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Aerobic fitness is associated with low cardiovascular disease risk: the impact of lifestyle on early risk factors for atherosclerosis in young healthy Swedish individuals - the Lifestyle, Biomarker, and Atherosclerosis study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature284719
Source
Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2017;13:91-99
Publication Type
Article
Date
2017
Author
Maria Fernström
Ulrika Fernberg
Gabriella Eliason
Anita Hurtig-Wennlöf
Source
Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2017;13:91-99
Date
2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Biomarkers - blood
Cardiorespiratory fitness
Carotid Artery Diseases - blood - diagnostic imaging - epidemiology - prevention & control
Carotid Intima-Media Thickness
Cross-Sectional Studies
Dyslipidemias - blood - epidemiology - prevention & control
Exercise Test
Feeding Behavior
Hand Strength
Healthy Diet
Healthy Volunteers
Humans
Insulin Resistance
Muscle strength
Prevalence
Prognosis
Protective factors
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Risk Reduction Behavior
Surveys and Questionnaires
Sweden - epidemiology
Time Factors
Young Adult
Abstract
The progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and atherosclerosis is slow and develops over decades. In the cross-sectional Swedish Lifestyle, Biomarker, and Atherosclerosis study, 834 young, self-reported healthy adults aged 18.0-25.9 years have been studied to identify early risk factors for atherosclerosis.
The aims of this study were to 1) assess selected cardiometabolic biomarkers, carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) as a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, and lifestyle-related indicators (food habits, handgrip strength, and oxygen uptake, VO2 max); 2) analyze the associations between cIMT and lifestyle factors; and 3) identify subjects at risk of CVD using a risk score and to compare the characteristics of subjects with and without risk of CVD.
Blood samples were taken in a fasting state, and food habits were reported through a questionnaire. cIMT was measured by ultrasound, and VO2 max was measured by ergometer bike test. The risk score was calculated according to Wildman.
cIMT (mean ± standard deviation) was 0.50±0.06 mm, and VO2 max values were 37.8±8.5 and 42.9±9.9 mL/kg/min, in women and men, respectively. No correlation was found between aerobic fitness expressed as VO2 max (mL/kg/min) and cIMT. Using Wildman's definition, 12% of the subjects were classified as being at risk of CVD, and 15% had homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. A total of 35% of women and 25% of men had lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol than recommended. Food habits did not differ between those at risk and those not at risk. However, aerobic fitness measured as VO2 max (mL/kg/min) differed; 47% of the subjects at risk had low aerobic fitness compared to 23% of the nonrisk subjects (P
Notes
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PubMed ID
28352184 View in PubMed
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Arterial pulse wave velocity in relation to carotid intima-media thickness, brachial flow-mediated dilation and carotid artery distensibility: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study and the Health 2000 Survey.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature131842
Source
Atherosclerosis. 2012 Feb;220(2):387-93
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2012
Author
Teemu Koivistoinen
Marko Virtanen
Nina Hutri-Kähönen
Terho Lehtimäki
Antti Jula
Markus Juonala
Leena Moilanen
Heikki Aatola
Jari Hyttinen
Jorma S A Viikari
Olli T Raitakari
Mika Kähönen
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Physiology, University of Tampere and Tampere University Hospital, FI-33521, Tampere, Finland. teemu.koivistoinen@uta.fi
Source
Atherosclerosis. 2012 Feb;220(2):387-93
Date
Feb-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Analysis of Variance
Brachial Artery - physiopathology - ultrasonography
Carotid Arteries - pathology - physiopathology - ultrasonography
Carotid Artery Diseases - diagnosis - epidemiology - pathology - physiopathology
Carotid Intima-Media Thickness
Chi-Square Distribution
Compliance
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Health Surveys
Humans
Linear Models
Male
Middle Aged
Multivariate Analysis
Plethysmography, Impedance
Predictive value of tests
Prognosis
Pulsatile Flow
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Vasodilation
Abstract
Increased arterial pulse wave velocity (PWV) is a strong predictor of cardiovascular events and mortality. The data regarding the relationships between PWV and other indices of vascular damage is limited and partly controversial. We conducted the present study to examine PWV in relation to non-invasive measures of early atherosclerosis (brachial flow-mediated dilation [FMD], carotid intima-media thickness [IMT]) and local arterial stiffness (carotid artery distensibility [Cdist]).
