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[4 years after Chernobyl: medical repercussions]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature25355
Source
Bull Cancer. 1990;77(5):419-28
Publication Type
Article
Date
1990
Author
D. Hubert
Source
Bull Cancer. 1990;77(5):419-28
Date
1990
Language
French
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abnormalities, Radiation-Induced - epidemiology
Abortion, Habitual - epidemiology
Blood Cell Count
Bone Marrow Transplantation
Decontamination - methods
Diarrhea - etiology
English Abstract
Europe
Female
Humans
Male
Nuclear Reactors
Pregnancy
Prognosis
Psychophysiologic Disorders - etiology
Pulmonary Fibrosis - etiology
Radiation Dosage
Radiation Injuries - complications - epidemiology - therapy
Skin - radiation effects
Triage
Ukraine
Abstract
The nuclear accident at Chernobyl accounted for an acute radiation syndrome in 237 persons on the site. Triage was the initial problem and was carried out according to clinical and biological criteria; evaluating the doses received was based on these criteria. Thirty one persons died and only 1 survived a dose higher than 6 Gy. Skin radiation burns which were due to inadequate decontamination, greatly worsened prognosis. The results of 13 bone marrow transplantations were disappointing, with only 2 survivors. Some time after the accident, these severely irradiated patients are mainly suffering from psychosomatic disorders, in the USSR, some areas have been significantly contaminated and several measures were taken to mitigate the impact on population: evacuating 135,000 persons, distributing prophylactic iodine, establishing standards and controls on foodstuff. Radiation phobia syndrome which developed in many persons, is the only sanitary effect noticed up to now. Finally, in Europe, there was only an increase in induced abortions and this was totally unwarranted. If we consider the risk of radiation induced cancer, an effect might not be demonstrated.
PubMed ID
2205311 View in PubMed
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The 7-year cumulative incidence of cornea guttata and morphological changes in the corneal endothelium in the Reykjavik Eye Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature126926
Source
Acta Ophthalmol. 2013 May;91(3):212-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2013
Author
Gunnar M Zoega
Arsaell Arnarsson
Hiroshi Sasaki
Per G Söderberg
Fridbert Jonasson
Author Affiliation
Gullstrand Lab, Ophthalmology, Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
Source
Acta Ophthalmol. 2013 May;91(3):212-8
Date
May-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Distribution
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Cell Count
Corneal Diseases - classification - diagnosis - epidemiology
Corneal Pachymetry
Descemet Membrane - pathology
Endothelium, Corneal - pathology
European Continental Ancestry Group
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Incidence
Male
Microscopy
Middle Aged
Prospective Studies
Sex Distribution
Time Factors
Abstract
To examine the corneal endothelium and establish the 7-year cumulative incidence of cornea guttata (CG).
Population-based prospective cohort study with 573 participants (third wave of the Reykjavik Eye Study (RES) in 2008). Four hundred and thirty-seven subjects had either right or left eyes available for analysis after excluding confounding eye conditions. The baseline for eyes at risk for developing CG is the second wave of the RES in 2001. Participants underwent specular microscopy and a standardized eye examination.
The cumulative 7-year incidence of CG in either eye was estimated as a 95% confidence interval for the expected value for both genders combined (15-23%), for males (8-18%) and for females (19-29%). In right eye only, the 7-year cumulative incidence for both genders combined was estimated to be 6-11%. For genders combined and for males only, the data indicated no correlation between 7-year cumulated incidence and age at baseline. In women, however, the change of 7-year incidence for CG in at least one eye appeared to be correlated to age at baseline. Reduction of endothelial cell density for corneas with CG at baseline was found [CI (0.95)-132 ± 94].
The cumulative 7-year incidence of primary central CG for a middle-aged and older Caucasian population without history of potentially confounding eye disease has been established. Women tend to have higher incidence if onset occurs at middle age. If CG is present, the cell density and the cell size variation decrease within a 7-year period.
PubMed ID
22339815 View in PubMed
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Additional value of biochemical tests in suspected acute appendicitis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature34215
Source
Eur J Surg. 1997 Jul;163(7):533-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1997
Author
S. Hallan
A. Asberg
T H Edna
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Chemistry, Innherred Hospital, Levanger, Norway.
