In anticipation of the sequencing of the human genome and description of the human proteome, the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study (AGES-Reykjavik) was initiated in 2002. AGES-Reykjavik was designed to examine risk factors, including genetic susceptibility and gene/environment interaction, in relation to disease and disability in old age. The study is multidisciplinary, providing detailed phenotypes related to the cardiovascular, neurocognitive (including sensory), and musculoskeletal systems, and to body composition and metabolic regulation. Relevant quantitative traits, subclinical indicators of disease, and medical diagnoses are identified by using biomarkers, imaging, and other physiologic indicators. The AGES-Reykjavik sample is drawn from an established population-based cohort, the Reykjavik Study. This cohort of men and women born between 1907 and 1935 has been followed in Iceland since 1967 by the Icelandic Heart Association. The AGES-Reykjavik cohort, with cardiovascular risk factor assessments earlier in life and detailed late-life phenotypes of quantitative traits, will create a comprehensive study of aging nested in a relatively genetically homogeneous older population. This approach should facilitate identification of genetic factors that contribute to healthy aging as well as the chronic conditions common in old age.
C-reactive protein (CRP), a biomarker of inflammation, has been associated with increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Common variants of the hepatocyte nuclear factor 1A (HNF1A) gene encoding HNF-1alpha have been associated with plasma CRP in predominantly European Caucasian samples. HNF1A might therefore have an impact on vascular disease and diabetes risk that is mediated by CRP. In an Aboriginal Canadian population, a private polymorphism, HNF1A G319S, was associated with increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes. However, it has not been investigated whether this association is mediated by CRP. We aimed to investigate whether CRP was mediating the association between HNF1A G319S and type 2 diabetes in an Aboriginal Canadian population with a high prevalence of diabetes.
A total of 718 individuals who participated in a diabetes prevalence and risk factor survey were included in the current analysis. Participants were genotyped for HNF1A G319S. Fasting plasma samples were analyzed for CRP. Fasting plasma glucose and a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test were obtained to determine type 2 diabetes.
The prevalence rate of type 2 diabetes was 17.4% (125/718) using the 1999 World Health Organization definition and was higher among S319 allele carriers compared to G/G homozygotes (p
Smoking-induced damage to the cardiovascular system has been shown in many studies; however, the degree of damage varies from individual to individual. We hypothesized that the -930A/G CYBA gene polymorphism in the NADPH oxidase influences the association between cigarette smoking and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in young healthy adults.
Cross-sectional data obtained in 2001 for the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study were used. IMT was measured with ultrasound. The genotyping was performed using a 5'-nuclease assay. A linear regression model was used to test whether the interaction between smoking and the genotypes was associated with IMT. The magnitude of the interaction effect was further examined by performing a stratified analysis according to smoking habits.
In the entire population, the mean and maxima IMT were higher in smokers than nonsmokers (P = 0.005 and 0.008, respectively). The differences were most significant in subjects with the GG genotype, borderline significant for the GA genotype, and nonsignificant for the AA genotype. The interaction of genotypes with smoking was associated with mean and maximal IMT (P = 0.042 and 0.022). Among smokers, subjects with the GG genotype had a higher mean and maximal IMT compared with carriers of the A allele (P = 0.021 and 0.012). In contrast, the mean and maximal IMT were lower for G allele carriers than subjects with the AA genotype among nonsmokers (P = 0.022 and 0.026). All results had been adjusted for potential risk factors related to IMT.
The -930A/G polymorphism modifies the association between cigarette smoking and IMT in young healthy adults.
Several studies examining the C825T polymorphism of the G protein ß3 subunit (GNB3) have shown inconsistent results regarding susceptibility to hypertension. With twice the length of earlier studies, the aim of our study was to further investigate this association with a cross-sectional design over an 11.5-year follow-up period in a Norwegian population.
Two randomized selected population samples from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study 1995-1997 (HUNT 2) were genotyped. One sample included individuals reporting use of antihypertensive medication (n = 969), and the other did not report use of antihypertensive medication, cardiovascular disease (CVD), or diabetes (n = 1,867). Of those genotyped, 2,254 participants (79.5%) also attended HUNT 1 in 1984-1986.