The study population consisted of 1754 young adults (aged 30-45 years, 45.5% males) participating in the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study (YFS), and of 336 older adults (aged 46-76 years, 43.2% males) participating in the Health 2000 Survey. FMD was measured only in the YFS cohort. FMD, IMT and Cdist were assessed by ultrasound, and PWV was measured using the whole-body impedance cardiography device.
In young adults, FMD and IMT were not associated with PWV independently of cardiovascular risk factors. Moreover, FMD status was not found to modulate the association between cardiovascular risk factors and PWV. In older adults, PWV and IMT were directly and independently associated (?=1.233, p=0.019). In both cohorts, PWV was inversely related with Cdist, and this relation remained significant (p
Notes
Comment In: Atherosclerosis. 2012 Feb;220(2):319-2021899842
PubMed ID
21871623 View in PubMed
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Association between CD8+ T-cell subsets and cardiovascular disease.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature116822
Source
J Intern Med. 2013 Jul;274(1):41-51
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2013
Author
D. Kolbus
I. Ljungcrantz
L. Andersson
B. Hedblad
G N Fredrikson
H. Björkbacka
J. Nilsson
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Sciences Malmö, Lund University, Sweden.
Source
J Intern Med. 2013 Jul;274(1):41-51
Date
Jul-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Antigens, CD56 - analysis
Biological Markers - blood
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes - immunology
Cardiovascular Diseases - immunology
Carotid Intima-Media Thickness
Carotid Stenosis - epidemiology - immunology - physiopathology - ultrasonography
Cohort Studies
Coronary Artery Disease - epidemiology - immunology - physiopathology - ultrasonography
Cytokines - secretion
Female
Flow Cytometry
Humans
Incidence
Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit - analysis
Kaplan-Meier Estimate
Leukocytes - immunology
Male
Middle Aged
Odds Ratio
Predictive value of tests
Proportional Hazards Models
Prospective Studies
Registries
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Severity of Illness Index
Stroke - epidemiology - immunology - physiopathology - ultrasonography
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
The findings of experimental studies suggest that the immune system plays a key role in atherosclerosis, but the clinical importance of different immune cells in cardiovascular disease remains poorly characterized. In this study we investigated the association between CD8(+) T cells and carotid disease as well as development of cardiovascular disease events.
The study cohort comprised 700 subjects from the cardiovascular arm of the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells, obtained at the 1991-1994 baseline investigation and stored at -140 °C, were thawed and the different CD8(+) T-cell populations analysed by flow cytometry. Baseline carotid intima-media thickness and stenosis were assessed by ultrasonography and clinical events were monitored through validated national registers.
Subjects with a high fraction of CD8(+) T cells were characterized by decreased cytokine release from activated leucocytes, metabolic signs of insulin resistance and increased incidence of coronary events; hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for the second and third tertiles of CD8(+) T cells were 2.57 (1.16, 5.67) and 2.61 (1.19, 5,71), respectively, in a Cox proportional hazards regression model. Correlations were found between the fraction of CD8(+) CD25(+) T cells and the degree of carotid stenosis (r = 0.11, P
PubMed ID
23356723 View in PubMed
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The association between "hypertriglyceridemic waist" and sub-clinical atherosclerosis in a multiethnic population: a cross-sectional study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature104927
Source
Lipids Health Dis. 2014;13:38
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Danijela Gasevic
Axel C Carlsson
Iris A Lesser
Gb John Mancini
Scott A Lear
Author Affiliation
Department of Biomedical Physiology and Kinesiology, Simon Fraser University, 2600-515 W Hastings Street, Vancouver V6B 5K3, BC, Canada. danijela.gasevic@gmail.com.
