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[Adverse effects of Swedish smokeless tobacco "snus"].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature123183
Source
Duodecim. 2012;128(10):1089-96
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Seppo Wickholm
Aira Lahtinen
Anja Ainamo
Matti Rautalahti
Author Affiliation
Johnson & Johnson Consumer Nordic, Karolinska Institutet, hammaslääketieteen osasto, parodontologia, PL 4064, SE-141 04 Huddinge, Sverige.
Source
Duodecim. 2012;128(10):1089-96
Date
2012
Language
Finnish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Apnea - chemically induced
Cardiovascular Diseases - chemically induced
Female
Finland
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Male
Mouth Diseases - chemically induced
Neoplasms - chemically induced
Nicotine - administration & dosage
Pre-Eclampsia - chemically induced
Pregnancy
Premature Birth - chemically induced
Risk factors
Sweden
Tobacco Use Disorder
Tobacco, Smokeless - adverse effects
Abstract
Selling smokeless tobacco (snus) in Finland is illegal, yet one-third of all males aged 16 to 18 years have tried it. A regular snus user can receive a daily dose of 60 to 150 milligrams of nicotine and become heavily addicted. The first--and easily detectable--lesions appear in the oral mucosa and gingiva. Long-time followup studies of snus use from a young age are, however, still lacking. Evidence exists of increased risk for fatal cardiovascular diseases and increased risk for injuries. Risk for oral cancer is debated, with more studies showing an increased risk than showing no risk; risk also exists for cancer of esophagus, stomach and pancreas. A new and alarming finding among female users is increased risk for preterm birth, preeclampsia and neonatal apnea.
PubMed ID
22724324 View in PubMed
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[Air pollution and cardiovascular disease in Trondheim].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature179678
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2004 May 20;124(10):1381-3
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-20-2004
Author
Bård Mannsåker
Torkel Vikan
Jonas Holme
Author Affiliation
Det medisinske fakultet, Norges teknisk-naturvitenskapelige universitet, 7489 Trondheim. mannsake@stud.ntnu.no
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2004 May 20;124(10):1381-3
Date
May-20-2004
Language
Norwegian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Air Pollutants - adverse effects
Cardiovascular Diseases - chemically induced - epidemiology
Humans
Nitric Oxide - adverse effects
Nitrous Oxide - adverse effects
Norway - epidemiology
Ozone - adverse effects
Particle Size
Patient Admission - statistics & numerical data
Risk factors
Sulfur Dioxide - adverse effects
Toluene - adverse effects
Vehicle Emissions - adverse effects
Xylenes - adverse effects
Abstract
There is some evidence linking air pollution to cardiovascular morbidity. Our aim was to examine whether there is a correlation between air pollution and cardiovascular morbidity in the city of Trondheim, Norway.
We compared the mean daily number of admissions for cardiovascular disease to the St. Olav University hospital on days with relatively low and high levels of PM10 (1993-2001), PM2,5, NO, NO2, SO2, O3, toluene and paraxylene (1998-2001). A time series analysis was carried out to see how day-to-day variations in concentrations of air pollutants correlated with the number of hospitalizations for cardiovascular disease.
In the bivariate analysis, the mean daily number of hospitalizations was found to be significantly higher (p
PubMed ID
15195175 View in PubMed
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Air pollution and daily mortality in a city with low levels of pollution.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature187142
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2003 Jan;111(1):45-52
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2003
Author
Sverre Vedal
Michael Brauer
Richard White
John Petkau
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, National Jewish Medical and Research Center, Denver, Colorado, USA. vedals@njc.org
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2003 Jan;111(1):45-52
Date
Jan-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - analysis - classification - poisoning
Air Pollution - adverse effects
British Columbia - epidemiology
Carbon Monoxide - analysis
Carbon monoxide poisoning
Cardiovascular Diseases - chemically induced - mortality
Cause of Death
Databases as Topic
Humans
Linear Models
Meteorological Concepts
Nitrogen Dioxide - analysis - poisoning
Ozone - analysis - poisoning
Particle Size
Respiratory Tract Diseases - chemically induced - mortality
Seasons
Sulfur Dioxide - analysis - poisoning
Urban health
Abstract
The concentration-response relationship between daily ambient inhalable particle (particulate matter less than or equal to 10 micro m; PM(10)) concentrations and daily mortality typically shows no evidence of a threshold concentration below which no relationship is observed. However, the power to assess a relationship at very low concentrations of PM(10) has been limited in studies to date. The concentrations of PM(10) and other air pollutants in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, from January 1994 through December 1996 were very low: the 50th and 90th percentiles of daily average PM(10) concentrations were 13 and 23 micro g/m(3), respectively, and 27 and 39 ppb, respectively, for 1-hr maximum ozone. Analyses of 3 years of daily pollution (PM(10), ozone, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide) concentrations and mortality counts showed that the dominant associations were between ozone and total mortality and respiratory and cardiovascular mortality in the summer, and between nitrogen dioxide and total mortality in the winter, although some association with PM(10) may also have been present. We conclude that increases in low concentrations of air pollution are associated with increased daily mortality. These findings may support the notion that no threshold pollutant concentrations are present, but they also raise concern that these effects may not be effects of the measured pollutants themselves, but rather of some other factor(s) present in the air pollution-meteorology mix.
