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Age at onset of multiple sclerosis may be influenced by place of residence during childhood rather than ancestry.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature170585
Source
Neuroepidemiology. 2006;26(3):162-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
2006
Author
J. Kennedy
P. O'Connor
A D Sadovnick
M. Perara
I. Yee
B. Banwell
Author Affiliation
The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. L5M 4A7, Canada.
Source
Neuroepidemiology. 2006;26(3):162-7
Date
2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age of Onset
Aged
Asia - ethnology
Caribbean Region - ethnology
Child
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Emigration and Immigration
Europe - ethnology
Humans
Middle Aged
Multiple Sclerosis - epidemiology
Ontario - epidemiology
Residence Characteristics
Risk factors
Abstract
Multiple sclerosis (MS) most commonly affects individuals of Northern European descent who live in countries at high latitude. The relative contributions of ancestry, country of birth and residence as determinants of MS risk have been studied in adult MS, but have not been explored in the pediatric MS population. In this study, we compare the demographics of pediatric- and adult-onset MS patients cared for in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, a multicultural region. The country of birth, residence during childhood, and ancestry were compared for 44 children and 573 adults. Our results demonstrate that although both the pediatric and adult cohorts were essentially born and raised in the same region of Ontario, Canada, children with MS were more likely to report Caribbean, Asian or Middle Eastern ancestry, and were less likely to have European heritage compared with individuals with adult-onset MS. The difference in ancestry between the pediatric and adult MS cohorts can be explained by two hypotheses: (1) individuals raised in a region of high MS prevalence, but whose ancestors originate from regions in which MS is rare, have an earlier age of MS onset, and (2) the place of residence during childhood, irrespective of ancestry, determines lifetime MS risk -- a fact that will be reflected in a change in the demographics of the adult MS cohort in our region as Canadian-raised children of recent immigrants reach the typical age of adult-onset MS.
PubMed ID
16493204 View in PubMed
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Burkholderia pseudomallei infection in a cystic fibrosis patient from the Caribbean: a case report.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature155575
Source
Can Respir J. 2008 Jul-Aug;15(5):237-9
Publication Type
Article
Author
Dimas Mateos Corral
Allan L Coates
Yvonne C W Yau
Raymond Tellier
Mindy Glass
Steven M Jones
Valerie J Waters
Author Affiliation
Division of Respiratory Medicine, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada. dimasmateos@yahoo.com
Source
Can Respir J. 2008 Jul-Aug;15(5):237-9
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Anti-Bacterial Agents - therapeutic use
Burkholderia pseudomallei - isolation & purification
Caribbean Region - ethnology
Cystic Fibrosis - complications - diagnosis - ethnology
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Male
Melioidosis - complications - drug therapy - ethnology
Ontario - epidemiology
Abstract
Burkholderia pseudomallei is a pathogen identified with increasing frequency in the respiratory tracts of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients from endemic areas such as Southeast Asia and northern Australia. The following report describes the first known reported case in a CF patient from the Caribbean attending a North American CF clinic.
Notes
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Cites: Am J Med. 1968 Apr;44(4):599-6055642717
Cites: J Clin Microbiol. 2001 Apr;39(4):1676-711283117
Cites: J Hosp Infect. 1992 Aug;21(4):301-61355785
Cites: Lancet. 1999 Jan 16;353(9148):2089923882
Cites: Clin Microbiol Rev. 2005 Apr;18(2):383-41615831829
Cites: J Clin Microbiol. 2003 Oct;41(10):4647-5414532197
Cites: Clin Infect Dis. 2001 Jan;32(1):E15-611112669
Cites: N Engl J Med. 1981 Nov 5;305(19):1133-57290119
PubMed ID
18716683 View in PubMed
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Coming to stay: an analysis of the U.S. census question on immigrants' year of arrival.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature176821
Source
Demography. 2004 Nov;41(4):721-38
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2004
Author
Ilana Redstone
Douglas S Massey
Author Affiliation
Graduate Group in Demography, University of Pennsylvania, USA. dmassey@princeton.edu
Source
Demography. 2004 Nov;41(4):721-38
Date
Nov-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Asia - ethnology
Canada - ethnology
Caribbean Region - ethnology
Censuses
Emigration and Immigration - classification - statistics & numerical data - trends
Europe - ethnology
Female
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Latin America - ethnology
Male
Middle Aged
Pilot Projects
Population Dynamics - statistics & numerical data
Time Factors
Transients and Migrants - classification - statistics & numerical data
United States
Abstract
Using the New Immigrant Survey Pilot, we compare answers to the census question on year of arrival in the United States with answers to questions about the dates and durations of earlier U.S. trips. We show that the year identified by the census does not correspond to the year of either the first or the last U.S. trip. Because many immigrants enter and leave the United States several times before becoming legal immigrants, the census question produces estimates of U.S. experience that are quite different from those produced by direct questions about trip durations.