Source
Lipids Health Dis. 2014;13:38
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Atherosclerosis - pathology
Carotid Artery Diseases - pathology
Carotid Intima-Media Thickness
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Humans
Hypertriglyceridemia - pathology
Male
Middle Aged
Phenotype
Risk factors
Waist Circumference
Abstract
"Hypertriglyceridemic waist" (HTGW) phenotype, an inexpensive early screening tool for detection of individuals at risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease was found to be associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in various patient populations such as those with diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and those infected with human immunodeficiency virus. However, less is known regarding an association between HTGW and subclinical atherosclerosis in the apparently healthy, multiethnic population. Therefore, the aim of the study was to explore the association between HTGW and sub-clinical atherosclerosis in an apparently healthy, multiethnic population; and to investigate whether the effect of HTGW on sub-clinical atherosclerosis persists over and above the traditional atherosclerosis risk factors.
We studied 809 individuals of Aboriginal, Chinese, European and South Asian origin who were assessed for indices of sub-clinical atherosclerosis (intima-media thickness (IMT), total area and presence of carotid plaques), socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics, anthropometrics, lipids, glucose, blood pressure, and family history of cardiovascular disease.
We found that, compared to individuals without HTGW and after adjusting for age, ethnicity, smoking, and physical activity; men and women with HTGW had a significantly higher: IMT (men: B (95%CI?=?0.084 (0.037, 1.133), p?
Notes
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PubMed ID
24558974 View in PubMed
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Association between the surfactant protein D (SFTPD) gene and subclinical carotid artery atherosclerosis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature278404
Source
Atherosclerosis. 2016 Mar;246:7-12
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2016
Author
Grith L Sorensen
Else Marie Bladbjerg
Rudi Steffensen
Qihua Tan
Jens Madsen
Thomas Drivsholm
Uffe Holmskov
Source
Atherosclerosis. 2016 Mar;246:7-12
Date
Mar-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Asymptomatic Diseases
Carotid Arteries - diagnostic imaging
Carotid Artery Diseases - blood - diagnostic imaging - genetics
Carotid Intima-Media Thickness
Chi-Square Distribution
Denmark
Female
Genetic Association Studies
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Humans
Linear Models
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Multivariate Analysis
Phenotype
Plaque, Atherosclerotic
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein D - blood - genetics
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Smoking - adverse effects
Abstract
Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a defense collectin with inflammation-modulating properties. SP-D deficiency inhibits atherosclerosis in vivo, and the circulatory SP-D levels have been previously associated with cardiovascular disease mortality. We hypothesized that plasma SP-D (pSP-D) and SP-D gene (SFTPD) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are risk factors for atherosclerosis.
We evaluated individuals who were all 60 years old and participated in The Glostrup Population Study. Subclinical atherosclerosis was diagnosed based on the ultrasonographic measurement of intima-media thickness (IMT) and protruding plaques in the right carotid artery. Associations between cardiovascular traits and the levels of pSP-D (n = 687) or two coding SFTPD SNPs rs3088308 and rs721917 (n = 396) were investigated using multiple linear regressions and logistic regressions.
There was no significant association between pSP-D and the presence of plaques or IMT. The SFTPD SNP rs3088308 was nominally associated with the presence of plaques, and rs721917 was nominally associated with IMT. The directions of effects of associations were markedly dependent on current smoking status.
The results do not support that pSP-D levels influence the development of subclinical atherosclerosis. However, the SFTPD SNP data support previous observations from animal studies that SP-D plays a role in the etiology of atherosclerotic disease development. The nominal significant effects are likely to be mediated by structural variant SP-D modulation of effects of tobacco smoking and are independent of pSP-D levels. The data warrant confirmation in larger cohorts.
