Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) is regarded as a transient metabolic state leading to type-2 diabetes, and is known to predict future risk of cardiovascular disease. This study was designed to investigate if IGT is associated with subclinical atherosclerosis.
In a population-based cohort of 64-year-old women, a group with IGT determined by repeated oral glucose tolerance tests (n=205) was compared with healthy women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT, n=188). Intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaques in the common carotid arteries (CCA) and bulbs were measured by ultrasound. The 95% confidence interval (CI) of the difference between the IGT and NGT groups was -0.03 to 0.03mm. There was no difference in carotid bulb IMT or in the occurrence, size, and characteristics of plaques between the IGT and NGT groups. A meta-analysis was used to calculate summary measures of 12 reviewed studies showing a difference of 0.030 (95% CI 0.012-0.048) mm in carotid IMT between IGT and NGT groups. Heterogeneity in IMT differences between studies was shown.
In our population-based cohort of 64-year-old women, IGT was not associated with increased occurrence of subclinical atherosclerosis. However, a meta-analysis of 12 studies, including our current study, showed that IGT was associated with a small increase in the CCA IMT.
Association of Pathobiologic Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth risk score and 15-year change in risk score with carotid artery intima-media thickness in young adults (from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study).
The Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth (PDAY) study of autopsy findings in subjects 15 to 34 years of age developed a risk score using coronary heart disease risk factors (gender, age, serum lipoprotein concentrations, smoking, hypertension, obesity, and hyperglycemia) to estimate the probability of advanced atherosclerotic lesions in the coronary arteries. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study measured coronary heart disease risk factors in a population-based cohort in 1986 and 2001 and measured carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) with ultrasonography in 2001. We computed the PDAY risk score from risk factors measured in 1,279 subjects who were 12 to 24 years of age in 1986 and 27 to 39 years of age in 2001. The PDAY risk score early in life (i.e., 1986) and the change in risk score in the following 15 years (i.e., 1986 through 2001) were independent predictors of carotid artery intima-media thickness; the multiplicative effect of 1 point in the 1986 risk score was 1.008 (95% confidence interval 1.005 to 1.012) and the multiplicative effect of a 1-point increase between the 1986 and 2001 risk scores was 1.003 (95% confidence interval 1.001 to 1.006; multiplicative effect of 0.997 for a 1-point decrease). In conclusion, the change in risk score over time (decrease or increase) during adolescence and young adulthood, as well as the risk score early in life, are important predictors of atherosclerosis.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We investigated whether, in a randomly selected population of 55-year-old men and women, there is a relationship between common carotid artery (CCA) diameter and intima-media (IM) thickness and conventional risk factors for cardiovascular disease such as gender, smoking, elevated blood lipids, and high blood pressure. METHODS: CCA diameter and IM thickness of the distal right and left CCAs were measured by high-frequency ultrasound methods. Fifty-seven men (73% of the invited men) and 47 women (62% of the invited women) participated. RESULTS: In the whole group the CCA diameter was correlated with gender (P
The association between diabetes and subclinical atherosclerosis is well established. The effect of non-diabetic glucose intolerance on early atherosclerosis is not as straightforward, and the data regarding sex-related differences in this matter are limited. Therefore, our aim was to investigate these associations in men and women separately. We studied 1,304 Finnish men and women over 45 years of age who participated in the Finnish Health 2000 Survey. Ultrasonically determined carotid artery intima-media thickness and elasticity were used as markers of early atherosclerosis. Glucose tolerance was categorized according to the American Diabetes Association criteria for diabetes mellitus. Age-adjusted means for carotid artery intima-media thickness and elasticity indices were significantly (P
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Ultrasound of carotid arteries provides measures of intima media thickness (IMT) and plaque, both widely used as surrogate measures of cardiovascular disease. Although IMT and plaques are highly intercorrelated, the relationship between carotid plaque and IMT and cardiovascular disease has been conflicting. In this prospective, population-based study, we measured carotid IMT, total plaque area, and plaque echogenicity as predictors for first-ever myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS: IMT, total plaque area, and plaque echogenicity were measured in 6226 men and women aged 25 to 84 years with no previous MI. The subjects were followed for 6 years and incident MI was registered. RESULTS: During follow-up, MI occurred in 6.6% of men and 3.0% of women. The adjusted relative risk (RR; 95% CI) between the highest plaque area tertile versus no plaque was 1.56 (1.04 to 2.36) in men and 3.95 (2.16 to 7.19) in women. In women, there was a significant trend toward a higher MI risk with more echolucent plaque. The adjusted RR (95% CI) in the highest versus lowest IMT quartile was 1.73 (0.98 to 3.06) in men and 2.86 (1.07 to 7.65) in women. When we excluded bulb IMT from analyses, IMT did not predict MI in either sex. CONCLUSIONS: In a general population, carotid plaque area was a stronger predictor of first-ever MI than was IMT. Carotid atherosclerosis was a stronger risk factor for MI in women than in men. In women, the risk of MI increased with plaque echolucency.
