We describe the 40-year weight history and adult morbidity and mortality in a cohort of 504 overweight children, aged 2 months to 16 years, who were admitted for investigation of their overweight to four children's hospitals in Stockholm between 1921 and 1947. Follow-up information was gathered by questionnaire at 10-year intervals, most recently in 1980-1983 (n = 458), on weight history (based on the body mass index (BMI = kg/m2)), as well as prevalence of cardiovascular disease (n = 143), diabetes (n = 39), and cancer (all types (n = 20)), reported during the 40 years of follow-up, and mortality from all causes (n = 55), determined from death certificate. The sample of overweight children remained overweight as adults; after age 55 years, the BMI began to decline for both genders. Female subjects were heavier than their male counterparts from postpuberty onward. Subjects who died by the 40-year follow-up and those reporting cardiovascular disease were significantly (P
Being overweight or obese is associated with a greater risk of coronary heart disease and stroke compared with normal weight. The role of the specific adipose tissue-derived substances, called adipocytokines, in overweight- and obesity-related cardiovascular disease (CVD) is still unclear.
To investigate the associations of three adipose tissue-derived substances: adiponectin, leptin, and interleukin-6 with incident CVD in a longitudinal population-based study, including extensive adjustments for traditional and metabolic risk factors closely associated with overweight and obesity. C-reactive protein (CRP) was used as a proxy for interleukin-6.
Prospective population-based study of 6.502 participants, 51.9% women, aged 30-60 years, free of CVD at baseline, with a mean follow-up time of 11.4 years, equivalent to 74,123 person-years of follow-up. As outcome, we defined a composite outcome comprising of the first event of fatal and nonfatal coronary heart disease and fatal and nonfatal stroke.
During the follow-up period, 453 composite CV outcomes occurred among participants with complete datasets. In models, including gender, age, smoking status, systolic blood pressure, treatment for hypertension, diabetes, body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol, high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, estimated glomerular filtration rate, adiponectin, leptin, and CRP, neither adiponectin (hazard ratio [HR] with 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.97 [0.87-1.08] per SD increase, P = 0.60) nor leptin (0.97 [0.85-1.12] per SD increase, P = 0.70) predicted the composite outcome, whereas CRP was significantly associated with the composite outcome (1.19 [1.07-1.35] per SD increase, P = 0.002). Furthermore, in mediation analysis, adjusted for age and sex, CRP decreased the BMI-associated CV risk by 43% (95%CI 29-72).
In this study, neither adiponectin nor leptin were independently associated with CVD, raising questions over their role in CVD. The finding that CRP was significantly associated with an increased risk of CVD and decreased the BMI-associated CVD risk substantially, could imply that interleukin-6-related pathways may play a role in mediating overweight- and obesity-related CVD.
Cites: Lancet. 2011 Feb 12;377(9765):557-6721295846
AIMS: To investigate how physical activity, physical performance and sociodemographic characteristics at the age of 16 are related to adult health habits (physical activity, dietary intake, smoking) and biological risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (being overweight, low aerobic fitness, unfavorable levels of serum lipids, high blood pressure). METHODS: A randomly selected group of 220 male and 205 female students at 16 years of age was tested in 1974, and reinvestigated 18 years later. RESULTS: The predictive health profiles for adult lifestyle and biological risk factors were different in men and women. Leisure sports activity along with high performance in the nine-minute run among the boys and in the two-hand lift test among the girls were significant predictors of adult physical activity. A positive attitude to aerobic exercise and high performance in the nine-minute run test among the boys and high marks in physical education among the girls decreased the risk of smoking. Leisure sports activities together with body mass index at young ages were the most powerful predictors of adult biological risk factors, but attitudes to sports and educational level were also significant determinants. CONCLUSION: These results contribute to the knowledge of which factors at young ages may promote adult healthy habits in particular physical activities.
The aim of the work was to study sex-specific differences between certain risk factors of cardiovascular diseases and hemodynamic parameters in elderly subjects and their relation to age-specific diseases and genealogic history of longevity. Total cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, fibrinogen, uric acid, urea, creatinine levels in plasma and arterial pressure (AP) were measured. Hemodynamic parameters were calculated by the formulas for the stroke volume, cardiac output, myocardial contractility, pulse pressure, total peripheral resistance (TPR), endurance factor of cardiac activity, and Kerdo index. Each new decade of life was characterized by peculiar hemodynamic patterns. Pulse AP (PAP) and TPR increased with age and was associated with sex-related metabolic changes. Elderly men presented with hypocholesterolemia and anemia. Total cholesterol, fibrinogen, and glucose levels did not correlate with age. To conclude, elevated PAP, TPR, and left ventricular hypertrophy are risk factors of cardiovascular diseases in old subjects. Combination of several risk factors in young and middle-age subjects reduces prognostic value of the longevity factor in the familial history. Aging is accompanied by the development of gender-related differences in metabolic parameters.
