We investigated the potential role of intercellular-adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in allergen-induced bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and inflammation in sensitised Brown-Norway rats. Rats were sensitised with ovalbumin (OA) intraperitoneally and 21 days later they were either exposed to 0.9% NaCl or 1% OA aerosol for 15 min. Rats exposed to OA aerosol were pretreated either with ICAM-1 antibody (3 mg/kg i.p. and i.v., 45 min prior to OA exposure) or with the diluent for the antibody. Eighteen to twenty-four hours after OA or 0.9% NaCl exposure, rats were anaesthetised, tracheostomised and mechanically ventilated, and airway responsiveness to acetylcholine (ACh) aerosol was measured as the provocative concentration of ACh needed to increase pulmorary resistance by 100% (PC100). Mean -log PC100 was increased in rats exposed to OA but pretreated with diluent (2.75 +/- 0.06) compared to rats treated with ICAM-1 antibody (2.51 +/- 0.08;
Antibodies against integrins have been shown to inhibit allergic airway responses. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the beta1 integrin, very late antigen-4 (VLA-4), is involved in mast cell activation triggered by allergen exposure in sensitized animals. To do this we studied Brown Norway rats that were sensitized to ovalbumin (OA; 1 mg subcutaneously) using Bordetella pertussis as an adjuvant. Two weeks later rats were challenged with OA, pulmonary resistance (RL) was determined, and the concentrations of histamine and tryptase in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and N-acetyl-leukotriene (LT)E4 in bile were measured. Pretreatment with a monoclonal antibody against VLA-4 (TA-2) attenuated the early response after OA challenge (342.9 +/- 24.4% baseline RL versus 153.3 +/- 19.4%; p
We examined the responses of primed polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) adhered to vascular endothelium, which can lead to endothelial cell damage as a mechanism of the capillary leak syndrome, the main cause of death in anergic patients. We tested PMNs from (1) preoperative reactive patients, (2) preoperative anergic patients, (3) anergic patients in the surgical intensive care unit, and (4) healthy controls for in vitro adherence and cytotoxicity on cultured human vein endothelial cells. Adherence of PMNs was 12.9% +/- 3.9% in preoperative anergic patients and 13.1% +/- 3.2% in anergic patients in the surgical intensive care unit compared with 9.0% +/- 2.1% in preoperative reactive patients (P
To evaluate the airway infiltration of eosinophils in the asthmatic responses of Brown-Norway rats, which were sensitized with ovalbumin, the time course of eosinophil infiltration and respiratory resistance (Rrs) after ovalbumin challenge was measured. The effect of treatment with monoclonal antibody against ICAM-1 and CD18 was studied. Finally, the expression of ICAM-1 and CD18 in the airway was investigated. All rats showed Rrs increase 6-7 hours after ovalbumin challenge, indicating a late asthmatic response (LAR). Animals with LAR had higher eosinophil counts than those with an immediate asthmatic response (IAR) and in the sensitized but nonchallenged animals. Rats treated with the antibodies showed significantly smaller increases in Rrs and lower eosinophil counts than the control animals. Immunohistochemical staining in airway was performed. ICAM-1 immunoreactivity was positive on both the epithelium and the vascular endothelium of a trachea section, and on the pulmonary vascular endothelium. ICAM-1 expression was upregulated after challenge. The number of CD18-positive cells in sections of trachea and lung increased after challenge. Our results show that eosinophil infiltration is important in LAR development and the treatment with antagonists of ICAM-1 and CD18 may provide a therapeutic approach to reducing asthmatic symptoms.