Young and old (4 and 25 months of age, respectively) Fisher 344/Brown Norway hybrid female rats were subjected to four 3 min episodes of ischemia separated by 5 min of reperfusion. Corresponding open-chest sham-operated groups received 32 min of no intervention. All rats were allowed to recover, and 24h later hearts were removed and frozen in liquid nitrogen. Global gene profiling in the ischemic and the non-ischemic areas and in the sham-operated hearts as well was carried out by using Affymetrix Gene Chips. Young ischemic hearts demonstrated down-regulation of gene expression associated with early-remodeling including down-regulation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1, decorin, collagen, tropoelastin, and fibulin, as well as decreases in hypertrophy-related transcripts. In contrast, old hearts showed a unique injury-related response, which included up-regulation of mRNAs for proteins associated with hypertrophy or apoptosis (including H36-alpha7 integrin, alpha-actin, tubulin, filamin, connective tissue growth factor, calcineurin, serine protease, and apoptosis inducing factor). These injury-related changes in gene expression could in part explain increased gravity of outcomes of ischemia and myocardial infarction in elderly hearts.
This study was undertaken in order to evaluate the usefulness of the Euroscore in the choice and outcome of mitral valve procedures undertaken at the Helsinki University Central Hospital.
Data from 378 patients was collected. predicted mortalities were calculated for all patients using the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation and different mitral valve procedures were compared with 30-day mortality, length of hospital care and rate of post-operative complications.
The mortality rate in the mitral valve repair (MVP) group decreased gradually from 5.9% (in 1999) to 2.2% (2003). The variation of annual mortality was higher in the mitral valve replacement (MVR) group. The predicted mortality given by Euroscore increased over the years in both groups. The mortality in the MVR group was nearly four times higher than in the MVP group. the length of both intensive and overall hospital stay decreased in patients with MVP procedures. Post-operative survival was 89% in the MVP patients and 74% in mvr patients after three years.
The results of mitral valve operations have improved. This is observed as decreased mortality rates and lengths of hospital care in the MVP group, although the predicted mortality rate was increased.
Barriers to successful innovation can be identified and potentially addressed by exploring the perspectives of key stakeholders in the innovation process. Cardiac surgeons in Canada were surveyed for personal perspectives on biomedical innovation. Quantitative data was obtained by questionnaire and qualitative data via interviews with selected survey participants. Surgeons were asked to self-identify into 1 of 3 categories: "innovator," "early adopter," or "late adopter," and data were compared between groups. Most surgeons viewed innovation favourably and this effect was consistent irrespective of perceived level of innovativeness. Key barriers to the innovation pathway were identified: (1) support from colleagues and institutions; (2) Canada's health system; (3) sufficient investment capital; and (4) the culture of innovation within the local environment. Knowledge of the innovation process was perceived differently based on self-reported innovativeness. The majority of surgeons did not perceive themselves as having the necessary knowledge and skills to effectively translate innovative ideas to clinical practice. In general, responses indicate support for implementation of leadership and training programs focusing on the innovation process in an effort to prepare surgeons and enhance their ability to successfully innovate and translate new therapies. The perspectives of cardiac surgeons provide an intriguing portal into the challenges and opportunities for healthcare innovation in Canada.
Intravenous drug users have a high risk of infective endocarditis and reduced survival. Cardiac surgery may be recommended for these patients, but redo surgery is controversial. This study describes the characteristics and outcomes of intravenous drug users accepted for surgery during a 12-year period.
This retrospective study included 29 injecting drug users treated with valve surgery for endocarditis between January 2001 and December 2013 at a tertiary academic centre. Survival was assessed by Kaplan-Meier analysis.
The median patient age was 36 (24-63) years and 27 patients (93%) were male. Staphylococcus aureus (52%) and Enterococcus faecalis (17%) were the most common microorganisms. Common illicit drugs were opioids (69%), amphetamines (52%) and benzodiazepines (24%). Mixed abuse was reported in 66% of patients. Seven patients (24%) had prior intracardial implants or native valve pathology. Twenty-five patients (86%) were positive for hepatitis C virus antibody, but none carried the human immunodeficiency virus. Twelve (41%) were homeless and 15 (52%) had poor dental hygiene. Three patients (10%) received medication-assisted rehabilitation before surgery. The main indications for surgery were regurgitation and secondary heart failure (86%), embolization (41%) and uncontrolled infection (24%). Aortic valve replacement was performed in 24 patients (83%), either as part of univalvular or multiple valve surgery. Seven patients (24%) had multivalvular endocarditis. All but 3 patients received biological valve prostheses. The 30-day mortality was 7% after first time surgery. During follow-up, 15 patients (52%) presented with reinfection: 10 (35%) were offered a second and 2 (7%) a third operation. Thirty-day mortality was 10% after redo surgery. Thirteen patients (45%) died within a median of 22 (0-84) months. Continued intravenous drug use was reported in 70 and 44% of patients after the first and second operation, respectively.