Notes
Cites: Demography. 2000 Feb;37(1):127-3810748994
Cites: Int Migr Rev. 1979;13(4):599-62312337315
PubMed ID
15622951 View in PubMed
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Comparing the clinical presentation of first-episode psychosis across different migrant and ethnic minority groups in Montreal, Quebec.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature124808
Source
Can J Psychiatry. 2012 May;57(5):300-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2012
Author
Elsje van der Ven
François Bourque
Ridha Joober
Jean-Paul Selten
Ashok K Malla
Author Affiliation
Prevention and Early Intervention Program for Psychoses, Douglas Mental Health University Institute, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Source
Can J Psychiatry. 2012 May;57(5):300-8
Date
May-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Africa - ethnology
Asia - ethnology
Caribbean Region - ethnology
Central America - ethnology
Cross-Cultural Comparison
Emigrants and Immigrants - psychology
Ethnic Groups - psychology
Europe - ethnology
Female
Humans
Male
Middle East - ethnology
Minority Groups - psychology
Psychotic Disorders - ethnology - psychology
Quebec
Severity of Illness Index
South America - ethnology
Abstract
To explore differences in severity and nature of symptoms of first-episode psychosis (FEP) according to ethnic group and migrant status.
We administered rating scales to assess positive and negative symptoms, as well as general psychopathology, to 301 consecutive patients presenting with an FEP within a defined catchment area in Montreal, Quebec, classified according to ethnicity and migrant status. Symptom scores of Euro-Canadian patients without a recent history of migration, that is, the reference group (n = 145), were compared with those of African and Afro-Caribbean (n = 39), Asian (n = 27), Central and South American (n = 15), Middle Eastern and North African (n = 24), and European and North American (n = 39) patients.
Except for referral source, there were no significant differences between ethnic groups on any demographic variables. The African and Afro-Caribbean group had a higher level of negative symptoms (especially alogia) and general psychopathology scores on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (especially, uncooperativeness, preoccupation, and poor attention), compared with the reference group. Ethnic groups did not differ on the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms scores.
A comparison of FEP patients from different ethnic groups and native-born Euro-Canadians revealed no significant differences in the nature of positive symptoms at first presentation or in age at onset, suggesting that there was no evidence for the hypothesis that ethnic minorities are misdiagnosed as psychotic. Increased severity of negative symptoms and general psychopathology, specifically among the black ethnic minority group, may have implications for the role of ethnicity for the treatment and outcome of the initial episode of psychotic disorders.
PubMed ID
22546062 View in PubMed
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Cross-cultural perspectives on research participation and informed consent.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature173688
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2006 Jan;62(2):479-90
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2006
Author
Paula C Barata
Enza Gucciardi
Farah Ahmad
Donna E Stewart
Author Affiliation
Women's Health Program, University Health Network, Toronto, Ont., Canada. Paula.barata@uhn.on.ca
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2006 Jan;62(2):479-90
Date
Jan-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Attitude to Health
Biomedical research
Caribbean Region - ethnology
Cross-Cultural Comparison
Emigration and Immigration
Female
Focus Groups
Humans
Informed Consent - psychology
Male
Middle Aged
Ontario
Patient Selection
Portugal - ethnology
Questionnaires
Research Subjects - psychology
Role Playing
Trust
Abstract
This study examined Portuguese Canadian and Caribbean Canadian immigrants' perceptions of health research and informed consent procedures. Six focus groups (three in each cultural group) involving 42 participants and two individual interviews were conducted. The focus groups began with a general question about health research. This was followed by three short role-plays between the moderator and the assistant. The role-plays involved a fictional health research study in which a patient is approached for recruitment, is read a consent form, and is asked to sign. The role-plays stopped at key moments at which time focus group participants were asked questions about their understanding and their perceptions. Focus group transcripts were coded in QSR NUDIST software using open coding and then compared across cultural groups. Six overriding themes emerged: two were common in both the Portuguese and Caribbean transcripts, one emphasized the importance of trust and mistrust, and the other highlighted the need and desire for more information about health research. However, these themes were expressed somewhat differently in the two groups. In addition, there were four overriding themes that were specific to only one cultural group. In the Portuguese groups, there was an overwhelming positive regard for the research process and an emphasis on verbal as opposed to written information. The Caribbean participants qualified their participation in research studies and repeatedly raised images of invasive research.
PubMed ID
16039028 View in PubMed
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Eating as a cultural expression of caring among Afro-Caribbean and African American women: understanding the cultural dimensions of obesity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature148888
Source
J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2009 May;20(2 Suppl):53-68
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2009
Author
Joy Bramble
Llewellyn Joseph Cornelius
Gaynell Simpson
Author Affiliation
Times Community Service, Baltimore, USA.