PubMed ID
26748346 View in PubMed
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The association of dietary alpha-linolenic acid with blood pressure and subclinical atherosclerosis in people born small for gestational age: the Special Turku Coronary Risk Factor Intervention Project study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature264230
Source
J Pediatr. 2015 May;166(5):1252-1257.e2
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2015
Author
Michael R Skilton
Katja Pahkala
Jorma S A Viikari
Tapani Rönnemaa
Olli Simell
Antti Jula
Harri Niinikoski
David S Celermajer
Olli T Raitakari
Source
J Pediatr. 2015 May;166(5):1252-1257.e2
Date
May-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Aorta - pathology
Atherosclerosis - blood
Birth weight
Blood pressure
Carotid Intima-Media Thickness
Child
Child, Preschool
Diet
Female
Finland
Gestational Age
Humans
Infant
Infant, Small for Gestational Age
Intervention Studies
Male
Multivariate Analysis
Risk factors
alpha-Linolenic Acid - administration & dosage
Abstract
To determine whether dietary alpha-linolenic (omega-3) fatty acid intake is associated with lower blood pressure and aortic intima-media thickness (IMT) in people born small for gestational age (SGA).
Participants were recruited at age 6 months and followed up every 6-12 months until age 19 years. Blood pressure and food records were assessed at each visit. A total of 1009 participants had at least one blood pressure measure and complete birth weight and gestational age data, including 115 (11%) born SGA (birth weight=10th percentile). Aortic IMT was assessed by ultrasound at 19 years (n=413). Analysis was by linear mixed models and multivariable linear regression.
Children born SGA had greater systolic and pulse pressure from age 14 years onwards. In those born SGA, systolic blood pressure was 2.1 mm Hg lower ([95% CI 0.8-3.3]; P=.001) and pulse pressure 1.4 mm Hg lower ([95% CI 0.3-2.4]; P=.01), per exponential increase in alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) intake; weakened by adjustment for anthropometric measures. Long-term ALA intake was inversely associated with aortic IMT at 19 years in those born SGA (-0.30 mm [95% CI -0.52, -0.08] per exponential greater ALA intake; P=.008), independent of other dietary and anthropometric factors.
Long-term dietary ALA intake during childhood is associated with improved vascular health in people born SGA.
PubMed ID
25702059 View in PubMed
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Association of liver enzymes with metabolic syndrome and carotid atherosclerosis in young adults. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature137714
Source
Ann Med. 2012 Mar;44(2):187-95
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2012
Author
Juha Koskinen
Costan G Magnussen
Mika Kähönen
Britt-Marie Loo
Jukka Marniemi
Antti Jula
Liisa A Saarikoski
Risto Huupponen
Jorma S A Viikari
Olli T Raitakari
Markus Juonala
Author Affiliation
Research Centre of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Turku, Kiinamyllynkatu 10, Turku, Finland. jkkosk@utu.fi
Source
Ann Med. 2012 Mar;44(2):187-95
Date
Mar-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alanine Transaminase - metabolism
Atherosclerosis - etiology
Biological Markers - metabolism
Carotid Arteries - ultrasonography
Carotid Artery Diseases - etiology
Carotid Intima-Media Thickness
Fatty Liver - etiology
Female
Finland
Humans
Liver - enzymology
Male
Metabolic Syndrome X - complications - enzymology
Risk
Risk factors
Tunica Intima - ultrasonography
gamma-Glutamyltransferase - metabolism
Abstract
We examined whether metabolic syndrome (MetS) predicts increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) levels in young adults, whether spontaneous recovery from MetS has a favorable effect on liver enzyme activities, and whether these enzymes contribute to the atherogenicity of MetS (assessed by carotid intima-media thickness (IMT)).
The study included 1,553 subjects (base-line age 31.5 ± 5.0 years). ALT and GGT were measured in 2007. MetS was diagnosed by the new Joint Interim Societies definition.
