drug effects
Erythropoiesis - drug effects
Erythropoietin - metabolism
Female
Fluorouracil - pharmacology
Hematopoiesis - drug effects - physiology
Mice
Mice, Inbred CBA
Norepinephrine - pharmacology
S Phase
Abstract
The role of central adrenergic structures in the regulation of the erythroid hematopoietic stem was studied during administration of cyclophosphamide and 5-fluorouracil. The central nervous system contributed to suppression of erythropoiesis during cytostatic treatment. The suppressive effect of brain adrenergic structures on the erythron after treatment with cyclophosphamide and 5-fluorouracil was related to dysfunction of adherent cells in the hemopoiesis-inducing microenvironment (formation of hemopoietic islets and secretion of erythropoietic activity) and production of growth factors by myelokaryocytes, respectively. Brain norepinephrine had an inhibitory effect on proliferative activity and differentiation of erythroid precursors that were associated with the erythropoietin and peripheral alpha-adrenergic structures. However, stimulation of beta-adrenergic structures was followed by an increase in the rate of erythroid cell maturation.
PubMed ID
19489307 View in PubMed
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Adverse effects of Sudanese toombak vs. Swedish snuff on human oral cells.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature98857
Source
J Oral Pathol Med. 2010 Feb;39(2):128-40
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2010
Author
Daniela Elena Costea
Ochiba Lukandu
Linh Bui
Muna Jaffar M Ibrahim
Raymond Lygre
Evelyn Neppelberg
Salah Osman Ibrahim
Olav Karsten Vintermyr
Anne Christine Johannessen
Author Affiliation
Section of Pathology, The Gade Institute, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway. daniela.costea@gades.uib.no
Source
J Oral Pathol Med. 2010 Feb;39(2):128-40
Date
Feb-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Annexin A5 - analysis
Apoptosis - drug effects
Cell Count
Cell Division - drug effects
Cell Line
Cell Proliferation - drug effects
Cell Shape - drug effects
Cell Survival - drug effects
Cells, Cultured
Coloring Agents - diagnostic use
DNA Breaks, Double-Stranded
Fibroblasts - cytology - drug effects
G2 Phase - drug effects
Humans
Keratinocytes - cytology - drug effects
Microscopy, Electron, Transmission
Mouth Mucosa - cytology - drug effects
Phosphatidylserines - analysis
Plant Extracts - adverse effects
Sudan
Sweden
Tobacco, Smokeless - adverse effects
Abstract
BACKGROUND: The high incidence of oral cancer in Sudan has been associated with the use of toombak, the local type of smokeless tobacco. However, its specific effects on human oral cells are not known. We aimed to investigate the effects of toombak on primary normal human oral keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and a dysplastic oral keratinocytic cell line, and to compare them with the effects induced by Swedish snuff. METHOD: Aqueous extracts were prepared from moist toombak and Swedish snuff and added in serial dilutions on in vitro monolayer cultured cells. Cell viability, morphology and growth, DNA double-strand breaks (gammaH2AX staining), expression of phosphatidylserine (Annexin V staining), and cell cycle were assessed after various exposure time periods. RESULTS: Significant decrease in cell number, occurrence of DNA double-strain breaks, morphological and biochemical signs of programmed cell death were detected in all oral cell types exposed to clinically relevant dilutions of toombak extract, although to a lesser extent in normal oral fibroblasts and dysplastic keratinocytes. G2/M-block was also detected in normal oral keratinocytes and fibroblasts exposed to clinically relevant dilutions of toombak extract. Swedish snuff extract had less adverse effects on oral cells, mainly at non-clinically relevant dilutions. CONCLUSION: This study indicates a potential for toombak, higher than for Swedish snuff, to damage human oral epithelium. Dysplastic oral keratinocytes were less sensitive than their normal counterparts, suggesting that they might have acquired a partially resistant phenotype to toombak-induced cytotoxic effects while still being prone to DNA damage that could lead to further malignant progression.