Source
J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2009 May;20(2 Suppl):53-68
Date
May-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
African Americans - statistics & numerical data
African Continental Ancestry Group
Caribbean Region - ethnology
Community Health Services
Culture
Diet
Empathy
Feeding Behavior
Female
Focus Groups
Food Habits
Humans
Interpersonal Relations
Middle Aged
Motor Activity
Nutritional Status
Obesity - epidemiology
Qualitative Research
Questionnaires
United States - epidemiology
Weight Gain
Abstract
Previous studies focused on obesity and weight management have ignored the cultural uniqueness of Afro-Caribbean individuals. The purpose of this study was to examine the cultural context for notions of good health and health practices, and perception of obesity and weight management, among African American and Caribbean American women.
Four focus groups of Afro-Caribbean and African American women (age 40 and older) were conducted between May and July of 2007 to explore cultural factors related to physical activity, healthy eating and weight management.
Cultural variation was observed among Afro-Caribbean and African American woman in terms of indigenous traditions of food and food preparation, and perceptions of obesity.
In the development of community-based interventions to counter trends towards obesity among people of African descent, it may be important not to assume that 'one size fits all' cultures.
Notes
Cites: Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2003 May;13(5):336-4012831439
Cites: Soc Sci Med. 2003 Dec;57(11):2023-3414512234
Cites: J Nutr. 2003 Nov;133(11):3651-714608089
Cites: MMWR Recomm Rep. 2005 Oct 7;54(RR-10):1-1216261131
Cites: JAMA. 2006 Apr 5;295(13):1549-5516595758
Cites: JAMA. 2006 Jul 5;296(1):79-8616820550
Cites: Am J Public Health. 2008 Jun;98(6):1122-718445796
Cites: J Natl Med Assoc. 2006 Oct;98(10):1644-5117052056
Cites: Public Health. 2006 Nov;120(11):1002-717030050
Cites: Am J Health Behav. 2007 Jul-Aug;31(4):363-7317511571
Cites: Ethn Dis. 2006 Spring;16(2):338-4417682233
Cites: Prev Chronic Dis. 2007 Oct;4(4):A11217875256
Cites: Ethn Dis. 2007 Summer;17(3):508-1417985506
Cites: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2006 Sep 15;55(36):985-816971886
PubMed ID
19711493 View in PubMed
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Educational selectivity in U.S. immigration: how do immigrants compare to those left behind?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature175626
Source
Demography. 2005 Feb;42(1):131-52
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2005
Author
Cynthia Feliciano
Author Affiliation
Department of Sociology, University of California, Irvine, 3151 Social Science Plaza, Irvine, CA 92697-5100, USA. felician@uci.edu
Source
Demography. 2005 Feb;42(1):131-52
Date
Feb-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Distribution
Asia - ethnology
Canada - ethnology
Caribbean Region - ethnology
Educational Status
Emigration and Immigration - statistics & numerical data - trends
Ethnic Groups - classification - education
Europe - ethnology
Humans
Internationality
Interviews as Topic
Latin America - ethnology
Mexico - ethnology
Regression Analysis
Sex Distribution
United States
Abstract
Current immigration research has revealed little about how immigrants compare to those who do not migrate. Although most scholars agree that migrants are not random samples of their home countries' populations, the direction and degree of educational selectivity is not fully understood. This study of 32 U.S. immigrant groups found that although nearly all immigrants are more educated than those who remain in their home countries, immigrants vary substantially in their degree of selectivity, depending upon the origin country and the timing of migration. Uncovering patterns of immigrant selectivity reveals the fallacy in attributing immigrants' characteristics to national groups as a whole and may help explain socioeconomic differences among immigrant groups in the United States.
PubMed ID
15782899 View in PubMed
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The effect of ethnicity and gender on first-contact rates for schizophrenia-like psychosis in Bangladeshi, Black and White elders in Tower Hamlets, London.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature181047
Source
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2004 Mar;19(3):286-90
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2004
Author
Pamina R Mitter
Sarada Krishnan
Peter Bell
Robert Stewart
Robert J Howard
Author Affiliation
Oxford Mental Healthcare Trust, Oxford, UK. paminamitter@doctors.org.uk
Source
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2004 Mar;19(3):286-90
Date
Mar-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
African Continental Ancestry Group - ethnology
Aged
Caribbean Region - ethnology
Epidemiologic Factors
Ethnic Groups
Female
Humans
London - epidemiology
Male
Psychotic Disorders - diagnosis - ethnology
Referral and Consultation
Schizophrenia - diagnosis - ethnology
Sex Factors
Abstract
A recent study of very-late onset schizophrenia-like psychosis (SLP) in South London showed an increase in first contact rates amongst African- and Caribbean-born elders compared to British-born ones. This study investigates incident first contact rates in an area of East London with a high Bangladeshi population, to investigate if Bangladeshi-born elders also have an increased referral rate for SLP.