ALT and GGT levels were higher in subjects with MetS compared to those without in 2007. The association was independent of alcohol intake and BMI. In multivariable models adjusted for base-line age, LDL cholesterol, CRP, alcohol intake, and adiponectin, MetS in 2001 predicted increased ALT (ß ± SEM = 0.320 ± 0.062, P
PubMed ID
21254896 View in PubMed
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Associations among total and food additive phosphorus intake and carotid intima-media thickness--a cross-sectional study in a middle-aged population in Southern Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature108790
Source
Nutr J. 2013;12:94
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Suvi T Itkonen
Heini J Karp
Virpi E Kemi
Elina M Kokkonen
Elisa M Saarnio
Minna H Pekkinen
Merja U M Kärkkäinen
E Kalevi A Laitinen
Maila I Turanlahti
Christel J E Lamberg-Allardt
Author Affiliation
Department of Food and Environmental Sciences Calcium Research Unit, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 66, Helsinki 00014, Finland.
Source
Nutr J. 2013;12:94
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Biological Markers - blood
Cardiovascular Diseases - blood - epidemiology
Carotid Intima-Media Thickness
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diet Records
European Continental Ancestry Group
Fasting
Female
Finland
Food Additives - administration & dosage - adverse effects
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Phosphorus, Dietary - administration & dosage - adverse effects - blood
Risk factors
Abstract
Dietary phosphorus (P) intake in Western countries is 2- to 3-fold higher than recommended, and phosphate is widely used as a food additive in eg. cola beverages and processed meat products. Elevated serum phosphate concentrations have been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and CVD itself in several studies in patients with renal dysfunction and in a few studies in the general population. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) is a CVD risk factor, thus the aim of the study was to determine if an association between dietary P, especially food additive phosphate (FAP), intake, and IMT exists.
Associations among total phosphorus (TP) and FAP intake and carotid IMT were investigated in a cross-sectional study of 37- to 47-year-old females (n = 370) and males (n = 176) in Finland. Associations among TP intake, FAP intake, and IMT were tested by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) in quintiles (TP) and sextiles (FAP) using sex, age, low-density/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, smoking status, and IMT sonographer as covariates.
No significant associations were present between TP or FAP intake and IMT (p > 0.05, ANCOVA), but in between-group comparisons some differences were found indicating higher IMT among subjects with higher P intake. When testing for a significant linear trend with contrast analysis, a positive trend was observed between energy-adjusted TP intake and IMT among all subjects (p = 0.039), and among females a tendency for a trend existed (p = 0.067). Among all subjects, a significant positive linear trend was also present between FAP intake and IMT (p = 0.022); this trend was also seen in females (p = 0.045). In males, no significant associations or trends were noted between TP or FAP intake and IMT (p > 0.05).
Our results indicate that a significant linear trend exists between energy-adjusted TP intake and FAP intake, and IMT among all subjects. Based on these results, high dietary P intake should be further investigated due to its potential association with adverse cardiovascular health effects in the general population.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23841978 View in PubMed
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Associations between dimensional personality measures and preclinical atherosclerosis: the cardiovascular risk in Young Finns study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature125587
Source
J Psychosom Res. 2012 May;72(5):336-43
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2012
Author
Tom Rosenström
Markus Jokela
Claude Robert Cloninger
Mirka Hintsanen
Markus Juonala
Olli Raitakari
Jorma Viikari
Liisa Keltikangas-Järvinen
Author Affiliation
IBS, Unit of Personality, Work and Health Psychology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland. tom.rosenstrom@helsinki.fi
Source
J Psychosom Res. 2012 May;72(5):336-43
Date
May-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Atherosclerosis - psychology - ultrasonography
Carotid Arteries - ultrasonography
Carotid Intima-Media Thickness
Female
Finland
Humans
Male
Personality
Personality Assessment
Risk
Risk factors
Abstract
To assess how multidimensional personality-trait theories, such as the Psychobiological Model of Temperament and Character, and the Five-factor Model of Personality, are associated with subclinical atherosclerosis as indicated by carotid intima-media thickness (IMT). The analysis was designed to tolerate non-linear development in which the same personality profiles can have multiple final outcomes and different antecedent profiles can have the same final outcome.