BACKGROUND: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have increased risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD) that cannot be explained by excess of traditional risk factors. Several studies indicate that mannose-binding lectin (MBL) may modify the development of atherosclerosis; both high and low serum levels of MBL are reported to be associated with CVD. Intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery (ccIMT) is a validated non-invasive anatomic measure of subclinical CVD. We examined the relation between ccIMT and MBL in 114 RA patients. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study MBL2 genotypes and serum concentrations of MBL were assessed; ccIMT was determined by means of ultrasonography; traditional and RA related cardiovascular risk modifiers were measured. RESULTS: The median ccIMT was 0.67 mm. The investigated MBL2 genotypes were not significantly associated with ccIMT. Using a general linear model, ccIMT was not linearly associated with serum MBL but was highly associated with the quadratic term of serum MBL (MBL(2)) (P=0.001) reflecting a U-shaped relation. MBL(2) was also significantly associated with ccIMT in a multivariable analysis adjusting for traditional and RA related cardiovascular risk modifiers (P=0.025). CONCLUSION: In RA patients, a quadratic U-shaped relation between serum MBL and ccIMT was observed independently of the effects of traditional and RA related risk factors for CVD. These results provide further support to the notion that both high and low levels of MBL may be associated with CVD.
The echogenecity measured by ultrasound of atherosclerotic plaques is related to future cardiovascular events. The aim of the present study is to relate the grey scale median of the intima-media complex (IM-GSM) of the common carotid artery (CCA) to the echogenecity of carotid plaques.
In the Prospective Study of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study, a population-based study of 1016 subjects aged 70, carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) and IM-GSM were evaluated by ultrasound and computerized analysis. Also the occurrence of plaque and plaque GSM were measured. The echogenecity of the plaques was also visually estimated by the Gray-Weale classification. In subjects with a carotid plaque (n=582), IM-GSM in CCA was correlated to GSM in the plaque (r=0.60, p
OBJECTIVES: Prospective trials have established intima-media thickness (IMT) of the carotid artery, flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery and cardiac left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) as predictors of cardiovascular events. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between intima-media complex of the brachial artery to FMD, intima-media complex of the common carotid artery and cardiac hypertrophy in patients with coronary heart disease. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Cross-sectional design. Procedures were undertaken within the Huddinge University Hospital, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. A total of 123 patients with a previous acute myocardial infarction (MI) were investigated. Calculated intima-media area (cIMa) of the brachial and common carotid arteries and FMD of the brachial artery and left ventricular dimensions were examined. RESULTS: The brachial cIMa was significantly associated with age, p-triglycerides, common carotid cIMa, ejection fraction, septum thickness, posterior wall thickness and left ventricular mass index (P
Although a number of epidemiological studies have evaluated the association between ss-carotene and the risk of cardiovascular diseases, there has been little research on the role of lycopene, an acyclic form of ss-carotene, with regard to the risk of cardiovascular disease. We investigated the relationship between plasma concentrations of lycopene and intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery wall (CCA-IMT) in 520 middle-aged men and women (aged 45 to 69 years) in eastern Finland. They were examined from 1994 to 1995 at the baseline of the Antioxidant Supplementation in Atherosclerosis Prevention (ASAP) study, a randomized trial concerning the effect of vitamin E and C supplementation on atherosclerotic progression. The subjects were classified into 2 categories according to the median concentration of plasma lycopene (0.12 micromol/L in men and 0.15 micromol/L in women). Mean CCA-IMT of the right and left common carotid arteries was 1.18 mm in men and 0.95 mm in women with plasma lycopene levels lower than the median and 0.97 mm in men (P:
Diets rich in fruits and vegetables containing carotenoids have been of interest because of their potential health benefit against chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and cancer. Interest particularly in lycopene is growing rapidly following the recent publication of epidemiological studies that have associated high lycopene levels with reductions in CVD incidence. Two studies were conducted. In the first one, we examined the role of lycopene as a risk-lowering factor with regard to acute coronary events and stroke in the prospective Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease Risk Factor (KIHD) Study. The subjects were 725 middle-aged men free of coronary heart disease and stroke at the study baseline. In a Cox's proportional hazards' model adjusting for covariates, men in the lowest quartile of serum levels of lycopene had a 3.3-fold (P