Notes
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PubMed ID
12515678 View in PubMed
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Altered ovarian function and cardiovascular risk factors in valproate-treated women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature19550
Source
Am J Med. 2001 Sep;111(4):290-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2001
Author
J I Isojärvi
E. Taubøll
A J Pakarinen
J. van Parys
J. Rättyä
H F Harbo
P O Dale
B C Fauser
L. Gjerstad
R. Koivunen
M. Knip
J S Tapanainen
Author Affiliation
Department of Neurology, University of Oulu, FIN-90220 Oulu, Finland.
Source
Am J Med. 2001 Sep;111(4):290-6
Date
Sep-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Analysis of Variance
Anticonvulsants - adverse effects - therapeutic use
Carbamazepine - therapeutic use
Cardiovascular Diseases - chemically induced
Case-Control Studies
Chi-Square Distribution
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Epilepsy - blood - drug therapy
Female
Humans
Hyperandrogenism - blood - chemically induced
Menstruation Disturbances - blood - chemically induced
Obesity - blood
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome - blood - chemically induced
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Statistics, nonparametric
Valproic Acid - adverse effects - therapeutic use
Abstract
PURPOSE: Polycystic ovaries and menstrual disturbances seem to be common among women taking valproate for epilepsy. The purpose of the present study was to assess the frequency of valproate-related metabolic and endocrine disorders in different groups of women with epilepsy. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Seventy-two women with epilepsy and 52 control subjects from centers in three European countries (Finland, Norway, and the Netherlands) participated in the study. Thirty-seven of the women with epilepsy were taking valproate monotherapy and 35 carbamazepine monotherapy. RESULTS: The frequency of polycystic ovaries or hyperandrogenism, or both, among valproate-treated women with epilepsy was 70% (26 of 37) compared with 19% (10 of 52) among control subjects (P
PubMed ID
11566460 View in PubMed
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Anabolic steroids and cardiovascular risk: A national population-based cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature269053
Source
Drug Alcohol Depend. 2015 Jul 1;152:87-92
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1-2015
Author
Ingemar Thiblin
Hans Garmo
Mats Garle
Lars Holmberg
Liisa Byberg
Karl Michaëlsson
Rolf Gedeborg
Source
Drug Alcohol Depend. 2015 Jul 1;152:87-92
Date
Jul-1-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Anabolic Agents - adverse effects
Cardiovascular Diseases - chemically induced - epidemiology - mortality
Cause of Death
Cohort Studies
Educational Status
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Mortality, Premature
Registries
Socioeconomic Factors
Steroids - adverse effects
Sweden - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
Non-therapeutic use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been associated with various adverse effects; one of the most serious being direct cardiovascular effects with unknown long-term consequences. Therefore, large studies of the association between AAS and cardiovascular outcomes are warranted. We investigated cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in individuals who tested positive for AAS.
Between 2002 and 2009, a total of 2013 men were enrolled in a cohort on the date of their first AAS test. Mortality and morbidity after cohort entry was retrieved from national registries. Of the 2013 individuals, 409 (20%) tested positive for AAS. These men had twice the cardiovascular morbidity and mortality rate as those with negative tests (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 2.0; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-3.3). Compared to the Swedish population, all tested men had an increased risk of premature death from all causes (standardized mortality ratio for AAS-positive: 19.3, 95% CI 12.4-30.0; for AAS-negative: 8.3, 95% CI 6.1-11.0).
Non-therapeutic exposure to AAS appears to be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and premature death.
PubMed ID
26005042 View in PubMed
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Antipsychotic treatment and mortality in schizophrenia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature269903
Source
Schizophr Bull. 2015 May;41(3):656-63
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2015
Author
Minna Torniainen
Ellenor Mittendorfer-Rutz
Antti Tanskanen
Charlotte Björkenstam
Jaana Suvisaari
Kristina Alexanderson
Jari Tiihonen
Source
Schizophr Bull. 2015 May;41(3):656-63
Date
May-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Antipsychotic Agents - adverse effects - pharmacology
Cardiovascular Diseases - chemically induced - mortality
Cohort Studies
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Registries
Schizophrenia - drug therapy - mortality
Sweden - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
It is generally believed that long-term use of antipsychotics increases mortality and, especially, the risk of cardiovascular death. However, there are no solid data to substantiate this view.