PubMed ID
19804503 View in PubMed
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Aging influences multiple incidices of oxidative stress in the aortic media of the Fischer 344/NNiaxBrown Norway/BiNia rat.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature82960
Source
Free Radic Res. 2006 Feb;40(2):185-97
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2006
Author
Rice K M
Preston D L
Walker E M
Blough E R
Author Affiliation
Marshall University, Department of Biological Sciences, Huntington, WV 2755-1090, USA.
Source
Free Radic Res. 2006 Feb;40(2):185-97
Date
Feb-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aging - physiology
Animals
Aorta - metabolism
Cell Proliferation
Ethidium - chemistry
Genes, src
JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases - metabolism
Ki-67 Antigen - metabolism
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases - metabolism
Multienzyme Complexes
NF-kappa B - genetics - metabolism
Oxidative Stress
Phenanthridines - chemistry
Phosphorylation
Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
Proteins - chemistry - metabolism
Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 - metabolism
Rats
Rats, Inbred BN
Rats, Inbred F344
TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 2 - metabolism
bcl-2-Associated X Protein - metabolism
Abstract
Here, we determine the influence of aging on multiple markers of oxidative stress in the aorta of adult (6-month), aged (30-month) and very aged (36-month) Fischer 344/NNiaHSdxBrown Norway/BiNia (F344/NxBN) rats. Compared to adults, increases in as determined by oxidation of hydroethidine (HE) to ethidium (Et) were increased 79.7+/-7.0% in 36-month aortae and this finding was highly correlated with increases in medal thickness (r=0.773, p
PubMed ID
16390828 View in PubMed
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Allogeneic intrabone marrow-bone marrow transplantation plus donor lymphocyte infusion suppresses growth of colon cancer cells implanted in skin and liver of rats.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature78890
Source
Stem Cells. 2007 Feb;25(2):385-91
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2007
Author
Koike Yasushi
Adachi Yasushi
Suzuki Yasuhiro
Iwasaki Masayoshi
Koike-Kiriyama Naoko
Minamino Keizo
Nakano Keiji
Mukaide Hiromi
Shigematsu Akio
Kiyozuka Yasuhiko
Tubura Airo
Kamiyama Yasuo
Ikehara Susumu
Author Affiliation
First Department of Pathology, Kansai Medical University, 10-15 Moriguchi, Osaka, Japan.
Source
Stem Cells. 2007 Feb;25(2):385-91
Date
Feb-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Bone Marrow Transplantation
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes - immunology
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes - immunology
Cell Proliferation
Colonic Neoplasms - pathology
Killer Cells, Natural - immunology
Liver - pathology
Lymphocyte Transfusion
Rats
Rats, Inbred BN
Rats, Inbred F344
Skin - pathology
Spleen - cytology - immunology
Survival Rate
Transplantation, Homologous
Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
Abstract
We have recently found that allogeneic intrabone marrow-bone marrow transplantation (IBM-BMT) + donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) using CD4(+) cell-depleted spleen cells (CD4(-) cells) can prevent graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) but suppress tumor growth (Meth A: fibrosarcoma) in mice. In the present study, we show that allogeneic IBM-BMT + DLI using CD4(-) cells also has suppressive effects on the growth of colon cancer cells implanted not only in the skin but also in the liver of rats. First, we examined the effects of allogeneic IBM-BMT + DLI on the subcutaneously inoculated ACL-15 (rat colon cancer cell line). Lethally irradiated Fischer rats (F344 rats) were transplanted with T-cell-depleted bone marrow cells (BMCs) from Brown Norway (BN) rats. Simultaneously, DLI was performed using whole spleen cells (whole cells), CD4(+) cell-depleted spleen cells (CD4(-) cells) or CD8(+) cell-depleted spleen cells (CD8(-) cells) of BN rats. Although allogeneic IBM-BMT + DLI suppressed tumor growth, a considerable number of rats treated with allogeneic IBM-BMT + DLI using whole cells or CD8(-) cells died due to GvHD. In contrast, allogeneic IBM-BMT + DLI using CD4(-) cells also suppressed tumor growth, but there was no GvHD. Based on these findings, we next examined the effects of allogeneic IBM-BMT + DLI using CD4(-) cells on the cancer cells implanted in the liver. Allogeneic IBM-BMT + DLI using CD4(-) cells via the portal vein significantly prolonged the survival. These results suggest that allogeneic IBM-BMT + DLI using CD4(-) cells could become a new strategy for the treatment of solid tumors.