Source
Eur J Surg. 1997 Jul;163(7):533-8
Date
Jul-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abdominal Pain - etiology
Acute Disease
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Analysis of Variance
Appendicitis - diagnosis
Blood Cell Count
Child
Child, Preschool
Diagnosis, Differential
Female
Hematologic Tests
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Prospective Studies
ROC Curve
Sensitivity and specificity
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of biochemical tests in diagnosing acute appendicitis. DESIGN: Open prospective study. SETTING: District hospital, Norway. SUBJECTS: 257 patients with suspected acute appendicitis. INTERVENTIONS: Initial diagnostic accuracy of a logistic regression model using available clinical data was compared with results of corresponding models that included an increasing number of inflammatory parameters. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The estimated probabilities of appendicitis in different testing groups were analysed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. RESULTS: A model including only clinical variables had a mean area under the ROC curve of 0.854. When the total white blood cell count, C-reactive protein concentration, and neutrophil count were added, the model improved significantly to 0.920. CONCLUSION: Biochemical tests are of additional value in a computer model, and the tests should, if used rationally, also provide physicians with important information in the investigation of acute appendicitis.
PubMed ID
9248988 View in PubMed
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Adipocyte size predicts incidence of type 2 diabetes in women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature148637
Source
FASEB J. 2010 Jan;24(1):326-31
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2010
Author
Malin Lönn
Kirsten Mehlig
Calle Bengtsson
Lauren Lissner
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Chemistry, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Bruna stråket 16, Gothenburg, Sweden. malin.lonn@medic.gu.se
Source
FASEB J. 2010 Jan;24(1):326-31
Date
Jan-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abdominal Fat - pathology - physiopathology
Adipocytes - pathology - physiology
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Body Composition
Cell Count
Cell Size
Cohort Studies
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - epidemiology - etiology - pathology - physiopathology
Female
Humans
Insulin Resistance
Middle Aged
Predictive value of tests
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Enlarged subcutaneous abdominal adipocytes have been shown to predict incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in the Pima population of Arizona (USA). We investigated the role of subcutaneous abdominal adipocyte size (AAS), as well as femoral adipocyte size (FAS), as predictors of T2D in a population-based Swedish cohort. In 1974-1975, a sample of 1302 middle-aged women underwent a health examination, including anthropometry and evaluation of parental medical history. In addition, body composition (total body potassium and total body water), AAS and FAS (adipose tissue needle biopsy) were assessed in a subsample of 245 women. Incidence of T2D was followed until 2001, with 36 cases eligible for inclusion in this analysis. Women developing T2D had larger AAS at baseline vs. women remaining healthy (age/heredity-adjusted hazard ratio for increase of AAS by 1 sd [AAS-HR] 1.91; P
PubMed ID
19741173 View in PubMed
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Adipose tissue cellularity--metabolic aspects. The population study of women in Göteborg 1974-1975.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature48984
Source
Acta Med Scand. 1979;206(6):501-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
1979
Author
H. Noppa
C. Bengtsson
B. Isaksson
U. Smith
Source
Acta Med Scand. 1979;206(6):501-6
Date
1979
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue - cytology - pathology
Adult
Aged
Anthropometry
Blood Glucose - analysis
Body Composition
Cell Count
Coronary Disease - blood - pathology
Diabetes Mellitus - blood - pathology
Female
Humans
Hypertension - blood - pathology
Lipids - blood
Middle Aged
Risk
Sweden
Uric Acid - blood
Abstract
A representative population sample of middle-aged women was studied in 1974-75. In a subsample, body composition and adipose tissue cellularity variables were determined and individuals with a particular clinical disorder were compared with the total subsample. Women with diabetes mellitus had more body fat and higher fat cell weights and larger fat cell members, whereas these variables did not differ in women with IHD or hypertension compared with the total subsample. Total body fat correlated with arterial BPs, fasting blood glucose, serum lipids and serum uric acid. The correlations were stronger than those reported previously by us between weight index and these variables. In univariate analyses, fat cell weight correlated with systolic BP, serum triglycerides and serum uric acid, and fat cell number with diastolic BP, fasting blood glucose and serum uric acid. In multivariate analyses, when due allowance was made for total body fat, the correlations between these variables and fat cell weight or fat cell number did not reach statistical significance.