We identified all individuals in Sweden with schizophrenia diagnoses before year 2006 (N = 21 492), aged 17-65 years, and persons with first-episode schizophrenia during the follow-up 2006-2010 (N = 1230). Patient information was prospectively collected through nationwide registers. Total and cause-specific mortalities were calculated as a function of cumulative antipsychotic exposure from January 2006 to December 2010.
Compared with age- and gender-matched controls from the general population (N = 214920), the highest overall mortality was observed among patients with no antipsychotic exposure (hazard ratio [HR] = 6.3, 95% CI: 5.5-7.3), ie, 0.0 defined daily dose (DDD)/day, followed by high exposure (>1.5 DDD/day) group (HR = 5.7, 5.2-6.2), low exposure (
Notes
Cites: Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl. 2000;401:3-3810887978
Cites: Am J Psychiatry. 2004 Aug;161(8):1334-4915285957
Cites: BMJ. 2006 Jul 1;333(7557):1516790458
Cites: Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2006 Dec;63(12):1358-6717146010
Cites: Fam Pract. 2007 Feb;24(1):34-4017062587
Cites: N Engl J Med. 2009 Jan 15;360(3):225-3519144938
Cites: Scand J Urol Nephrol. 2008;42(4):352-718609293
Cites: Schizophr Res. 2009 Aug;113(1):1-1119524406
Cites: Lancet. 2009 Aug 22;374(9690):620-719595447
Cites: Pharmacogenomics. 2009 Sep;10(9):1511-2619761372
Cites: Am J Psychiatry. 2010 Feb;167(2):151-920008945
Cites: J Clin Psychiatry. 2010 Feb;71(2):103-819895781
Cites: Am J Psychiatry. 2011 Jun;168(6):603-921362741
Cites: Am J Psychiatry. 2013 Mar;170(3):324-3323318474
Cites: Schizophr Bull. 2013 May;39(3):648-5722282455
Cites: PLoS One. 2013;8(6):e6713323826212
Cites: Schizophr Res. 2014 Jan;152(1):246-5424275583
PubMed ID
25422511 View in PubMed
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Assessment of long-term exposure to air pollution in a longitudinal national health survey.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature142360
Source
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2011 Jul-Aug;21(4):337-42
Publication Type
Article
Author
Mireille Guay
David M Stieb
Marc Smith-Doiron
Author Affiliation
Population Studies Division, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0K9.
Source
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2011 Jul-Aug;21(4):337-42
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Air Pollutants - analysis
Air Pollution - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Canada - epidemiology
Carbon Monoxide - analysis
Cardiovascular Diseases - chemically induced - epidemiology
Child
Cities - epidemiology
Demography
Environmental Monitoring - methods - statistics & numerical data
Epidemiological Monitoring
Health Surveys
Humans
Nitrogen Dioxide - analysis
Ozone - analysis
Particulate Matter - analysis
Respiratory Tract Diseases - chemically induced - epidemiology
Risk assessment
Sulfur Dioxide - analysis
Time Factors
Young Adult
Abstract
Self-reported data on the municipality of residence were used to assess long-term exposure to outdoor air pollution from 1980 to 2002 in the longitudinal Canadian National Population Health Survey. Exposure to carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide, and particulate matter was determined using data obtained from fixed-site air pollution monitors operated principally in urban areas. Four different methods of attributing pollution exposure were used based on residence in (1) 1980, (2) 1994, (3) 1980 and 1994, and (4) at all locations between 1980 and 2002. Between 1,693 and 4,274 of 10,515 members of the cohort could be assigned exposures to individual pollutants using these methods. On average, subjects spent 71.4% of the 1980-2002 period in the census subdivision where they lived in 1980. A single exposure measure in 1980 or 1994 or a mean of the two measures was highly correlated (r>0.7, P
PubMed ID
20606704 View in PubMed
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Association of ß-blocker therapy with risks of adverse cardiovascular events and deaths in patients with ischemic heart disease undergoing noncardiac surgery: a Danish nationwide cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature106091
Source
JAMA Intern Med. 2014 Mar;174(3):336-44
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2014
Author
Charlotte Andersson
Charlotte Mérie
Mads Jørgensen
Gunnar H Gislason
Christian Torp-Pedersen
Charlotte Overgaard
Lars Køber
Per Føge Jensen
Mark A Hlatky
Author Affiliation
Department of Health Research and Policy, Stanford University, School of Medicine, Stanford, California2Department of Cardiology, Gentofte University Hospital, Hellerup, Denmark.
