This cross sectional study aims to investigate the associations between ectopic lipid accumulation in liver and skeletal muscle and biochemical measures, estimates of insulin resistance, anthropometry, and blood pressure in lean and overweight/obese children.
Fasting plasma glucose, serum lipids, serum insulin, and expressions of insulin resistance, anthropometry, blood pressure, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy of liver and muscle fat were obtained in 327 Danish children and adolescents aged 8-18 years.
In 287 overweight/obese children, the prevalences of hepatic and muscular steatosis were 31% and 68%, respectively, whereas the prevalences in 40 lean children were 3% and 10%, respectively. A multiple regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, body mass index z-score (BMI SDS), and pubertal development showed that the OR of exhibiting dyslipidemia was 4.2 (95%CI: [1.8; 10.2], p = 0.0009) when hepatic steatosis was present. Comparing the simultaneous presence of hepatic and muscular steatosis with no presence of steatosis, the OR of exhibiting dyslipidemia was 5.8 (95%CI: [2.0; 18.6], p = 0.002). No significant associations between muscle fat and dyslipidemia, impaired fasting glucose, or blood pressure were observed. Liver and muscle fat, adjusted for age, sex, BMI SDS, and pubertal development, associated to BMI SDS and glycosylated hemoglobin, while only liver fat associated to visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue and intramyocellular lipid associated inversely to high density lipoprotein cholesterol.
Hepatic steatosis is associated with dyslipidemia and liver and muscle fat depositions are linked to obesity-related metabolic dysfunctions, especially glycosylated hemoglobin, in children and adolescents, which suggest an increased cardiovascular disease risk.
Cites: Child Obes. 2012 Dec;8(6):533-4123181919
Cites: Int J Pediatr Obes. 2011 Aug;6(3-4):188-9621529264
Cites: Int J Obes (Lond). 2014 Jan;38(1):40-523828099
Spectral analysis of cardiac rhythm has determined characteristics of humoral, sympathetic and parasympathetic regulation in children with cardiac abnormalities and thyroid hyperplasia. The examinees demonstrated low activity of humoral immunity, high sympathetic influences, slight variability of frequency-amplitude characteristics. Sanatorium treatment improved regulation of cardiac activity. Spectral analysis of cardiac rhythm proved efficient for optimization of physiotherapy.
Although sauna bathing causes various acute, transient cardiovascular and hormonal changes, it is well tolerated by most healthy adults and children. Sauna bathing does not influence fertility and is safe during the uncomplicated pregnancies of healthy women. Some studies have suggested that long-term sauna bathing may help lower blood pressure in patients with hypertension and improve the left ventricular ejection fraction in patients with chronic congestive heart failure, but additional data are needed to confirm these findings. The transient improvements in pulmonary function that occur in the sauna may provide some relief to patients with asthma and chronic bronchitis. Sauna bathing may also alleviate pain and improve joint mobility in patients with rheumatic disease. Although sauna bathing does not cause drying of the skin-and may even benefit patients with psoriasis-sweating may increase itching in patients with atopic dermatitis. Contraindications to sauna bathing include unstable angina pectoris, recent myocardial infarction, and severe aortic stenosis. Sauna bathing is safe, however, for most people with coronary heart disease with stable angina pectoris or old myocardial infarction. Very few acute myocardial infarctions and sudden deaths occur in saunas, but alcohol consumption during sauna bathing increases the risk of hypotension, arrhythmia, and sudden death, and should be avoided.
Cardiovascular fitness influences many aspects of brain function. However, the relationship between cardiovascular fitness and suicidal behaviour is unknown. Therefore, we aimed to determine whether cardiovascular fitness at age 18 years is associated with future risk of suicide attempt/death.
We performed a population-based Swedish longitudinal cohort study of male conscripts with no previous or ongoing mental illness (n = 1,136,527). The conscription examination, which took place during 1968-2005, included the cycle ergonometric test and tests of cognitive performance. Future risk of suicide attempt/death over a 5- to 42-year follow-up period was calculated with Cox proportional hazards models controlling for several confounders including familial factors.
At least one suicide attempt was recorded for 12,563 men. Death by suicide without a prior attempt was recorded in 4814 additional individuals. In fully adjusted models low cardiovascular fitness was associated with increased risk for future attempt/death by suicide [hazard ratio (HR) 1.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.64-1.94]. The HR changed only marginally after exclusion of persons who received in-patient care for depression (HR 1.76, 95% CI 1.61-1.94). Poor performance on both the cardiovascular fitness and cognitive tests was associated with a fivefold increased risk of suicide attempt or suicide death (HR 5.46, 95% CI 4.78-6.24).
Lower cardiovascular fitness at age 18 years was, after adjustment for a number of potential confounders, associated with an increased risk of attempt/death by suicide in adulthood. It remains to be clarified whether interventions designed to improve fitness in teens can influence the risk of suicidal behaviour later in life.
Successful cardiovascular risk reduction (CVRR) requires ongoing care, which can be difficult for patients living outside urban areas. The authors tested the feasibility of CVRR using telehealth.
Telehealth care (T group, n=9) was offered at three- to six-month intervals to patients referred from La Ronge, Saskatchewan (385 km northeast of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan). All patients who were referred to the project accepted. For the initial visit, the clinic travelled to La Ronge; all other visits were performed using telehealth (CommunityNet). Body measurements, blood pressure readings, fasting laboratory tests and food and exercise logs were completed in La Ronge. During the telehealth session, patients met with a nurse, a dietician, a fitness consultant and a physician. Changes in medication were faxed or telephoned to the local pharmacy. The T group's outcomes were compared with a control group (C group, n=15), which was offered usual care from La Ronge and had been referred to the clinic previously. Change in Framingham risk score, as well as patient and provider satisfaction, was assessed.
The groups were similar in age (T: 44.3+/-12.8 years, C: 48.3+/-14.3 years) and initial Framingham risk score (T: 12.0+/-13.0%, C: 11.1+/-10.0%). All nine T group patients completed two or more visits, while only eight of 15 patients the C group did so. Both groups achieved a small reduction in Framingham risk score (T: -1.9+/-5.0%, C: -2.0+/-6.1%). Those with the highest initial Framingham risk scores tended to show the greatest reduction. The T group's patient and health care provider comments were generally positive.
CVRR via telehealth is feasible and compares favourably with usual care. In particular, more complete follow-up occurs.
Cites: Telemed J E Health. 2000 Fall;6(3):367-7111110641
As many as 180 children with the vegeto-vascular dysfunction were studied for the functional condition of the myocardium. The findings secured suggested an imbalance in the vegetative nervous system. No changes were detected in the contractile capability of the myocardium. Those patients having had chronic foci of infection displayed inadequate tolerance to physical loads.
[Clinical audiological parallels between the state of the hearing analyzer and the functional disorders of the nervous and cardiovascular systems in those working under noisy conditions with different parameters].
To examine the prognostic significance of early socioeconomic status (SES) on 24-hour blood pressure (BP) during early adulthood. Low SES has been related to poor health outcomes, in particular, cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Recent cross-sectional research has also linked low levels of SES with several cardiovascular risk factors including poor nighttime BP dipping.
A total of 174 undergraduate university students whose childhood SES was assessed by highest level of education completed by their parents underwent 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring.
Initial correlation analyses revealed positive associations between childhood SES and BP dipping, indicating that lower levels of childhood SES were associated with less systolic BP (SBP) (r = .29, p