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110 records – page 1 of 11.

A 7-month outbreak of relapsing postpartum group A streptococcal infections linked to a nurse with atopic dermatitis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature192371
Source
Scand J Infect Dis. 2001;33(10):734-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
2001
Author
T. Ejlertsen
J. Prag
E. Pettersson
A. Holmskov
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Microbiology, Viborg Hospital, Denmark. tej@aas.nja.dk
Source
Scand J Infect Dis. 2001;33(10):734-7
Date
2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Carrier State - microbiology - transmission
Denmark - epidemiology
Dermatitis, Atopic - microbiology
Disease Outbreaks
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Infectious Disease Transmission, Professional-to-Patient
Puerperal Infection - epidemiology - microbiology
Streptococcal Infections - epidemiology - microbiology - transmission
Streptococcus pyogenes - isolation & purification
Abstract
A 7-month outbreak of 15 cases of postpartum sepsis with group A haemolytic Streptococci (GAS) was stopped when a carrier was identified. Comparing delivery dates with duty rotas revealed that the carrier had been present during delivery in 13 of the 15 cases. The epidemic GAS type, T3-13-B3264, was found in a carbuncle in her groin and in atopic dermatitis lesions behind her ears and on her eyelids. Thus, it was not the microbiological screening of staff that helped detect the carrier. The outbreak went unnoticed for 6 months, as no 2 cases were diagnosed by the same physician and 5 cases were diagnosed by different general practitioners. The main risk factors for infection were presence of the carrier relative risk (relative risk RR 47.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 10.9-209.5) and suturing of episiotomy (RR 11.0; 95% CI 2.6-47.9). We recommend that a thorough epidemiological investigation should be carried out in every single case of GAS postpartum infection. Despite initial intravenous treatment with penicillin, 8 patients experienced > 15 recurring postpartum GAS infections, such as endometritis, wound infection, tonsillitis, erysipelas and Brodie's abscess. Eradication of GAS should be confirmed after completion of treatment.
PubMed ID
11728037 View in PubMed
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[A comparative analysis of the Salmonella typhi strains isolated from patients and bacterial carriers]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature70360
Source
Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 1989 Dec;(12):8-11
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1989
Author
L E Riabchenko
L A Riapis
L M Sladkova
E I Vostrova
Iu V Kravtsov
Source
Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 1989 Dec;(12):8-11
Date
Dec-1989
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Anti-Bacterial Agents - pharmacology
Antigens, Bacterial - analysis
Bacteriophage Typing
Carrier State - microbiology
Comparative Study
Drug Resistance, Microbial
English Abstract
Humans
Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Molecular Weight
Plasmids - genetics
Salmonella typhi - classification - genetics - immunology - isolation & purification - pathogenicity
Typhoid Fever - microbiology
Ukraine
Virulence
Abstract
The comparative analysis of 133 S. typhi clinical strains isolated from patients and carriers in Dnepropetrovsk Province in 1978-1987 was carried out. As shown by this analysis, 10 Vi phage types were represented in the set of strains under study, phage types A and F1 being the most numerous ones. Phage type F1 occurred less frequently among the strains isolated from carriers. 31.1% of the strains were found to contain plasmids with different molecular weight ranging from 96 to 0.5 MD. The occurrence of plasmid-containing strains remained at the same level during the whole period under study. Low-molecular plasmids occurred more frequently in the strains isolated from carriers. The minimal suppressive concentrations of a number of antibiotics, such as penicillin, ampicillin, monomycin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, rifampicin and streptomycin, were determined. 7% of the strains were resistant to penicillin, 9% to monomycin, 15%--to tetracycline and 2.6% to chloramphenicol. The correlation between penicillin and monomycin resistance of the strains and the presence of the plasmid with a molecular weight of 60 MD in these strains was established. All strains were shown to be highly variable in the degree of their virulence: from 10(2) to 10(8). The strains isolated from patients possessed greater virulence.
