Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of only a few malignancies with an increasing incidence in North America. Because the vast majority of HCCs occur in the setting of a cirrhotic liver, management of this malignancy is best performed in a multidisciplinary group that recognizes the importance of liver function, as well as patient and tumour characteristics. The Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system is preferred for HCC because it incorporates the tumour characteristics (ie, tumour-node-metastasis stage), the patient's performance status and liver function according to the Child-Turcotte-Pugh classification, and then links the BCLC stage to recommended therapeutic interventions. However, the BCLC algorithm does not recognize the potential role of radiofrequency ablation for very early stage HCC, the expanding role of liver transplantation in the management of HCC, the role of transarterial chemoembolization in single large tumours, the potential role of transarterial radioembolization with 90Yttrium and the limited evidence for using sorafenib in Child- Turcotte-Pugh class B cirrhotic patients. The current review article presents an evidence-based approach to the multidisciplinary management of HCC along with a new algorithm for the management of HCC that incorporates the BCLC staging system and the authors' local selection criteria for resection, ablative techniques, liver transplantation, transarterial chemoembolization, transarterial radioembolization and sorafenib in Alberta.
Cites: Hepatology. 2008 Jan;47(1):97-10418069697
Cites: Ann Surg Oncol. 2008 May;15(5):1375-8218324443
Dual atrioventricular nodal physiology (DAVNP) is a frequent finding in patients with suspected or documented supraventricular tachycardia (SVT). Empiric slow pathway ablation (ESPA) is sometimes performed in patients with DAVNP without inducible SVT at the time of electrophysiological study. Evidence to guide this practice in the adult population is limited. This study was aimed to assess the practice of ESPA by adult electrophysiologists in Canada.
All Canadian interventional electrophysiologists (n?=?81) were invited to complete a web-based questionnaire assessing their practice of ESPA in patients with suspected and documented SVT. Operator experience, reimbursement models, diagnostic, and treatment decisions regarding ESPA were assessed with case scenarios.
Forty-one responses (50 %) were obtained. Ninety-five percent of the responders stated that the evidence for ESPA is lacking or limited. Responders were more likely to perform ESPA in the setting of non-inducible SVT when there was documentation of the clinical arrhythmia (64 vs. 31 % (p?=?0.017)). The threshold to perform ESPA was highly variable. Longer time in practice (r?=?0.38, p?=?0.017) and less perceived complications with ESPA (r?=?0.31, p?=?0.05) were correlated with the practice of ESPA, whereas length of ablation waiting lists (r?=?-0.15, p?=?0.38), number of procedures performed per day (r?=?0.11, p?=?0.51) and type of reimbursement (p?=?0.24) were not associated with the practice of ESPA. The perceived complication rate with ESPA was
Chronic lumbar radicular pain can be described as neuropathic pain along the distribution of a particular nerve root. The dorsal root ganglion has been implicated in its pathogenesis by giving rise to abnormal impulse generation as a result of irritation, direct compression and sensitization. Chronic lumbar radicular pain is commonly treated with medications, physiotherapy and epidural steroid injections. Epidural steroid injections are associated with several common and rarer side effects such as spinal cord infarction and death. It is essential and advantageous to look for alternate interventions which could be effective with fewer side effects. Pulse radio frequency is a relatively new technique and is less destructive then conventional radiofrequency. Safety and effectiveness of pulse radio frequency in neuropathic pain has been demonstrated in animal and humans studies. Although its effects on dorsal root ganglion have been studied in animals there is only one randomized control trial in literature demonstrating its effectiveness in cervical radicular pain and none in lumbar radicular pain. Our primary objective is to study the feasibility of a larger trial in terms of recruitment and methodology. Secondary objectives are to compare the treatment effects and side effects.
This is a single-center, parallel, placebo-controlled, triple-blinded (patients, care-givers, and outcome assessors), randomized control trial. Participants will have a history of chronic lumbar radicular pain for at least 4 months in duration. Once randomized, all patients will have an intervention involving fluoroscopy guided needle placement to appropriate dorsal root ganglion. After test stimulation in both groups; the study group will have a pulse radio frequency treatment at 42°C for 120?s to the dorsal root ganglion, with the control group having only low intensity test stimulation for the same duration. Primary outcome is to recruit at least four patients every month with 80% of eligible patients being recruited. Secondary outcomes would be to assess success of intervention through change in the visual analogue scale measured at 4 weeks post intervention and side effects. Allocation to each group will be a 1:1 ratio with allocation block sizes of 2, 4, and 6.
Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) is a recommended treatment for patients with atrial fibrillation, but it is unclear whether it results in a lower risk of stroke.
To investigate the proportion of patients discontinuing anticoagulation treatment after PVI in association with the CHA2DS2-VASc (congestive heart failure, hypertension, age =75 years [doubled], diabetes, stroke [doubled], vascular disease, age 65-74 years, sex category [female]) score, identify factors predicting stroke after PVI, and explore the risk of cardiovascular events after PVI in patients with and without guideline-recommended anticoagulation treatment.
A retrospective cohort study was conducted using Swedish national health registries from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2012, with a mean-follow up of 2.6 years. A total of 1585 patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing PVI from the Swedish Catheter Ablation Register were included, with information about exposure to warfarin in the national quality register Auricula. Data analysis was performed from January 1, 2015, to April 30, 2016.
Ischemic stroke, intracranial hemorrhage, and death.
In this cohort of 1585 patients, 73.0% were male, the mean (SD) age was 59.0 (9.4) years, and the mean (SD) CHA2DS2-VASc score was 1.5 (1.4). Of the 1585 patients, 1175 were followed up for more than 1 year after PVI. Of these, 360 (30.6%) discontinued warfarin treatment during the first year. In patients with a CHA2DS2-VASc score of 2 or more, patients discontinuing warfarin treatment had a higher rate of ischemic stroke (5 events in 312 years at risk [1.6% per year]) compared with those continuing warfarin treatment (4 events in 1192 years at risk [0.3% per year]) (P?=?.046). Patients with a CHA2DS2-VASc score of 2 or more or those who had previously experienced an ischemic stroke displayed a higher risk of stroke if warfarin treatment was discontinued (hazard ratio, 4.6; 95% CI, 1.2-17.2; P?=?.02 and hazard ratio, 13.7; 95% CI, 2.0-91.9; P?=?.007, respectively).
These findings indicate that discontinuation of warfarin treatment after PVI is not safe in high-risk patients, especially those who have previously experienced an ischemic stroke.
CommentIn: JAMA Cardiol. 2017 Feb 1;2(2):152-154 PMID 27893050
Since the release of the second-generation cryoballoon (CB2; Arctic Front Advance(TM), Medtronic Inc) and its design modifications with improved cooling characteristics, the technique, dosing, and complication profile is significantly different from that of the first-generation cryoballoon. A comprehensive report of CB2 procedural recommendations has not been reported.
The purpose of this study was to review the current best practices from a group of experienced centers to create a user's consensus guide for CB2 ablation.
High-volume operators with a combined experience of more than 3000 CB2 cases were interviewed, and consensus for technical and procedural best practice was established.
Comprehensive review of the CB2 ablation best practice guide will provide a detailed technique for achieving safer and more effective outcomes for CB2 atrial fibrillation ablation.
To assess the effects of comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation compared with usual care on physical activity and mental health for patients treated with catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation.
The patients were randomized 1:1 stratified by paroxysmal or persistent atrial fibrillation and sex to cardiac rehabilitation consisting of 12 weeks physical exercise and four psycho-educational consultations plus usual care (cardiac rehabilitation group) versus usual care. The primary outcome was Vo2 peak. The secondary outcome was self-rated mental health measured by the Short Form-36 questionnaire. Exploratory outcomes were collected.
210 patients were included (mean age: 59 years, 74% men), 72% had paroxysmal atrial fibrillation prior to ablation. Compared with usual care, the cardiac rehabilitation group had a beneficial effect on Vo2 peak at four months (24.3mL kg(-1) min(-1) versus 20.7mL kg(-1) min(-1), p of main effect=0.003, p of interaction between time and intervention=0.020). No significant difference between groups on Short Form-36 was found (53.8 versus 51.9 points, P=.20). Two serious adverse events (atrial fibrillation in relation to physical exercise and death unrelated to rehabilitation) occurred in the cardiac rehabilitation group versus one in the usual care group (death unrelated to intervention) (P=.56). In the cardiac rehabilitation group 16 patients versus 7 in the usual care group reported non-serious adverse events (P=.047).
Comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation had a positive effect on physical capacity compared with usual care, but not on mental health. Cardiac rehabilitation caused more non-serious adverse events.