Although oncogenic HPV infections have been established as the necessary cause of cervical cancer, most HPV infections are transient and rarely progress to cervical lesions. Current research is focused on identifying factors associated with viral persistence and clearance, such as nutritional status. We evaluated the association between serum antioxidant nutrients (retinol, 10 carotenoids and 3 tocopherols) and type-specific HPV persistence over 4 visits among 405 women participating in the Ludwig-McGill cohort study. We measured circulating carotenoids and tocopherol at 4 different clinical visits for each woman. We report the results from different analytic approaches (a case-control approach at both the woman and viral level, and a prospective approach based on persistent events) that examined the association between these micronutrients and type-specific oncogenic and nononcogenic HPV persistence. In the case-control analysis at the viral level, midcirculating levels of alpha-tocopherol were inversely associated with nononcogenic HPV persistent infection (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.28, 95% CI 0.14-0.57), while high levels were marginally associated (AOR = 0.59, 95% CI 0.28-1.19). Similarly, utilizing generalized estimating equation models, circulating levels of alpha- and delta-tocopherol in the middle or upper tertiles were inversely associated with type-specific nononcogenic HPV persistence (AOR = 0.44, 95% CI 0.19-0.97 and AOR = 0.46, 95% CI 0.19-1.11, respectively). Our study among Brazilian women suggests that serum levels of tocopherols may be protective against nononcogenic HPV persistence. However, we did not find a strong protective effect (as hypothesized) of other serum antioxidant nutrients and type-specific oncogenic HPV persistence measured over 4 clinical visits.
Cites: J Natl Cancer Inst. 2003 Sep 3;95(17):1336-4312953088
Cites: J Infect Dis. 2003 Nov 15;188(10):1508-1614624376
No available dietary assessment method is without error in measuring dietary intake. This has led to an increased interest in biological markers of dietary intake. This article is a review of the literature investigating whether the concentration of carotenoids in blood can serve as biological markers for the intake of fruit and vegetables. The literature indicates an association between intake of fruit and vegetables and the concentration of total carotenoids, alfa-carotene, beta-carotene, lutein and beta-cryptoxanthin in plasma. The same association was not observed for plasma lycopene. Results from several studies also indicate that plasma alfa-carotene and plasma total carotenoids are more suitable as biological markers of the intake of fruit and vegetables than the other carotenoids. As there are large individual variations in the plasma carotenoid response after intake, carotenoids in blood will be a better marker of intake at group level than individual level. Furthermore, the average value from several measurements of carotenoids in blood will be a better marker of long-term intake than a single measurement. Several factors in addition to fruit and vegetables influence the concentration of carotenoids in blood. It is important to assess these factors when carotenoids in blood are used as biological markers of the intake of fruit and vegetables.
OBJECTIVE: Using a nested case-referent design we evaluated the relationship between plasma levels of six carotenoids, alpha-tocopherol, and retinol, sampled before diagnosis, and later breast cancer risk. METHODS: In total, 201 cases and 290 referents were selected from three population-based cohorts in northern Sweden, where all subjects donated blood samples at enrolment. All blood samples were stored at -80 degrees C. Cases and referents were matched for age, age of blood sample, and sampling centre. Breast cancer cases were identified through the regional and national cancer registries. RESULTS: Plasma concentrations of carotenoids were positively intercorrelated. In analysis of three cohorts as a group none of the carotenoids was found to be significantly related to the risk of developing breast cancer. Similarly, no significant associations between breast cancer risk and plasma levels of alpha-tocopherol or retinol were found. However, in postmenopausal women from a mammography cohort with a high number of prevalent cases, lycopene was significantly associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer. A significant trend of an inverse association between lutein and breast cancer risk was seen in premenopausal women from two combined population-based cohorts with only incident cases. A non-significant reduced risk with higher plasma alpha-carotene was apparent throughout all the sub-analyses. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, no significant associations were found between plasma levels of carotenoids, alpha-tocopherol or retinol and breast cancer risk in analysis of three combined cohorts. However, results from stratified analysis by cohort membership and menopausal status suggest that lycopene and other plasma-carotenoids may reduce the risk of developing breast cancer and that menopausal status has an impact on the mechanisms involved.