PubMed ID
2629429 View in PubMed
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Acute bacterial, nonnecrotizing cellulitis in Finland: microbiological findings.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature158912
Source
Clin Infect Dis. 2008 Mar 15;46(6):855-61
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-15-2008
Author
Tuula Siljander
Matti Karppelin
Susanna Vähäkuopus
Jaana Syrjänen
Maija Toropainen
Juha Kere
Risto Vuento
Tapio Jussila
Jaana Vuopio-Varkila
Author Affiliation
Department of Bacterial and Inflammatory Diseases, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland. tuula.siljander@ktl.fi
Source
Clin Infect Dis. 2008 Mar 15;46(6):855-61
Date
Mar-15-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Blood - microbiology
Carrier State - microbiology
Case-Control Studies
Cellulitis - epidemiology - microbiology
Culture Media
Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field
Family Characteristics
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Pharynx - microbiology
Streptococcal Infections - epidemiology - microbiology
Streptococcus - classification - genetics - isolation & purification
Abstract
Bacterial, nonnecrotizing cellulitis is a localized and often recurrent infection of the skin. The aim of this study was to identify the beta-hemolytic streptococci that cause acute nonnecrotizing cellulitis infection in Finland.
A case-control study of 90 patients hospitalized for acute cellulitis and 90 control subjects was conducted during the period of April 2004-March 2005. Bacterial swab samples were obtained from skin lesions or any abrasion or fissured toe web. Blood culture samples were taken for detection of bacteremia. The patients, their household members, and control subjects were assessed for pharyngeal carrier status. beta-Hemolytic streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus were isolated and identified, and group A and G streptococcal isolates were further analyzed by T serotyping and emm and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing.
beta-Hemolytic streptococci were isolated from 26 (29%) of 90 patients, 2 isolates of which were blood-culture positive for group G streptococci, and 24 patients had culture-positive skin lesions. Group G Streptococcus (Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis) was found most often and was isolated from 22% of patient samples of either skin lesions or blood, followed by group A Streptococcus, which was found in 7% of patients. Group G streptococci were also carried in the pharynx of 7% of patients and 13% of household members but was missing from control subjects. Several emm and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis types were present among the isolates. Six patients (7%) had recurrent infections during the study. In 2 patients, the group G streptococcal isolates recovered from skin lesions during 2 consecutive episodes had identical emm and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis types.
Group G streptococci, instead of group A streptococci, predominated in bacterial cellulitis. No clear predominance of a specific emm type was seen. The recurrent nature of cellulitis became evident during this study.
PubMed ID
18260753 View in PubMed
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An outbreak of group B meningococcal disease: tracing the causative strain of Neisseria meningitidis by DNA fingerprinting.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature39260
Source
J Clin Microbiol. 1986 Apr;23(4):764-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1986
Author
B E Kristiansen
B. Sørensen
B. Bjorvatn
E S Falk
E. Fosse
K. Bryn
L O Frøholm
P. Gaustad
K. Bøvre
Source
J Clin Microbiol. 1986 Apr;23(4):764-7
Date
Apr-1986
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Carrier State - microbiology
Child
Child, Preschool
DNA, Bacterial - analysis - genetics
Disease Outbreaks
Drug Resistance, Microbial
Humans
Meningococcal Infections - epidemiology - microbiology
Middle Aged
Neisseria meningitidis - classification - drug effects - genetics - immunology
Norway
Pharynx - microbiology
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Serotyping
Sulfadiazine - pharmacology
Abstract
Following an outbreak of meningococcal disease in three schoolchildren in a small community in northern Norway, DNA fingerprinting, serotyping with monoclonal antibodies, serogrouping, and sulfonamide sensitivity testing were applied for characterization and tracing of the causative agent. The three case isolates were genomically indistinguishable, sulfonamide-resistant, serogroup B, serotype 15 meningococci. Throat specimens were collected from 552 healthy contacts, including all children below age 17 and their parents. Among the 36 carrier isolates (carrier rate, 6.5%) 13 showed DNA fingerprints identical, or almost identical, to the index pattern. All of these 13 isolates were sulfonamide resistant, 12 were of serotype 15, and 8 were of polysaccharide serogroup B (5 were nongroupable). These closely related isolates were almost exclusively recovered from schoolchildren of 2 of 15 small villages, one of which included the homes of two of the patients. The remaining 23 carrier isolates were nonresistant, non-type 15 meningococci of widely differing DNA restriction patterns. Our results confirm that DNA fingerprinting has potential as an efficient tool in practical meningococcal epidemiology.