Retrospective case note review of first contacts to the old age psychiatry service from 1997 to 2002 identifying cases of schizophrenia-like psychosis. In addition, a one-year review of first contacts for all diagnostic categories was completed. Gender, ethnicity and place of birth were established from the case notes.
Among the African- and Caribbean-born, but not the Bangladeshi-born, the odds ratio (OR) of being referred with SLP was significantly higher than for the British-born population. We observed a loss of the reported effect of female gender. For Whites the odds ratio for female gender and psychosis was 2.5 (1.0-6.1) and for non-Whites 0.8 (0.3-2.7) which was a trend away from the expected male to female ratio. In the one-year review there was a higher rate of referrals for organic disease in Bangladeshi men compared to Bangladeshi women and British-born men and women.
Bangladeshi elderly migrants do not have an increased rate of SLP compared to indigenous elders. The usual female preponderance of SLP is not apparent in this elderly migrant population. Old age psychiatry services in the UK should take into account the increasing needs of Bangladeshi elders with dementia.
PubMed ID
15027045 View in PubMed
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HIV prevention for Black women: structural barriers and opportunities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature155856
Source
J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2008 Aug;19(3):829-41
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2008
Author
Peter A Newman
Charmaine C Williams
Notisha Massaquoi
Marsha Brown
Carmen Logie
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Social Work, University of Toronto, 246 Bloor Street West, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 1A1. p.newman@utoronto.ca
Source
J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2008 Aug;19(3):829-41
Date
Aug-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Africa - ethnology
African Continental Ancestry Group - psychology
Aged
Attitude to Health - ethnology
Caribbean Region - ethnology
Demography
Female
Focus Groups
HIV Infections - ethnology - prevention & control
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Healthcare Disparities
Humans
Middle Aged
Ontario - epidemiology
Prejudice
Primary Prevention - organization & administration - statistics & numerical data
Qualitative Research
Risk factors
Social Class
Socioeconomic Factors
Taboo
Women's Health Services - organization & administration - utilization
Abstract
Black women bear a disproportionate burden of HIV/AIDS in North America. The purpose of this investigation was to explore Black Canadian women's perspectives on HIV risk and prevention. Four 90-minute focus groups (n=26) and six key informant interviews were conducted in Toronto with Black women of African and Caribbean descent and low socioeconomic status. Data analysis revealed a number of potent barriers to existing HIV preventive interventions: stigma, cultural disconnections, lack of engagement of Black religious institutions, and multiple intersecting forms of discrimination. Recommended HIV prevention opportunities included the Black church, mainstreaming, health care providers, and ethno-specific agencies. HIV prevention strategies for North American Black women, rather than focusing on HIV and individual risk behaviors, may benefit from a primary focus on social and structural factors (e.g., promoting gender equality, economic opportunity, women-controlled prevention technologies and combating racism in health care) thereby integrating HIV prevention into the larger context of community health and survival.
PubMed ID
18677073 View in PubMed
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HIV prevention risks for Black women in Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature154544
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2009 Jan;68(1):12-20
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2009
Author
Charmaine C Williams
Peter A Newman
Izumi Sakamoto
Notisha A Massaquoi
Author Affiliation
Factor-Inwentash Faculty of Social Work, University of Toronto, 246 Bloor Street West, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 1A1. charmaine.williams@utoronto.ca
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2009 Jan;68(1):12-20
Date
Jan-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
AIDS Vaccines
Adult
Africa - ethnology
African Continental Ancestry Group - education - psychology
Aged
Caribbean Region - ethnology
Community-Based Participatory Research
Female
Focus Groups
HIV Infections - ethnology - prevention & control
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Middle Aged
Ontario
Residence Characteristics
Risk assessment
Social Environment
Stereotyping
Trust
Young Adult
Abstract
The future availability of HIV vaccines can increase options available to Canadian Black women for risk reduction. However, current conceptual frameworks do not adequately address barriers to HIV prevention for this population, and may be inadequate to address challenges with vaccines. This study explored knowledge and attitudes regarding HIV vaccines and associated prevention methods to inform appropriate conceptual frameworks for their dissemination to Canadian Black women. We completed four 90-min focus groups with women (n=26) of African or Caribbean origins, and six interviews with key informants providing health and social services in the Black communities of Toronto. The participants suggested that there were significant risks associated with seeking prevention information and attempting to reduce exposure to HIV infection. They described individual, familial, community and institutional domains of risk and predicted the same spectrum of risk for HIV vaccines. Participants advocated for education, empowerment and institutional change to create a supportive environment for vaccines and other HIV prevention methods. They further indicated that preparation for vaccine dissemination will need to prioritize building trust between women of the Black communities and institutions in the research, health and government sectors.
PubMed ID
18952342 View in PubMed
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24 records – page 1 of 3.