Existing studies of the association between air pollution, aeroallergens and emergency department (ED) visits have generally examined the effects of a few pollutants or aeroallergens on individual conditions such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In this study, we considered a wide variety of respiratory and cardiac conditions and an extensive set of pollutants and aeroallergens, and utilized prospectively collected information on possible effect modifiers which would not normally be available from purely administrative data. The association between air pollution, aeroallergens and cardiorespiratory ED visits (n = 19,821) was examined for the period 1992 to 1996 using generalized additive models. ED visit, air pollution and aeroallergen time series were prefiltered using LOESS smoothers to minimize temporal confounding, and a parsimonious model was constructed to control for confounding by weather and day of week. Multipollutant and multi-aeroallergen models were constructed using stepwise procedures and sensitivity analyses were conducted by season, diagnosis, and selected individual characteristics or effect modifiers. In single-pollutant models, positive effects of all pollutants but NO2 and COH were observed on asthma visits, and positive effects on all respiratory diagnosis groups were observed for O3, SO2, PM10, PM2.5, and SO4(2-). Among cardiac conditions, only dysrhythmia visits were positively associated with all measures of particulate matter. In the final year-round multipollutant models, a 20.9% increase in cardiac ED visits was attributed to the combination of O3 (16.0%, 95% CI 2.8-30.9) and SO2 (4.9%, 95%CI 1.7-8.2) at the mean concentration of each pollutant. In the final multipollutant model for respiratory visits, O3 accounted for 3.9% of visits (95% CI 0.8-7.2), and SO2 for 3.7% (95% CI 1.5-6.0), whereas a weak, negative association was observed with NO2. In multi-aeroallergen models of warm season asthma ED visits, Ascomycetes, Alternaria and small round fungal spores accounted for 4.5% (95% CI 1.8-7.4), 4.7% (95% CI 1.0-8.6) and 3.0% (95% CI 0.8-5.1), respectively, of visits at their mean concentrations, and these effects were not sensitive to adjustment for air pollution effects. In conclusion, we observed a significant influence of the air pollution mix on cardiac and respiratory ED visits. Although in single-pollutant models, positive associations were noted between ED visits and some measures of particulate matter, in multipollutant models, pollutant gases, particularly ozone, exhibited more consistent effects. Aeroallergens were also significantly associated with warm season asthma ED visits.
There is substantial epidemiological data suggesting a J- or U-shaped association between alcohol consumption and coronary events. However, some studies in experimental animals suggest that alcohol may increase atherosclerosis. Therefore, our aim was to study whether alcohol consumption is associated with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, in young, healthy adults.
Alcohol consumption, carotid IMT and conventional cardiovascular risk factors were investigated in 2074 subjects, aged 24-39 years.
In subjects consuming none, >0 to or=4 units of alcohol per day, the respective carotid IMT values were 0.57+/-0.004, 0.59+/-0.003, 0.59+/-0.006, and 0.60+/-0.012 mm (mean+/-S.E.M., P
The health effects of a binge pattern of alcohol consumption have not been widely investigated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cardiovascular consequences of binge drinking (consumption of eight or more drinks at one sitting) and usual (nonbinge) drinking in a longitudinal, population-based study. Data obtained from 1,154 men and women aged 18-64 years interviewed in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, in 1990 and 1991 were linked to health care utilization and mortality records. Using an 8-year follow-up period, the authors performed separate Cox proportional hazards regression analyses for men and women on time to first event for physician visits, hospitalizations, and deaths due to coronary heart disease, hypertension, and other cardiovascular disease. Binge drinking increased the risk of coronary heart disease in both men (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.26, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.22, 4.20) and women (HR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.18). It increased the risk of hypertension in men (HR = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.04, 2.35) but not in women. Binge drinking had no effect on the risk of other cardiovascular disease. In contrast, usual drinking had significant cardioprotective effects in both men and women. Thus, the harmful effects of binge drinking on cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality can be disaggregated from the protective effects of usual drinking at various levels of consumption.
OBJECTIVE: The ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI) can be computed from individual 24-h blood pressure recordings. METHODS: We investigated the prognostic value of AASI and 24-h pulse pressure in a random sample of 1829 Danes, aged 40-70 years. We adjusted for sex, age, body mass index, mean arterial pressure, smoking, diabetes, ratio of total to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and history of cardiovascular disease with Cox regression. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 9.4 years, incidences of fatal and nonfatal endpoints were 40 for stroke, 150 for coronary heart disease, and 212 for cardiovascular events. In fully adjusted models, the hazard ratios associated with 1 SD increase (0.14 U) in the AASI were 1.62 (95% confidence interval, 1.14-2.28; P = 0.007) for stroke, 0.96 (0.80-1.14; P = 0.62) for coronary heart disease, and 1.06 (0.91-1.23; P = 0.49) for cardiovascular events. None of these ratios reached significance for pulse pressure (P > 0.47). The AASI still predicted stroke after excluding individuals with previous cardiovascular disease or after adjustment for systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure instead of mean arterial pressure. CONCLUSIONS: In a randomly recruited European population, the AASI was a strong predictor of stroke, beyond traditional cardiovascular risk factors, including the mean arterial pressure and pulse pressure.