PubMed ID
17284650 View in PubMed
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Anticancer activity of aconitine-containing herbal extract BC1.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature17287
Source
Exp Oncol. 2004 Dec;26(4):307-11
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2004
Author
Galina I Solyanik
Alexander G Fedorchuk
Olga N Pyaskovskaya
Olga I Dasyukevitch
Natalya N Khranovskaya
Gennadiy N Aksenov
Vladimir V Sobetsky
Author Affiliation
R.E. Kavetsky Institute of Experimental Pathology, Oncology and Radiobiology of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine. gis@onconet.kiev.ua
Source
Exp Oncol. 2004 Dec;26(4):307-11
Date
Dec-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aconitine - pharmacology
Adjuvants, Immunologic - pharmacology
Animals
Apoptosis - drug effects
Carcinoma, Lewis Lung - pathology
Cell Proliferation - drug effects
Medicine, Herbal
Mice
Mice, Inbred C57BL
Neoplasm Metastasis
Abstract
AIM: The objective of the study was the investigation of anticancer activity of aconitine-containing herbal extract BC1 against two tumor strains with different metastatic potency: strongly metastatic Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) and its weakly metastatic counterpart (LLC-R9). RESULTS: It was shown that low proliferative activity and high metastatic potential of LLC correlated with high refractoriness of this tumor to BC1 action, while significant inhibition of tumor growth and metastasis by BC1 were observed against actively proliferating and weakly metastatic LLC-R9. Maximal antitumor activity of BC1 (> 70% of inhibition of primary tumor growth) and antimetastatic action (88% of metastatic inhibition) were observed at the dose of MTD/20. High efficacy of BC1 against LLC-R9 was shown to be accompanied by 2-fold increase of apoptosis rate predominantly in diploid cells. CONCLUSIONS: The obtained results showed the ability of aconitine-containing herbal extract BC1 to inhibit growth of primary tumor and metastases of actively proliferating and weakly metastatic variant of Lewis lung carcinoma.
PubMed ID
15627064 View in PubMed
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The antioxidant response induced by Lonicera caerulaea berry extracts in animals bearing experimental solid tumors.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature92970
Source
Molecules. 2008;13(5):1195-206
Publication Type
Article
Date
2008
Author
Gruia Maria Iuliana
Oprea Eliza
Gruia Ion
Negoita Valentina
Farcasanu Ileana Cornelia
Author Affiliation
Institute of Oncology Bucharest, 252 Fundeni, 022338, Bucharest, Romania.
Source
Molecules. 2008;13(5):1195-206
Date
2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Antioxidants - metabolism
Cell Proliferation - drug effects
Ceruloplasmin - metabolism
Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor
Fruit - metabolism
Lipid Peroxidation - drug effects
Lonicera - metabolism
Male
Neoplasms, Experimental - drug therapy - pathology
Oxidation-Reduction - drug effects
Oxidative Stress - drug effects
Phytotherapy
Plant Extracts - pharmacology - therapeutic use
Rats
Rats, Wistar
Sulfhydryl Compounds - metabolism
Abstract
Lonicera caerulea is a species of bush native to the Kamchatka Peninsula (Russian Far East) whose berries have been extensively studied due to their potential high antioxidant activity. The aim of our work was to investigate the in vivo effects of the antioxidant action of Lonicera caerulea berry extracts on the dynamics of experimentally-induced tumors. Our data showed that aqueous Lonicera caerulaea extracts reduced the tumor volume when administered continuously during the tumor growth and development stages, but augmented the tumor growth when the administration of extracts started three weeks before tumor grafting. Prolonged administration of Lonicera caerulaea berry extracts induced the antioxidant defense mechanism in the tumor tissues, while surprisingly amplifying the peripheral oxidative stress.