There was no significant higher prevalence of hypertension (blood pressure =140/90 mm Hg and/or antihypertensive medication) in T-allele carriers than in C allele carriers. However, TT homozygous men with treated hypertension showed statistical significant association with self-reported CVD compared to the CC genotype (odds ratio (OR) 3.19, P = 0.001). No statistical significant association between hypertension and the C825T polymorphism was found during the follow-up.
No association was found between the C285T polymorphism of the GNB3 and hypertension. However, CVD was more common among treated hypertensive men with the TT genotype compared to men with the CC genotype. Thus, further studies are needed to explore whether this finding could be caused by other mechanisms than elevated blood pressure.
BACKGROUND: Genetic variation in ethanol metabolism may have an influence on both alcohol drinking habits and the susceptibility to health effects of alcohol drinking. Such influences are likely to bias exposure-disease associations in epidemiologic studies of health effects of alcohol drinking. In a Caucasian population, we examined the association of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) genetic variants with alcohol drinking habits, biomarkers of alcohol exposure, and risk factors for cardiovascular disease. METHODS: The study population consisted of 1,216 Danish men and women aged 15-77 years participating in a health examination in 1998. The health examination included a self-administered questionnaire (alcohol drinking habits), a physical examination (blood pressure), and various blood tests [alanine aminotransferase (ALAT), erythrocyte mean corpuscular volume (E-MCV), and lipids]. ADH and ALDH gene variants were determined by standard techniques. Data were analyzed by regression analyses adjusted for relevant confounders. RESULTS: Self-reported alcohol drinking was significantly associated with increasing levels of ALAT, E-MCV, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and blood pressure. The ALDH1b ala69val variant was associated with nondrinking and total alcohol intake. The ALDH2 promoter variant was associated with binge-drinking, and the ALDH1b1 ala69val polymorphism was associated with diastolic blood pressure. We did not find any statistically significant interactions between any of the gene variants and alcohol consumption in relation to the various outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: In this Caucasian population sample, we found evidence to support that genetic variation in ethanol metabolism may influence drinking habits, but no statistically significant gene-environment interactions. More large-scale epidemiologic studies are needed to confirm theses results and to further investigate genetic susceptibility to the effects of alcohol drinking.
The common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the FTO (fat mass and obesity associated) gene has been consistently associated with an increased risk of obesity. We investigated whether the SNP rs9939609 (T/A) of the FTO is associated with risk factors of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), including serum levels of C - reactive protein (CRP), the chemokine RANTES (Regulated on Activation, Normal T Cell Expressed and Secreted; CCL5), and serum and lipoprotein lipids in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study (DPS). Furthermore, we examined whether the rs9939609 increased the CVD risk in the DPS and if these results could be replicated in a larger cross-sectional population-based random sample of Finnish men (the METSIM).
In the DPS, altogether 490 (BMI=25kg/m(2)) subjects with impaired glucose tolerance were genotyped for rs9939609. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality data were collected during the median follow-up of 10.2 years. The replication study was a population-based cross-sectional study of 6214 men. In the DPS, the AA genotype of rs9939609 was associated, independently of BMI, with increased RANTES (p=0.002) and decreased HDL cholesterol concentrations (p=0.007) in men. During the follow-up, the AA genotype was associated with an adjusted 2.09-fold risk (95% CI 1.17-3.73, p=0.013) of CVD in men. In the METSIM Study, the association with a history of myocardial infarction was replicated in the subgroup of men with type 2 diabetes.
We suggest that the variation in the FTO gene may contribute to the development of CVD in men with an abnormal glucose metabolism.
Cardiovascular (CVD) risk factors are under the influence of environmental and genetic factors. Human upstream transcription factor 1 gene (USF1) encodes for a transcription factor, which modulates the expression of genes involved in lipid and carbohydrate metabolic pathways. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that USF1 gene variants are associated with CVD risk factors in the Quebec Family Study (QFS). USF1 has been sequenced in 20 QFS subjects with high plasma apolipoprotein B100 (APOB) levels (>1.14 g/l) and small, dense low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles (> or =250.7 Angstroms and A, and exon 11 c.*187 C>T) as well as the c.-56 A>G polymorphism, were genotyped and analyzed in 760 subjects from QFS. Association studies showed that women with c.561-100 A/A and c.*187 T/T genotypes had more favorable adiposity indices (
A recently published genome wide association study identified 29 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) influencing blood pressure (BP). Case-control studies suggest that a genetic risk score (GRS) based on these 29 SNPs affect the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but its role for CVD at population level is unknown. Here, we prospectively evaluate the impact of this polygenetic BP component on CVD morbidity and mortality in a large urban-based middle-aged population.