PubMed ID
532712 View in PubMed
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Adverse effects of Sudanese toombak vs. Swedish snuff on human oral cells.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature98857
Source
J Oral Pathol Med. 2010 Feb;39(2):128-40
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2010
Author
Daniela Elena Costea
Ochiba Lukandu
Linh Bui
Muna Jaffar M Ibrahim
Raymond Lygre
Evelyn Neppelberg
Salah Osman Ibrahim
Olav Karsten Vintermyr
Anne Christine Johannessen
Author Affiliation
Section of Pathology, The Gade Institute, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway. daniela.costea@gades.uib.no
Source
J Oral Pathol Med. 2010 Feb;39(2):128-40
Date
Feb-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Annexin A5 - analysis
Apoptosis - drug effects
Cell Count
Cell Division - drug effects
Cell Line
Cell Proliferation - drug effects
Cell Shape - drug effects
Cell Survival - drug effects
Cells, Cultured
Coloring Agents - diagnostic use
DNA Breaks, Double-Stranded
Fibroblasts - cytology - drug effects
G2 Phase - drug effects
Humans
Keratinocytes - cytology - drug effects
Microscopy, Electron, Transmission
Mouth Mucosa - cytology - drug effects
Phosphatidylserines - analysis
Plant Extracts - adverse effects
Sudan
Sweden
Tobacco, Smokeless - adverse effects
Abstract
BACKGROUND: The high incidence of oral cancer in Sudan has been associated with the use of toombak, the local type of smokeless tobacco. However, its specific effects on human oral cells are not known. We aimed to investigate the effects of toombak on primary normal human oral keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and a dysplastic oral keratinocytic cell line, and to compare them with the effects induced by Swedish snuff. METHOD: Aqueous extracts were prepared from moist toombak and Swedish snuff and added in serial dilutions on in vitro monolayer cultured cells. Cell viability, morphology and growth, DNA double-strand breaks (gammaH2AX staining), expression of phosphatidylserine (Annexin V staining), and cell cycle were assessed after various exposure time periods. RESULTS: Significant decrease in cell number, occurrence of DNA double-strain breaks, morphological and biochemical signs of programmed cell death were detected in all oral cell types exposed to clinically relevant dilutions of toombak extract, although to a lesser extent in normal oral fibroblasts and dysplastic keratinocytes. G2/M-block was also detected in normal oral keratinocytes and fibroblasts exposed to clinically relevant dilutions of toombak extract. Swedish snuff extract had less adverse effects on oral cells, mainly at non-clinically relevant dilutions. CONCLUSION: This study indicates a potential for toombak, higher than for Swedish snuff, to damage human oral epithelium. Dysplastic oral keratinocytes were less sensitive than their normal counterparts, suggesting that they might have acquired a partially resistant phenotype to toombak-induced cytotoxic effects while still being prone to DNA damage that could lead to further malignant progression.
PubMed ID
19804503 View in PubMed
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Age, environments, and the number of substantia nigra neurons.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature103582
Source
Adv Neurol. 1990;53:201-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
1990
Author
B. Thiessen
A H Rajput
W. Laverty
H. Desai
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Neurological Sciences, University Hospital, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.
Source
Adv Neurol. 1990;53:201-6
Date
1990
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Cell Count
Humans
Middle Aged
Nerve Degeneration - physiology
Neurons - pathology
Parkinson Disease - pathology
Rural Population
Saskatchewan
Social Environment
Substantia Nigra - pathology
Urban Population
Abstract
We examined forty-eight midbrain sections from normal brains containing SN at the level of the exiting fibers of the IIIrd cranial nerve. The cases were classified into two groups based on at least 80% life exposure to either rural or urban provincial environments, respectively. Linear regression analysis revealed a lower SN neuron count in the rural group by age 20, although this difference was not statistically significant. There was a 34% decline in urban and a 17% decline in rural residents' neuron counts between ages 20 and 80. These results are consistent with our previous studies, which indicate a higher risk of PD in the Saskatchewan rural population. We believe that studies of environmental factors in early life will provide the most rewarding clues to the etiology of PD.