Notes
Erratum In: Molecules. 2009;14(2):893
PubMed ID
18560338 View in PubMed
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Antiproliferative Activity and Cytotoxicity of Some Medicinal Wood-Destroying Mushrooms from Russia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature295154
Source
Int J Med Mushrooms. 2018; 20(1):1-11
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
2018
Author
Alla V Shnyreva
Anastasia A Shnyreva
Cesar Espinoza
José M Padrón
Ángel Trigos
Author Affiliation
Department of Mycology and Algology, Faculty of Biology, Moscow Lomonosov State University, Moscow, Russia.
Source
Int J Med Mushrooms. 2018; 20(1):1-11
Date
2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Agaricales - chemistry - classification - genetics - physiology
Cell Line, Tumor
Cell Proliferation
Cellulose - metabolism
DNA, Ribosomal Spacer
Fruiting Bodies, Fungal - chemistry - isolation & purification
HEK293 Cells
Hela Cells
Humans
Lethal Dose 50
Lignans - metabolism
Phylogeny
Prospective Studies
Russia
Trametes - chemistry - genetics - isolation & purification
Wood - metabolism
Abstract
We analyzed the antiproliferative activity of 6 medicinal wood-destroying mushrooms (Fomes fomentarius, Fomitopsis pinicola, Trametes versicolor, Trichaptum biforme, Inonotus obliquus, and Coniophora puteana) that are common in deciduous and mixed coniferous forests in Central Russia. Morphological identification of strains collected from the wild was confirmed based on ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer phylogenetic analysis. We observed cytotoxic and cell growth-inhibitory effects of hot water extracts from mycelial biomass of 5 species-T. versicolor, C. puteana, F. fomentarius, F. pinicola, and I. obliquus-on leukemia cell lines (Jukart, K562, and THP-1); the effective extract concentrations were mostly less than 50 µg · mL-1. However, we observed no antiproliferative activity of dry biomass from methanol-chloroform (1:1) extracts of C. puteana and F. fomentarius. A chemosensitivity assay showed that the most effective polypore mushroom extract was the methanol extract of T. versicolor (strain It-1), which inhibited the growth of 6 various solid tumors (A-549 and SWi573 [lung], HBL-100 and T-47D [breast], HeLa [cervix], and WiDr [colon]) at concentrations below 45 µg · mL-1, with a concentration as low as 0.7-3.6 µg · mL-1 causing 50% reduction in the proliferation of cancer cells in lung and cervix tumors. Methanol extracts of F. pinicola and I. obliquus were less effective, with proliferation-inhibiting capacities at concentrations below 70 and 200 µg · mL-1, respectively. Thus, T. versicolor is a prospective candidate in the search for and production of new antiproliferative chemical compounds.
PubMed ID
29604909 View in PubMed
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Antitumoral and mechanistic studies of ianthelline isolated from the Arctic sponge Stryphnus fortis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature119933
Source
Anticancer Res. 2012 Oct;32(10):4287-97
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2012
Author
Kine Ã? Hanssen
Jeanette H Andersen
Trine Stiberg
Richard A Engh
Johan Svenson
Anne-Marie Genevière
Espen Hansen
Author Affiliation
Centre for Research-based Innovation on Marine Bioactivities and Drug Discovery, MabCent, University of Tromsø, Breivika, Tromsø, Norway. kine.o.hanssen@uit.no
Source
Anticancer Res. 2012 Oct;32(10):4287-97
Date
Oct-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Antineoplastic Agents - pharmacology
Biological Products - pharmacology
Breast Neoplasms - drug therapy
Carcinoma - drug therapy
Cell Division - drug effects
Cell Line, Tumor
Cell Proliferation - drug effects
Colonic Neoplasms - drug therapy
Female
Humans
Imidazoles - pharmacology
Leukemia - drug therapy
Melanoma - drug therapy
Porifera - chemistry
Protein Kinase Inhibitors - pharmacology
Sea Urchins - drug effects - embryology
Spindle Apparatus - drug effects
Tyrosine - analogs & derivatives - pharmacology
Abstract
Ianthelline was isolated from the Arctic sponge Stryphnus fortis. The structure of the compound has been previously described. However, only limited bioactivity data are available and little has been reported about the cytotoxic potential of ianthelline since its discovery. In addition, no study has so far aimed at identifying which cellular mechanisms are affected by ianthelline to generate cytotoxicity.