The 29 previously BP associated SNPs were genotyped in the Swedish Malmö Diet and Cancer Study; (n = 27,003 with at least 24 valid SNPs). The number of BP elevating alleles of each SNPs, weighted by their effect size in the discovery studies, was summed into a BP-GRS.
Using regression models, we found significant associations of the BP-GRS, cross-sectionally, with BP and hypertension prevalence, prospectively, with incident cardiovascular morbidity and mortality during 14.2 ± 3.2 years of follow-up. After adjustment for traditional cardiovascular risk factors (TRF), including hypertension, the BP-GRS remained significantly associated only with CVDs [in terms of strokes and coronary artery disease; hazard ratio 1.15; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.24 comparing the third vs. first tertile; P = 0.003]. Calibration, discrimination and reclassification analyses did not show a meaningful increment in prediction using the BP-GRS in addition to the model encompassing only the TRF.
The polygenetic component of BP influences risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, the effect size is small and unlikely to be useful for prediction at the population level.
CONTEXT: Recent studies indicate common etiologies for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and osteoporotic fractures. OBJECTIVES: To examine the relation between CVD and risk of hip fracture in twins and evaluate the relative importance of genetics and lifestyle factors in this association. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A cohort of all 31,936 Swedish twins born from 1914-1944 was followed up from the age of 50 years. The National Patient Registry identified twins with CVDs and fractures from 1964 through 2005. Time-dependent exposures using Cox proportional hazard regression models were evaluated. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Time to hip fracture after diagnosis of CVD. RESULTS: The crude absolute rate of hip fractures was 12.6 per 1000 person-years after a diagnosis of heart failure, 12.6 per 1000 person-years after a stroke, 6.6 per 1000 person-years after a diagnosis of peripheral atherosclerosis, and 5.2 per 1000 person-years after a diagnosis of ischemic heart disease compared with 1.2 per 1000 person-years for those without a CVD diagnosis. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of hip fracture after a diagnosis of heart failure was 4.40 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.43-5.63); after a stroke, the HR was 5.09 (95% CI, 4.18-6.20); after a diagnosis of peripheral atherosclerosis, the HR was 3.20 (95% CI, 2.28-4.50); and after an ischemic heart disease event, the HR was 2.32 (95% CI, 1.91-2.84). Identical twins without heart failure and stroke also had, after their co-twins had been exposed to these respective diseases, an increased rate of hip fracture. These sibling twins pseudoexposed for heart failure had a multivariable-adjusted HR of 3.74 (95% CI, 1.97-7.10) for hip fracture, whereas pseudoexposure for stroke had an HR of 2.29 (95% CI, 1.20-4.35). CONCLUSIONS: A diagnosis of CVD was significantly associated with risk of subsequent hip fracture. Increased risks in co-twins without an index diagnosis suggest genetic factors in the association between CVD and osteoporotic fractures.
Increasing evidence suggests a relation between vascular disorders and late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). We performed an association analysis of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) genes, known to be involved in vascular disorders, and AD. Genotyping was carried out in 113 patients with clinically defined Alzheimer's disease (NINCDS-ADRDA criteria) and 203 non-demented controls in a prospective, population-based study of people aged 85 years or over (Vantaa 85+ Study). Corresponding analysis was performed on 121 neuropathologically verified AD patients (CERAD criteria) and 75 controls derived from the same study population. We did not find significant associations between the polymorphisms studied and AD. However, analysis of the LPL polymorphism showed a weak trend (uncorrected P-value 0.095) towards protection against neuropathologically defined AD. Our study is based on very elderly Finns. Therefore, further studies are warranted in other populations.