Previous studies have indicated that fat distribution is important in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We investigated the association between fat distribution, as measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and the incidence of stroke.
A cohort of 2751 men and women aged =40 years was recruited. Baseline levels of abdominal, gynoid and total body fat were measured by DXA. Body mass index (BMI, kg?m(-2)) was calculated. Stroke incidence was recorded using the regional stroke registry until subjects reached 75 years of age.
During a mean follow-up time of 8 years and 9 months, 91 strokes occurred. Of the adiposity indices accessed abdominal fat mass was the best predictor of stroke in women (hazard ratio (HR)=1.66, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.23-2.24 per standard deviation increase), whereas the ratio of gynoid fat to total fat mass was associated with a decreased risk of stroke (HR=0.72, 95% CI=0.54-0.96). Abdominal fat mass was the only of the adiposity indices assessed that was found to be a significant predictor of stroke in men (HR=1.49, 95% CI=1.06-2.09). The associations between abdominal fat mass and stroke remained significant in both women and men after adjustment for BMI (HR=1.80, 95% CI=1.06-3.07; HR=1.71, 95% CI=1.13-2.59, respectively). However, in a subgroup analyses abdominal fat was not a significant predictor after further adjustment for diabetes, smoking and hypertension.
Abdominal fat mass is a risk factor for stroke independent of BMI, but not independent of diabetes, smoking and hypertension. This indicates that the excess in stroke risk associated with abdominal fat mass is at least partially mediated through traditional stroke risk factors.
Atherosclerotic disease in the femoral artery in hypertensive patients at high cardiovascular risk. The value of ultrasonographic assessment of intima-media thickness and plaque occurrence. Risk Intervention Study (RIS) Group.
The aim of the present investigation was to examine the occurrence of ultrasound-assessed morphological changes in the right common femoral artery and relate these findings to the ankle-arm index and to symptoms of lower-extremity arterial disease in hypertensive men at high cardiovascular risk (n = 143). Comparisons were made with a healthy reference group consisting of age-matched men at low risk (n = 46). The results showed that it was possible to obtain high-quality measurements of intima-media thickness in about 80% of all men and that the intraobserver variability was satisfactory (14%). A normal mean intima-media thickness was defined, using data from the low-risk group. Plaque occurrence and mean intima-media thickness in the right common femoral artery were significantly associated with ankle-arm index both in the right and left leg. There were more and larger plaques, as well as thicker mean and maximum intima-media complexes, in the high-risk group than in the low-risk group. In the high-risk group, 11% suffered from symptoms of right lower-extremity artery disease, 20% had an ankle-arm index
The article covers the study into the structure of extragenital pathology in pregnantwomen based on the data obtained at the antenatal clinic of the perinatal center of the State Organization of the Ministry of Health of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) National Center of Medicine - Republican Hospital No. 1 in 2013. The presence of extragenital pathology in pregnant women is a major factor in the high risk of maternal mortality. The majority of women (90%) have two or more extragenital pathologies simultaneously. In the structure of extragenital pathology in pregnant women the first most prevalent diseases are urinary system diseases, 2nd most prevalent--diseases of the cardiovascular system, 3rd most prevalent--diseases of the hematopoietic system. Diseases of the circulatory system are the leading indications for termination of pregnancy. It is necessary to increase the efficiency of cooperation between gynecologists, internists and specialists to identify women at high risk of perinatal pathology, to form prognosis in terms of carrying of pregnancy and timely decision on its prolongation and perinatal care.
The influence of weather factors (atmospheric pressure and temperature) and the geomagnetic activity on the development of severe cardiological pathologies has been studied using the daily data from two Moscow clinics, accumulated over a period of 12 and 7 years. It was shown that the most biotropic factors are variations of atmospheric temperature. The relative contribution of the geomagnetic activity to the development of diseases is only 20%; however, its action is combined with the effect of ordinary weather because both these factors affect the vascular tonus of humans.
To assess risk factors for cardiovascular disease at different body mass index values in persons with wheelchair-dependent paraplegia after spinal cord injuries.
A total of 135 individuals, age range 18-79 years, with chronic (=?1 year) post-traumatic paraplegia.
Body mass index was stratified into 6 categorical groups. Cardiovascular disease risk factors for hypertension, diabetes mellitus and a serum lipid profile were analysed and reported by body mass index category.
More than 80% of the examined participants had at least one cardiovascular disease risk factor irrespective of body mass index level. Hypertension was highly prevalent, especially in men. Dyslipidaemia was common at all body mass index categories in both men and women.
Higher body mass index values tended to associate with more hypertension and diabetes mellitus, whereas dyslipidaemia was prevalent across all body mass index categories. Studies that intervene to reduce weight and or percentage body fat should be performed to determine the effect on reducing modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factors.