The cytotoxicity of ianthelline was tested against one non-malignant and ten malignant cell lines. The effects of ianthelline on key cell division events were studied in sea urchin embryos. Tyrosine kinase ABL (ABL), cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA), protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), and a panel of 131 kinases were further tested for sensitivity to ianthelline.
Ianthelline inhibits cellular growth in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Disturbed mitotic spindle formation was found in sea urchin embryos exposed to ianthelline. In addition, pronuclear migration and cytokinesis were severely inhibited. No effect on DNA synthesis was detectable. Ianthelline did not significantly inhibit ABL, but did provoke weak dose-dependent inhibition of PKA and PTP1B. It strongly inhibited the activity of 1 out of 131 tested kinases (to residual activity
PubMed ID
23060549 View in PubMed
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Apoptosis, proliferation, and sex steroid receptors in postmenopausal endometrium before and during HRT.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature178021
Source
Maturitas. 2004 Oct 15;49(2):114-23
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-15-2004
Author
Marju Dahmoun
Inga-Stina Odmark
Björn Risberg
Mats G Karlsson
Tatjana Pavlenko
Torbjörn Bäckström
Author Affiliation
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mid Sweden Research and Development Center, Sundsvall Hospital, SE-851 86 Sundsvall, Sweden. marju.dahmoun@lvn.se
Source
Maturitas. 2004 Oct 15;49(2):114-23
Date
Oct-15-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Apoptosis - drug effects
Biopsy
Cell Proliferation - drug effects
Endometrium - cytology - drug effects - metabolism
Estradiol - administration & dosage
Estrogen Receptor alpha - drug effects - metabolism
Estrogen Replacement Therapy - adverse effects
Estrogens, Conjugated (USP) - administration & dosage
Female
Humans
Ki-67 Antigen - analysis
Medroxyprogesterone Acetate - administration & dosage
Middle Aged
Norethindrone - administration & dosage - analogs & derivatives
Postmenopause
Prospective Studies
Receptors, Progesterone - drug effects - metabolism
Regression Analysis
Sweden - epidemiology
Uterine Hemorrhage - chemically induced - metabolism
Abstract
Endometrial homeostasis, indicated as the balance between apoptosis and proliferation, was studied with regard to endometrial safety and bleeding disturbances.
The quantitatively sufficient endometrial biopsies of 92 postmenopausal women enrolled in the study were investigated. The participants were divided into two groups, each receiving a continuous combined HRT regimen with either conjugated estrogen (CE) 0.625 mg + 5 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) (=CE/MPA) or 17-beta-estradiol (E2) 2 mg + 1 mg norethisterone acetate (NETA) (=E2/NETA). These were evaluated according to apoptotic index (Ai) and proliferation marker Ki-67 index. Estrogen receptor alpha (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression were also monitored, as well as endometrial thickness. Quantitative in situ techniques were used.
Ai and Ki-67 index were unchanged in epithelial glands of endometrium from baseline to second biopsy obtained after 1 year of combined continuous HRT. In stromal tissue, Ki-67 index was increased, while Ai was on the same level. PR expression in both epithelium and stroma was unchanged. Endometrial thickness was unaffected during therapy, and the histopathological evaluation showed no development of hyperplasia or carcinoma.
The unaffected homeostasis in endometrial epithelium contributes to endometrial safety and is in accordance with the histopathological findings of no hyperplasia. The homeostasis of stroma was transformed to be more proliferative. Increased stromal proliferation may be of importance for stromal support of the veins and for decreasing breakthrough bleeding during HRT. The increased stromal proliferation, as well as the decreased ER expression both in epithelium and stroma, could be an effect of progesterone.
PubMed ID
15474755 View in PubMed
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137 records – page 1 of 14.