PubMed ID
2239460 View in PubMed
Less detail

Age-related loss of orexin/hypocretin neurons.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature101887
Source
Neuroscience. 2011 Mar 31;178:82-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-31-2011
Author
B A Kessler
E M Stanley
D. Frederick-Duus
J. Fadel
Author Affiliation
University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology, Physiology and Neuroscience, 6439 Garners Ferry Road Columbia, SC 29208, USA.
Source
Neuroscience. 2011 Mar 31;178:82-8
Date
Mar-31-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aging - pathology
Animals
Antigens, Nuclear - metabolism
Cell Count - methods
Hypothalamic Area, Lateral - metabolism - pathology
Hypothalamic Hormones - metabolism
Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins - metabolism
Male
Melanins - metabolism
Models, Animal
Nerve Degeneration - pathology
Nerve Tissue Proteins - metabolism
Neurons - metabolism - pathology
Neuropeptides - metabolism
Pituitary Hormones - metabolism
Rats
Rats, Inbred BN
Rats, Inbred F344
Rats, Inbred Strains
Abstract
Aging is associated with many physiological alterations-such as changes in sleep patterns, metabolism and food intake-suggestive of hypothalamic dysfunction, but the effects of senescence on specific hypothalamic nuclei and neuronal groups that mediate these alterations is unclear. The lateral hypothalamus and contiguous perifornical area (LH/PFA) contains several populations of neurons, including those that express the neuropeptides orexin (hypocretin) or melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH). Collectively, orexin and MCH neurons influence many integrative homeostatic processes related to wakefulness and energy balance. Here, we determined the effect of aging on numbers of orexin and MCH neurons in young adult (3-4 months) and old (26-28 months) Fisher 344/Brown Norway F1 hybrid rats. Aged rats exhibited a loss of greater than 40% of orexin-immunoreactive neurons in both the medial and lateral (relative to the fornix) sectors of the LH/PFA. MCH-immunoreactive neurons were also lost in aged rats, primarily in the medial LH/PFA. Neuronal loss in this area was not global as no change in cells immunoreactive for the pan-neuronal marker, NeuN, was observed in aged rats. Combined with other reports of altered receptor expression or behavioral responses to exogenously-administered neuropeptide, these data suggest that compromised orexin (and, perhaps, MCH) function is an important mediator of age-related homeostatic disturbances of hypothalamic origin. The orexin system may represent a crucial substrate linking homeostatic and cognitive dysfunction in aging, as well as a novel therapeutic target for pharmacological or genetic restoration approaches to preventing or ameliorating these disturbances.
PubMed ID
21262323 View in PubMed
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Age related optic nerve axonal loss in adult Brown Norway rats.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature50568
Source
Exp Eye Res. 2005 Jun;80(6):877-84
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2005
Author
William O Cepurna
Robert J Kayton
Elaine C Johnson
John C Morrison
Author Affiliation
The Kenneth C. Swan Ocular Neurobiology Laboratory, Casey Eye Institute, Oregon Health & Science University, 3375 SW Terwilliger Boulevard, Portland, OR 97239, USA.
Source
Exp Eye Res. 2005 Jun;80(6):877-84
Date
Jun-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aging - physiology
Animals
Axons - physiology
Cell Count
Intraocular Pressure - physiology
Microscopy, Electron - methods
Nerve Degeneration - pathology - physiopathology
Neuroglia - physiology
Optic Nerve - pathology - physiopathology
Rats
Rats, Inbred BN
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Abstract
The effect of age on the number and morphology of optic nerve axons in adult Brown Norway rats (5-31 months old) (n=29) was examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). By manually counting every axon in areas representing 60% of the optic nerve cross-section, we found a significant negative correlation between age and axon count (R(2)=0.18, P
PubMed ID
15939045 View in PubMed
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234 records – page 1 of 24.