This study documents the radiation doses received by all in-room personnel of three cardiac catheterization laboratories where more than 15,000 cardiac procedures have been performed over a 5-y period. It is shown that all in-room personnel was exposed to a body dose equivalent well below any regulatory limits. However, some workers may have exceeded the occupational 150 mSv y-1 recommended limit for the lens of the eye. The physicians-in-training and the staff physicians are the two groups more likely to reach this limit. It is also demonstrated that a low correlation exists between the annual number of procedures and the annual head dose equivalent of a physician, but more variation is likely to originate from his/her working attitude and techniques. The mean dose equivalent at the collar level of the physicians is estimated to be 0.04 +/- 0.02 mSv per procedure.
A 41-year-old woman was treated with a Figulla (Occlutec, Helsingborg, Sweden) atrial septum occluder device with no intraprocedural complications. Five months later, dislocation of the device in the abdominal aorta was detected. The occluder device was located at the level of the celiac axis, nearly obstructing the entire aorta. Owing to total incorporation of the device, endoluminal retrieval was not possible. Through a medial rotation approach, the device was safely removed. This is a rare complication after endoluminal closure of an atrial septum defect. The retrieval possibilities are discussed.
Stimulated by a report in 1974, we have reviewed all abdominoperineal resections in a Univeristy-affiliated community hospital. From 1964--1973, 67 such procedures were performed. There were 65 adenocarcinomas, one squamous cell cancer, and one carcinoid tumor. Dukes' classification was A-4, B-22, C-39, D-4. Postoperative complications occurred in 55.1% of patients. Late complications occurred in 22% of patients. Five-year follow-up was possible in 34 patients with an overall survival of 50%.
To identify predictors of survival in a retrospective multicentre cohort of patients with cardiogenic shock undergoing coronary angiography and to address whether complete revascularization is associated with improved survival in this cohort.
Early revascularization is the standard of care for cardiogenic shock. Coronary bypass grafting and percutaneous intervention have complimentary roles in achieving this revascularization.
A total of 210 consecutive patients (mean age 66 ± 12 years) at two tertiary centres from 2002 to 2006 inclusive with a diagnosis of cardiogenic shock were evaluated. Univariate and multivariate predictors of in-hospital survival were identified utilizing logistic regression.
ST elevation infarction occurred in 67% of patients. Thrombolysis was administered in 34%, PCI was attempted in 62% (88% stented, 76% TIMI 3 flow), CABG was performed in 22% (2.7 grafts, 14 valve procedures), and medical therapy alone was administered to the remainder. The overall survival to discharge was 59% (CABG 68%, PCI 57%, medical 48%). Independent predictors of mortality included complete revascularization (P = 0.013, OR = 0.26 (95% CI: 0.09-0.76), hyperlactatemia (P = 0.046, OR = 1.14 (95% CI: 1.002-1.3) per mmol increase), baseline renal insufficiency (P = 0.043, OR = 3.45, (95% CI: 1.04-11.4), and the presence of anoxic brain injury (P = 0.008, OR = 8.22 (95% CI: 1.73-39.1). Within the STEMI with concomitant multivessel coronary disease subgroup of this population (N = 101), independent predictors of survival to discharge included complete revascularization (P = 0.03, OR = 2.5 (95% CI: 1.1-6.2)) and peak lactate (P = 0.02).
The ability to achieve complete revascularization may be strongly associated with improved in-hospital survival in patients with cardiogenic shock.
Comment In: Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2011 Oct 1;78(4):549-5021953751
Many consider smoking to be a personal choice for which individuals should be held accountable. We assessed whether there is any evidence of bias against smokers in cardiac care decision-making by determining whether smokers were as likely as non-smokers to undergo revascularization procedures after cardiac catheterization.
Prospective cohort study. Subjects and setting. All patients undergoing cardiac catheterization in Alberta, Canada.
Patients were categorized as current smokers, former smokers, or never smokers, and then compared for their risk-adjusted likelihood of undergoing revascularization procedures (percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass grafting) after cardiac catheterization.
Among 20406 patients undergoing catheterization, 25.4% were current smokers at the time of catheterization, 36.6% were former smokers, and 38.0% had never smoked. When compared with never smokers (reference group), the hazard ratio for undergoing any revascularization procedure after catheterization was 0.98 (95% CI 0.93-1.03) for current smokers and 0.98 (0.94-1.03) for former smokers. The hazard ratio for undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting was 1.09 (1.00-1.19) for current smokers and 1.00 (0.93-1.08) for former smokers. For percutaneous coronary intervention, the hazard ratios were 0.93 (0.87-0.99) for current smokers and 1.00 (0.94-1.06) for former smokers.
Despite potential for discrimination on the basis of smoking status, current and former smokers undergoing cardiac catheterization in Alberta, Canada were as likely to undergo revascularization procedures as catheterization patients who had never smoked.