605 men and 844 women (average age 31.6year, s.d.=5.0, range=24-39) provided data on IMT and traits of the psychobiological model, 725 men and 1011 women were assessed for IMT and the five-factor model (age 37.7year, s.d.=5.0, range=30-45). Robust multidimensional Hotelling's T(2) statistic was used to detect personality differences between participants with high IMT and others. Model-based clustering method further explored the effect.
Those with a high level of subclinical atherosclerosis within the sample (highest IMT-decile) had a combined higher persistence (i.e., were perseverative or perfectionistic), more disorganized (schizotypal) character, and more antisocial temperamental configuration than others (P=0.019). No effect was found for the five-factor model (P=0.978). Traditional methods that did not account for multidimensionality and nonlinearity did not detect an association.
Psychological well-being may have positive effects on health that reduce atherosclerosis in the population as a whole. Increased subclinical atherosclerosis was associated with a profile that combines known risk factors, such as cynical distrust and hostile tendencies. More frequent use of statistical procedures that can cope with non-linear interactions in complex psychobiological systems may facilitate scientific advances in health promotion.
PubMed ID
22469275 View in PubMed
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Associations between objectively measured physical activity intensity in childhood and measures of subclinical cardiovascular disease in adolescence: prospective observations from the European Youth Heart Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature263919
Source
Br J Sports Med. 2014 Oct;48(20):1502-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2014
Author
Mathias Ried-Larsen
Anders Grøntved
Niels Christian Møller
Kristian Traberg Larsen
Karsten Froberg
Lars Bo Andersen
Source
Br J Sports Med. 2014 Oct;48(20):1502-7
Date
Oct-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Carotid Artery Diseases - epidemiology - physiopathology
Carotid Artery, Common - physiopathology
Carotid Intima-Media Thickness
Child
Denmark - epidemiology
Exercise - physiology
Female
Humans
Male
Metabolic Diseases - epidemiology
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Vascular Stiffness - physiology
Abstract
No prospective studies have investigated the association between physical activity (PA) and carotid subclinical cardiovascular disease across childhood. Therefore, the primary aim was to investigate the association between PA intensity across childhood and carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) and stiffness in adolescence. Second, we included a clustered cardiovascular disease risk score as outcome.
This was a prospective study of a sample of 254 children (baseline age 8-10 years) with a 6-year follow-up. The mean exposure and the change in minutes of moderate-and-vigorous and vigorous PA intensity were measured using the Actigraph activity monitor. Subclinical cardiovascular disease was expressed as cIMT, carotid arterial stiffness and secondarily as a metabolic risk z-score including the homoeostasis model assessment score of insulin resistance, triglycerides, total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein ratio, inverse of cardiorespiratory fitness, systolic blood pressure and the sum of four skinfolds.
No associations were observed between PA intensity variables and cIMT or carotid arterial stiffness (p>0.05). Neither change in PA intensity (moderate-and-vigorous nor vigorous) nor mean minutes of moderate-and-vigorous PA intensity was associated to the metabolic risk z-score in adolescence (p>0.05). However, a significant inverse association was observed between mean minutes of vigorous PA and the metabolic risk z-score in adolescence independent of gender and biological maturity (standard ß=-0.19 p=0.007).
A high mean exposure to, or changes in, minutes spent at higher PA intensities across childhood was not associated to cIMT or stiffness in the carotid arteries in adolescence. Our observations suggest that a high volume of vigorous PA across childhood independently associated with lower metabolic cardio vascular disease risk in adolescence.
PubMed ID
23584828 View in PubMed
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