Cardiac surgery for infective endocarditis has acceptable early postoperative results among intravenous drug users. The 2- and 5-year survival were 79 and 59%, respectively. The number of reinfections was high within 2 years, as continued drug use seems to be a major challenge for this group.
Cites: Ann Thorac Surg. 2007 Jan;83(1):30-517184626
Cites: Ann Thorac Surg. 2015 Sep;100(3):1047-5326209479
This study sought to characterize temporal trends in all-cause mortality in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD).
Historically, most deaths in patients with CHD occurred in early childhood. Notable advances have since been achieved that may impact on mortality trends.
We conducted a population-based cohort study of patients with CHD in Quebec, Canada, from July 1987 to June 2005. A total of 8,561 deaths occurred in 71,686 patients with CHD followed for 982,363 patient-years.
The proportion of infant and childhood deaths markedly declined from 1987 to 2005, with a reduction in mortality that exceeded that of the general population. Distribution of age at death transitioned from a bimodal to unimodal, albeit skewed, pattern, more closely approximating the general population. Overall, mortality decreased by 31% (mortality rate ratio: 0.69, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.61 to 0.79) in the last (2002 to 2005) relative to the first (1987 to 1990) period of observation. Mortality rates decreased in all age groups below 65 years, with the largest reduction in infants (mortality rate ratio: 0.23, 95% CI: 0.12 to 0.47). In adults 18 to 64 years, the mortality reduction (mortality rate ratio: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.73 to 0.97) paralleled the general population. Gains in survival were mostly driven by reduced mortality in severe forms of CHD, particularly in children (mortality rate ratio: 0.33, 95% CI: 0.19 to 0.60), and were consistent across most subtypes.
Deaths in CHD have shifted away from infants and towards adults, with a steady increase in age at death and decreasing mortality.
Chronic pain is common after sternotomy in adults with reported prevalence rates of 20-50%. So far, no studies have examined whether children develop chronic pain after sternotomy.
Postal questionnaires were sent to 171 children 10-60 months after undergoing cardiac surgery via sternotomy at the age of 0-12 years. The children were asked to recall the intensity and duration of their post-operative pain, if necessary with the help from their parents, and to describe the intensity and character of any present pain. Another group of 13 children underwent quantitative sensory testing of the scar area 3 months after sternotomy.
A total of 121 children, median (range) age 7.7 (4.2-16.9) years, answered the questionnaire. Their age at the time of surgery was median (range) 3.8 (0-12.9) years, and the follow-up period was median (range) 4 (0.8-5.1) years. In all, 26 children (21%) reported present pain and/or pain within the last week located in the scar area; in 12 (46%) out of the 26 children, the intensity was =4 on a numeric rating scale (0-10). Quantitative sensory testing of the scar area revealed sensory abnormalities--pinprick hyperalgesia and brush and cold allodynia--in 10 out of 13 children.
Chronic pain after cardiac surgery via sternotomy in children is a problem that should not be neglected. The pain is likely to have a neuropathic component as suggested by the sensory abnormalities demonstrated by quantitative sensory testing.
Comparative analysis of anamnestic, clinical, laboratory and instrumental data involved 106 patients with infectious endocarditis treated in S.P. Botkin City Clinical Hospital in 2000-2011 and 92 ones admitted in 1985-1977. The results give evidence of ongoing pathomorphosis of infectious endocarditis as is apparent from the growing number of male patients, increased frequency of primary cases and previous invasive or intravascular manipulations, thromboembolic complications including pulmonary thromboembolism, right heart chamber endocarditis. Over half of the patients are socially unadapted C-peptide level is of diagnostic value for the assessment of inflammation activity, precursors of natriuretic peptide can be used to detect preclinical and clinical stages of cardiac failure related to infectious endocarditis. There is correlation between severity of inflammation and myocardial dysfunction. Early surgical intervention in the absence of effect of combined antibacterial therapy improves prognosis. Morphological studies of inflammation-related changes in myocardium, destruction of cardiomyocytes, dystrophic processes, and fibrosis play an important role in the development of cardiac insufficiency and prognosis of infectious endocarditis.