The purpose of this study was to determine the onset times of vecuronium neuromuscular block administered into either the central circulation or a peripheral vein. One hundred and twenty adult patients with a pulmonary artery (PA) catheter were randomly divided into one of three groups with respect to the routes of vecuronium administration (n = 40 in each group). Anaesthesia was induced with midazolam 2.5 mg iv and fentanyl 10-50 micrograms.kg-1 iv and maintained with intermittent doses of fentanyl 50 micrograms iv and nitrous oxide 60-70% in oxygen. After immobilization of the forearm in a splint, the ulnar nerve was stimulated supramaximally every 12 sec. The resulting force of the evoked thumb twitch was recorded (Myograph 2000, Biometer, Denmark). The times from the injection to the first depression of twitch response (latent onset) in patients given vecuronium 0.08 mg.kg-1 into the pulmonary artery, the right atrium, and a peripheral vein on the hand were 58.0 +/- 19.5, 71.5 +/- 17.1, and 82.4 +/- 18.0 sec (mean +/- SD), respectively. The latent onset of neuromuscular block occurred sooner in patients given vecuronium into the central vein than when administered into a vein on the hand (P
Endoscopic dilatation of achalasia cardia is an effective nonsurgical management option. It requires costly pneumatic dilators which are used under fluoroscopic guidance. This study assesses the efficacy and safety of an indigenous pneumatic dilator used without fluoroscopic guidance.
Over a period of eleven years, 113 patients (69M, 44F) ofachalasia cardia underwent dilatation with indigenous pneumatic dilators without fluoroscopic guidance. The dilatation was performed under endoscopic vision.
The procedure was successful in all patients. After six weeks following dilatation, there was significant improvement in the mean dysphagia score 3.63 + 0.61 to 0.53 + 0.93 (P
The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence and evolution of acquired right ventricular outflow tract obstruction (RVOTO) in the recipient twin in twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS).
Twin-twin transfusion syndrome complicates 4% to 26% of diamniotic monochorionic twin gestations and is associated with high fetal morbidity and mortality. Cardiac dysfunction and biventricular hypertrophy may develop in the recipient twin with the potential for RVOTO.
This was a retrospective review of a two-center experience of TTTS to describe the prevalence and evolution of acquired RVOTO in the recipient twin. Right ventricular outflow tract obstruction was diagnosed or excluded by fetal or postnatal echocardiography or clinical assessment.
Of 73 twin pregnancies with TTTS identified between 1994 to 1998, a total of seven (9.6%) were complicated by RVOTO in the recipient twin: two subvalvar/muscular, four valvar and one combined. Of 44 pregnancies with fetal echo, six had in utero RVOTO with antegrade flow diagnosed at gestational ages ranging from 19 to 27 weeks. In utero progression occurred in four cases over a period of four to eight weeks, with the development of RVOT atresia by delivery. Postnatal progression of RVOTO occurred in two cases, one of which required pulmonary balloon valvuloplasty at age two years. Postnatal regression of subvalvar RVOTO occurred in two cases in early infancy. Death related directly or indirectly to the RVOTO occurred in all four patients who developed complete RVOT obliteration.
Right ventricular outflow tract obstruction may occur in the recipient twin of at least 9% of pregnancies complicated by TTTS. Right ventricular outflow tract obstruction progression is common in utero and may worsen neonatal outcome.
Fibrinogen (FBG) and total coagulation factor VII (FVIIc) concentrations are higher in those patients with coronary artery disease who are at increased future risk of acute ischemic events. The relationship between activated factor VII (FVIIa) and cardiovascular events, however, has not been intensively studied. Data were collected from 401 consecutive patients who underwent coronary angiography because of suspected coronary artery disease. Conventional risk factors FVIIc, FVIIa and FBG were assessed in relation to the severity of coronary artery disease, left ventricular ejection fraction, and previous clinical events. A strong positive correlation was found between FVIIa and FVIIc (p
To assess the effectiveness and clinical outcomes of catheter-directed thrombolysis in patients with atresia of the inferior vena cava (IVC) and acute iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis (DVT).
From 2001 to 2009, 11 patients (median age, 32 y) with atresia of the IVC and acute iliofemoral DVT in 13 limbs were admitted for catheter-directed thrombolysis. Through a multiple-side hole catheter inserted in the popliteal vein, continuous pulse-spray infusion of tissue plasminogen activator and heparin was performed. Thrombolysis was terminated when all thrombus was resolved and venous outflow through the paravertebral collateral vessels was achieved. After thrombolysis, all patients received lifelong anticoagulation and compression stockings and were followed up at regular intervals.
Ultrasound or computed tomography revealed absence of the suprarenal segment of the IVC in two patients, and nine were diagnosed with absence of the infrarenal segment of the IVC. Median treatment time was 58 hours (range, 42-95 h). No deaths or serious complications occurred. Overall, complications were observed in four patients, one of whom required blood transfusion. Three patients were diagnosed with thrombophilia. Median follow-up was 37 months (range, 51 d to 96 mo). All patients had patent deep veins and one developed reflux in the popliteal fossa after 4 years. No thromboembolic recurrences were observed during follow-up.
Catheter-directed thrombolysis of patients with acute iliofemoral DVT and atresia of the IVC is a viable treatment option, as reasonable clinical outcomes can be obtained.