The problem of combined pathology is discussed as exemplified by multiple causes of death. The structure of multiple causes of death is analyzed on the basis of records on all death cases in the town of Kursk in 1991, a total of 4381. The factors taken into consideration are age, sex, classes and various individual causes of death; the primary cause and complications are considered, including the direct cause of death, and the concomitant conditions. The authors claim that their data is a good scientific basis for planning and organization of specialized care of the population at the present-day stage of Russian public health development.
When multifactorial processes are analyzed, it is most rational to use the methods of multidimensional statistical analysis, including the major components methods. This method is rather new in epidemiological surveys. Its advantage is that it may be used to get information that is difficult derived by other ways. Noteworthy is the versatility of the method, which lies in that the problems of analysis, prediction, and classification (stratification) of temporal series are solved by using actually the same techniques. How to apply the major components method are considered by using an example of investigating the general trends in the development of an epidemic tuberculous process in a specific area. Statistical data on tuberculosis morbidity in the areas of the Novosibirsk Region were employed as the initial material.
The purpose of this manuscript is to outline a new model representing a dynamic approach that incorporates the consequences of repeated participation in sport, both with and without injury. This model builds on the previous work, while emphasizing the fact that adaptations occur within the context of sport (both in the presence and absence of injury) that alter risk and affect etiology in a dynamic, recursive fashion. Regardless of the type of injury, it is often preceded by a chain of shifting circumstances that, when they come together, constitute sufficient cause to result in an injury. If we are to truly understand the etiology of injury and target appropriate prevention strategies, we must look beyond the initial set of risk factors that are thought to precede an injury and take into consideration how those risk factors may have changed through preceding cycles of participation, whether associated with prior injury or not. This model considers the implications of repeated exposure, whether such exposure produces adaptation, maladaptation, injury or complete/incomplete recovery from injury. When feasible, future studies on sport injury prevention should adopt a methodology and analysis strategy that takes the cyclic nature of changing risk factors into account to create a dynamic, recursive picture of etiology.
Instituto de Estudios Indígenas, Universidad Autónoma de Chiapas, Centro Universitario Campus III, Boulevard López Moreno s/n., Fátima, CP 29264 San Cristóbal de Las Casas, Chiapas, Mexico. firstname.lastname@example.org
According to ethnographic material collected since 2003, the Chol Mayan indigenous people in southern Mexico have different causal explanations for suicide. It can be attributed to witchcraft that forces victims to take their lives against their own will, to excessive drinking, or to fate determined by God. However, it can also be conceived of as a conscious decision made by a person overwhelmed by daily problems. Drawing from the theoretical framework developed by Laura M. Ahearn, inspired by practice theory, the paper contends that these different explanations operate within two different logics or understandings of human agency. The first logic attributes responsibility to supernatural causes such as witchcraft or divine destiny, and reflects Chol notions of personhood. The second logic accepts personal responsibility for suicide, and is related to processes of social change such as the introduction of wage labor, education and a market economy. The contemporary Chol resort to both logics to make sense of the human drama of suicide.
Studies have revealed that relative poverty is associated with ill health, but the interpretations of this correlation vary. This article asks whether relative poverty among Norwegian adolescents is causally related to poor subjective health, i.e., self-reported somatic and mental symptoms. Data consist of interview responses from a sample of adolescents (N = 510) and their parents, combined with register data on the family's economic situation. Relatively poor adolescents had significantly worse subjective health than non-poor adolescents. Relatively poor adolescents also experienced many other social disadvantages, such as parental unemployment and parental ill health. Comparisons between the relatively poor and the non-poor adolescents, using propensity score matching, indicated a negative impact of relative poverty on the subjective health among those adolescents who lived in families with relatively few economic resources. The results suggest that there is a causal component in the association between relative poverty and the symptom burden of disadvantaged adolescents. Relative poverty is only one of many determinants of adolescents' subjective health, but its role should be acknowledged when policies for promoting adolescent health are designed.
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Cites: J Epidemiol Community Health. 2003 Sep;57(9):692-812933775