PubMed ID
3084555 View in PubMed
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An outbreak of hepatitis B in a nursing home.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature234696
Source
CMAJ. 1987 Sep 15;137(6):511-2
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-15-1987

[An outbreak of MRSA in a nursing home in Oslo].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature153688
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2008 Dec 4;128(23):2734-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-4-2008
Author
Hans Frederik Leendert van der Werff
Tore Waelgaard Steen
Kirsten Marie Knutsen Garder
Bjørg Marit Andersen
Mette Rasch
Bente Jørgen
Anne Bråthen
Merete Helland
Lina Torvund
Aslak Heldal Haugen
Author Affiliation
Hovseterhjemmet Landingsveien 12 0767 Oslo. hlfvanderwerff@hotmail.com
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2008 Dec 4;128(23):2734-7
Date
Dec-4-2008
Language
Norwegian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Carrier State - microbiology
Disease Outbreaks
Female
Humans
Infection Control
Male
Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus - isolation & purification
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Nursing Homes
Patient Isolation
Risk factors
Staphylococcal Infections - epidemiology - microbiology - transmission
Abstract
Infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) represent an increasing problem in Norway, also in nursing homes and other institutions for long-term care. We describe an outbreak of MRSA in a nursing home in Oslo 2004-5.
The nursing home has six wards with 185 beds. The building is old, all rooms have toilets and sinks, but showers are shared. Standard screening procedures were carried out according to the national MRSA guide and by using the nursing home's infection control programme. Later on we used more extensive screening of staff and patients.
The outbreak started in a ward for short-term care, but spread to a ward for patients with dementia after some months. Ten patients, seven staff members and two relatives of infected persons were diagnosed with MRSA. All bacteria probably belonged to the same strain. Four staff members and five patients who were infected had pre-existing wounds or eczema. The nursing home was declared free of MRSA 20 months after the outbreak started, but one member of staff remained a carrier for two years, and one patient became a chronic carrier of MRSA. During the first six months, infected patients were restricted to their rooms, and standard eradication procedures were carried out for five days. Later on, we introduced cohort isolation for infected, exposed and recently treated patients, a different screening routine, a prolonged eradication procedure, restrictions on staff working elsewhere and more stringent precautions for visitors.
An old building and insufficient isolation procedures during the first phase of the outbreak contributed to spreading MRSA and prolonging the outbreak. Cohort isolation seemed to be the most important measure to control the outbreak. All nursing homes should have a designated single patient room for contact precautions. Long-term carriers of MRSA in nursing homes represent a big challenge.
PubMed ID
19079422 View in PubMed
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[Antibiotic treatment of women with group B Steptococci during delivery?]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature90709
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2008 Nov 6;128(21):2467-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-6-2008
Author
Kløvstad Hilde
Høiby E Arne
Aavitsland Preben
Author Affiliation
Avdeling for infeksjonsovervåking Nasjonalt folkehelseinstitutt Postboks 4404 Nydalen 0403 Oslo. hilde.klovstad@fhi.no
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2008 Nov 6;128(21):2467-9
Date
Nov-6-2008
Language
Norwegian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Anti-Bacterial Agents - administration & dosage - adverse effects
Carrier State - microbiology
Delivery, Obstetric
Drug Resistance, Bacterial
Drug Utilization Review
Female
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical - prevention & control
Penicillin G - administration & dosage - adverse effects
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications, Infectious - drug therapy - microbiology
Streptococcal Infections - prevention & control - transmission
Streptococcus agalactiae - isolation & purification
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Transmission of group B Steptococci from mother to child during delivery may cause serious disease in some children, but this can be prevented by use of antibiotic treatment during delivery. We have estimated how antibiotic treatment of all pregnant carriers of group B streptococcus during delivery would affect the total antibiotic use in Norway. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We estimated the use of penicillin G for treatment of 10 %, 20 % and 30 % of streptococcus carriers among those delivering. The Medical Birth Registry was used to obtain number of births and the Norwegian Drug Wholesalers Database to obtain total use of the various substances. RESULTS: If 30 % of delivering women were carriers of group B streptococcus and treated with penicillin G, the treatment would equal 2.8 % of today's total use of penicillin G and 0.09 % of the total use of the whole group of beta-lactam antibacterial agents, penicillins. INTERPRETATION: Prophylactic antibiotic treatment of pregnant carriers of group B streptococcus during delivery would not lead to a substantial change in the current antibiotic use. The possibility of increasing antibiotic resistance should not be a main argument against using antibiotics in prevention of group B streptococcus infection in newborns.