Source
JAMA Intern Med. 2014 Mar;174(3):336-44
Date
Mar-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adrenergic beta-Antagonists - adverse effects - therapeutic use
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Cardiovascular Diseases - chemically induced - mortality
Cohort Studies
Denmark
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Myocardial Infarction - chemically induced - mortality
Myocardial Ischemia - drug therapy - surgery
Postoperative Complications - chemically induced
Propensity Score
Registries
Risk factors
Stroke - chemically induced - mortality
Abstract
Clinical guidelines have been criticized for encouraging the use of ß-blockers in noncardiac surgery despite weak evidence. Relevant clinical trials have been small and have not convincingly demonstrated an effect of ß-blockers on hard end points (ie, perioperative myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, cardiovascular death, and all-cause death).
To assess the association of ß-blocker treatment with major cardiovascular adverse events (MACE) and all-cause mortality in patients with ischemic heart disease undergoing noncardiac surgery. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, AND EXPOSURE: Individuals with ischemic heart disease with or without heart failure (HF) and with and without a history of myocardial infarction undergoing noncardiac surgery between October 24, 2004, and December 31, 2009, were identified from nationwide Danish registries. Adjusted Cox regression models were used to calculate the 30-day risks of MACE (ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, or cardiovascular death) and all-cause mortality associated with ß-blocker therapy.
Thirty-day risk of MACE and all-cause mortality.
Of 28,263 patients with ischemic heart disease undergoing surgery, 7990 (28.3%) had HF and 20,273 (71.7%) did not. ß-Blockers were used in 4262 (53.3%) with and 7419 (36.6%) without HF. Overall, use of ß-blockers was associated with a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.90 (95% CI, 0.79-1.02) for MACE and 0.95 (0.85-1.06) for all-cause mortality. Among patients with HF, use of ß-blockers was associated with a significantly lower risk of MACE (HR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.70-0.87) and all-cause mortality (0.80; 0.70-0.92), whereas among patients without HF, there was no significant association of ß-blocker use with MACE (1.11; 0.92-1.33) or mortality (1.15; 0.98-1.35) (P
Notes
Comment In: JAMA Intern Med. 2014 Mar;174(3):345-624247215
PubMed ID
24247428 View in PubMed
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Atypical antipsychotics olanzapine, quetiapine, and risperidone and risk of acute major cardiovascular events in young and middle-aged adults: a nationwide register-based cohort study in Denmark.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature263447
Source
CNS Drugs. 2014 Oct;28(10):963-73
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2014
Author
Björn Pasternak
Henrik Svanström
Mattis F Ranthe
Mads Melbye
Anders Hviid
Source
CNS Drugs. 2014 Oct;28(10):963-73
Date
Oct-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Administration, Oral
Adolescent
Adult
Antipsychotic Agents - adverse effects
Benzodiazepines - adverse effects
Cardiovascular Diseases - chemically induced - epidemiology
Cohort Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Dibenzothiazepines - adverse effects
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Injections, Intramuscular
Male
Middle Aged
Proportional Hazards Models
Registries
Risk
Risperidone - adverse effects
Sensitivity and specificity
Young Adult
Abstract
A number of serious cardiovascular safety concerns related to the use of atypical antipsychotics, compared with no use, have emerged, but nearly all reports are from studies of older patients. We aimed to compare the risk of cardiovascular events between the three most commonly used atypical antipsychotics in young and middle-aged adults.
We conducted a nationwide register-based cohort study in Denmark, 1997-2011, including adults aged 18-64 years, who started treatment with oral or intramuscular olanzapine (n = 15,774), oral quetiapine (n = 18,717), and oral or intramuscular risperidone (n = 14,134). The primary outcome was any major cardiovascular event (composite of cardiovascular mortality, acute coronary syndrome, or ischemic stroke) within 1 year following treatment initiation. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) while on current antipsychotic monotherapy in the outpatient setting, adjusting for an outcome-specific disease risk score.
The crude rate of any major cardiovascular event was 5.3 per 1,000 person-years among olanzapine users, 3.4 in quetiapine users, and 5.2 in risperidone users. Compared with risperidone, the risk of any major cardiovascular event was not significantly different in olanzapine users (HR 0.90, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.53-1.52) and quetiapine users (HR 0.79, 95 % CI 0.45-1.39). The absolute risk difference per 1,000 person-years on treatment was -0.5 (95 % CI -2.4 to 2.7) events for olanzapine and -1.1 (95 % CI -2.9 to 2.0) events for quetiapine.
Among young and middle-aged outpatients, the risk of acute major cardiovascular events was similar with use of olanzapine, quetiapine, and risperidone. Although moderate relative differences cannot be ruled out, any differences are small in absolute terms.
PubMed ID
24895158 View in PubMed
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97 records – page 1 of 10.