Composition of carotenoids and its variability were studied in blood serum of different groups of Norisk's population by the method of HPLC in winter 1993. It was shown that prevalence carotenoids in serum of men are licopen and lutein, in serum of women are lutein, licopen and beta-carotene, in serum of children are lutein, criptoxantine, licopen and beta-carotene. Total level of carotenoids in men by 1.7 times lower than in women and by 1.4 times lower than in children. The level of individual carotenoids is decreased in different manners at decreasing of total carotenoids. Minimal levels of carotenoids are near the same in serum of different groups of population.
In winter 1988/1989, a total of 435 randomly selected men and women aged 70-75 years and living in the city of Roskilde were invited to participate in a diet and health study. Nutritional status was assessed through a dietary interview, antropometric and biochemical measurements on 188 of the invited elderly. Assessed in relation to dietary recommendations, the average fat intake was found to be high (41% energy), whereas intakes of vitamin B6 and D were found to be below recommended levels in 22-26% of the subjects. The prevalences of obesity (12% had BMI over 30 kg/m2) and elevated levels of serum cholesterol (16% had serum levels over 7.5 mmol/l) were relatively high, the percentages being higher for females than for males. Many of the elderly had low levels of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D in plasma (30% under 30 nmol/l) indicating a marginal status. The prevalences of low blood levels of vitamin B6 (40% under 30 mmol/l) and betacarotene (26% under 0.3 mumol/l) were also high among the elderly. The prevalence of anaemia was 3%. It is concluded that osteoporosis-related parameters and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases are prevalent among the elderly in Denmark. The origin of these risk factors have to be studied in more detail, and consequences of any changes occurring must be monitored.
Intake of 2-3 g/d of plant stanols as esters lowers LDL cholesterol level, but there is no information about the efficacy and safety of a respective very high daily intake. We studied the effects of 8.8 g/d of plant stanols as esters on serum lipids and safety variables in subjects with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia.
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study the intervention (n=25) and control (n=24) groups consumed spread and drink enriched or not with plant stanol esters for 10 weeks.
Plant stanols reduced serum total and LDL cholesterol concentrations by 12.8 and 17.3% from baseline and by 12.0 and 17.1% from controls (P
Astaxanthin, the main carotenoid pigment in aquatic animals, has greater antioxidant activity in vitro (protecting against lipid peroxidation) and a more polar configuration than other carotenoids. We investigated the effect of three-month astaxanthin supplementation on lipid peroxidation in healthy non-smoking Finnish men, aged 19-33 years by using a randomized double-blind study design. Also absorption of astaxanthin from capsules into bloodstream and its safety were evaluated. The intervention group received two 4-mg astaxanthin (Astaxin) capsules daily, and the control group two identical-looking placebo capsules. Astaxanthin supplementation elevated plasma astaxanthin levels to 0.032 pmol/L (p
The effect of the prophylactic use of multivitamin "Undevitum" on parameters of vitamin providing of schoolchildren in Norilsk was studied. The results of the investigation showed a positive effect of the prophylactic vitamin administration on providing with vitamins of schoolchildren in Norilsk and proved the necessity of conducting mass vitamin administration to schoolchildren.
Data derived from epidemiologic studies on human populations are consistent with the protection from cancer afforded by vitamin A seen in animal studies. The populations studied are diverse, including groups living in India, Singapore, Norway, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The methodologies brought to bear on the question have been equally varied. Although there are inconsistencies in findings, and instances in which an association has not been observed, the weight of evidence suggests that the intake of vitamin A from dietary or other sources may inhibit the onset of lung cancer and possibly other cancers. However, the evidence from human populations is not experimental and it is conceivable that the associations observed are not causal. Additional epidemiologic research is needed to determine what sites of cancer may be inhibited by vitamin A and whether cancer growth at any other site is enhanced by high vitamin A intakes. It is also important that controlled trials using vitamin A as a chemopreventive agent be considered as a means of determining whether the epidemiologic findings are of clinical significance.