PubMed ID
19096471 View in PubMed
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Antimicrobial resistance in colonizing group B Streptococci before the implementation of a Swedish intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis program.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature100491
Source
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2010 Oct;29(10):1195-201
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2010
Author
M. Granlund
P. Axemo
K. Bremme
A-L Bryngelsson
M. Carlsson Wallin
C-M Ekström
S. Håkansson
B. Jacobsson
K. Källén
E. Spetz
I. Tessin
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Bacteriology, Umeå University Hospital, 901 85 Umeå, Sweden. Margareta.Granlund@climi.umu.se
Source
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2010 Oct;29(10):1195-201
Date
Oct-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Anti-Bacterial Agents - pharmacology
Bacterial Typing Techniques
Carrier State - microbiology
DNA, Bacterial - genetics
Drug Resistance, Bacterial
Female
Genes, Bacterial
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Microbial Sensitivity Tests - methods
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications, Infectious - microbiology
Rectum - microbiology
Serotyping
Skin - microbiology
Streptococcal Infections - microbiology
Streptococcus agalactiae - drug effects - isolation & purification
Sweden
Vagina - microbiology
Abstract
The prevalence of antibiotic resistance and their genetic determinants in colonizing group B streptococci (GBS) sampled in a Swedish nationwide survey was examined. In five GBS isolates (1.3%), kanamycin/amikacin resistance and the presence of the aphA-3 gene was identified. Three of these isolates carried the aad-6 gene and were streptomycin-resistant. Screening with kanamycin and streptomycin 1,000-?g disks enabled a rapid and easy detection of these isolates. In all, 312/396 (79%) GBS were tetracycline-resistant and 95% of the examined isolates harbored the tetM gene. Among the 22 (5.5%) GBS resistant to erythromycin and/or clindamycin, the ermB gene was detected in nine isolates (41%) and erm(A/TR) in ten isolates (45%). A high level of erythromycin and clindamycin resistance with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) >256?mg/L was found in four serotype V isolates that harbored ermB. The erythromycin/clindamycin resistance was distributed among all of the common serotypes Ia, Ib, II, III, IV, and V, but was not present in any of the 44 serotype III isolates associated to clonal complex 17. Screening for penicillin resistance with 1-?g oxacillin disks showed a homogenous population with a mean inhibition zone of 20?mm. A change in the present oxacillin breakpoints for GBS is suggested.
PubMed ID
20706855 View in PubMed
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Antimicrobial resistance of nasopharyngeal pneumococci from children from day-care centres and orphanages in Russia: results of a unique prospective multicentre study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature168063
Source
Clin Microbiol Infect. 2006 Sep;12(9):853-66
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2006
Author
L S Stratchounski
R S Kozlov
P C Appelbaum
O I Kretchikova
K. Kosowska-Shick
Author Affiliation
Institute of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, Smolensk, Russia.
Source
Clin Microbiol Infect. 2006 Sep;12(9):853-66
Date
Sep-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Anti-Bacterial Agents - pharmacology
Carrier State - microbiology
Child
Child Day Care Centers
Child, Preschool
Drug Resistance, Bacterial
Humans
Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Nasopharynx - microbiology
Orphanages
Pneumococcal infections - epidemiology - microbiology
Prospective Studies
Russia - epidemiology
Streptococcus pneumoniae - classification - drug effects - genetics - isolation & purification
Abstract
This study assessed the antimicrobial resistance of nasopharyngeal pneumococci isolated from children aged or = 4 mg/L) isolates were tested for resistance mechanisms and clonal relatedness. Non-susceptibility rates, by CLSI criteria, were 19.3%, 0.9% and 0.4% for penicillin G, cefotaxime and amoxycillin-clavulanate, respectively. Resistance to macrolides and lincosamides was also relatively low, i.e., or = 8 mg/L) were found, but 1.7% of isolates were non-susceptible (MIC 4 mg/L). No resistance was found to levofloxacin, gemifloxacin, telithromycin or vancomycin. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis showed no relationship between ciprofloxacin- and macrolide-non-susceptible isolates in European and Asian Russia. Resistance among macrolide-resistant isolates resulted mostly from the presence of erm(B) and mef(A), and from changes in L4; additionally, L22 mutations were common in isolates from Asian Russia. Non-susceptibility to quinolones was associated with mutations in parC and parE among European isolates. Asian Russian isolates had mutations in parC and gyrA, and alterations in parE were more common. There were substantial differences in non-susceptibility and mechanisms of resistance between pneumococci from Asian and European Russia, with orphanages appearing to be 'hot-spots' of resistance.
PubMed ID
16882290 View in PubMed
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110 records – page 1 of 11.