Antioxidant vitamins have attracted considerable attention in previous studies of esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma, but dietary studies of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and gastric cardia remain sparse. Treating these tumors as distinct diseases, we studied intakes of vitamin C, beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol in a nationwide population-based case-control study in Sweden, with 185, 165, and 258 cases of esophageal adenocarcinoma, esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma, and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma, respectively, and 815 controls. Subjects with a high parallel intake of vitamin C, beta-carotene, and alpha-tocopherol showed a 40-50% decreased risk of both histological types of esophageal cancer compared with subjects with a low parallel intake. Antioxidant intake was not associated with the risk of gastric cardia adenocarcinoma. Separately, vitamin C and beta-carotene reduced the risk of esophageal cancers more than alpha-tocopherol. We found that antioxidant intake is associated with similar risk reductions for both main histological types of esophageal cancer. Our findings indicate that antioxidants do not explain the diverging incidence rates of the 2 histological types of esophageal cancer. Moreover, our data suggest that inverse associations with esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma may be stronger among subjects under presumed higher oxidative stress due to smoking or gastroesophageal reflux, respectively. Our results may be relevant for the implementation of focused, cost-effective preventive measures.
The strong male predominance in esophageal and gastroesophageal junctional adenocarcinoma remains unexplained. Sex hormonal influence has been suggested, but not proven. A protective role of dietary phytoestrogen lignans was hypothesized.
A Swedish nationwide population-based case-control study was conducted in 1995-1997, including 181 cases of esophageal adenocarcinoma, 255 cases of gastroesophageal junctional adenocarcinoma, 158 cases of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and 806 control subjects. Data on various exposures, including dietary data, were collected through personal interviews and questionnaires. Dietary intake of lignans was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire and categorized into quartiles based on the consumption among the control participants. Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) with 95?% confidence intervals (CIs), including adjustment for all established risk factors.
Participants in the highest quartile of intake of lignans compared with the lowest quartile were at a decreased risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma (OR, 0.65; 95?% CI, 0.38-1.12; p for trend =0.03), gastroesophageal junctional adenocarcinoma (OR, 0.37; 95?% CI, 0.23-0.58; p for trend
To determine the incidence of vulvar carcinoma in situ (CIS) and cancer of squamous cell (SC) origin in Denmark in the period 1978-2007.
Using the nationwide Danish Cancer Registry, we identified 980 women diagnosed with vulvar CIS 1978-2003 (67.8% were SC) and 2455 women diagnosed with vulvar cancer 1978-2007 (76.0% were SC). Analysis was restricted to vulvar CIS and cancer of SC origin. We assessed age-specific incidence rates, age-standardized incidence rates, and distribution of stage at diagnosis. Poisson regression analysis was used to estimate the average annual percentage change.
During the study period the age-standardized incidence rate of vulvar SC CIS increased by 1.97% per year (95% CI: 0.99% to 2.96%) with a tendency toward a steeper increase among women younger than 50 years. The age-standardized incidence rate of vulvar SC cancer showed a stable or slightly increasing pattern. However, among women below 60 years of age a significantly increasing trend was observed (1.60% per year; 95% CI: 0.50% to 2.71%). The distribution in the extent of vulvar SC cancer at diagnosis showed a tendency toward a higher proportion being diagnosed with localized disease in the more recent calendar years.
The incidence rates of vulvar SC CIS and vulvar SC cancer among women below the age of 60 years have increased since 1978. Human papillomavirus (HPV) could explain the increase and thus, the recent introduction of HPV vaccination may in the future result in a notable reduction of vulvar malignancies.
Few prospective studies have investigated the association between whole-grain consumption and incidence of oesophageal cancer. In the Scandinavian countries, consumption of whole grains is high and the incidence of oesophageal cancer comparably low. The aim of this paper was to study the associations between consumption of whole grains, whole-grain products and oesophageal cancer, including its two major histological subtypes. The HELGA cohort is a prospective cohort study consisting of three sub-cohorts in Norway, Sweden and Denmark. Information regarding whole-grain consumption was collected through country-specific food frequency questionnaires. Cancer cases were identified through national cancer registries. Cox proportional hazards ratios were calculated in order to assess the associations between whole grains and oesophageal cancer risk. The analytical cohort had 113,993 members, including 112 cases, and median follow-up time was 11 years. When comparing the highest tertile of intake with the lowest, the oesophageal cancer risk was approximately 45 % lower (adjusted HR 0.55, 95 % CI 0.31-0.97 for whole grains, HR 0.51, 95 % CI 0.30-0.88 for whole-grain products). Inverse associations were also found in continuous analyses. Whole-grain wheat was the only grain associated with lower risk (HR 0.32, 95 % CI 0.16-0.63 highest vs. lowest tertile). Among whole-grain products, the results were less clear, but protective associations were seen for the sum of whole-grain products, and whole-grain bread. Lower risk was seen in both histological subtypes, but particularly for squamous cell carcinomas. In this study, whole-grain consumption, particularly whole-grain wheat, was inversely associated with risk of oesophageal cancer.
BACKGROUND: Organized Papanicolaou (Pap) screening has markedly reduced the incidence of cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). However, the potential for overtreatment of precursor lesions is quite high for SCC, and the effectiveness of Pap screening for prevention of cervical adenocarcinoma is questionable. METHODS: Using the nationwide, virtually complete Swedish Cancer Register, we analyzed standardized incidence rates for SCC in situ (CIS), SCC, adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and adenocarcinoma, between 1968 and 2002. For each county, we calculated Spearman correlations between incidence of in situ lesions and incidence of invasive cancer, 5, 10, and 15 years later. We also used generalized estimating equation (GEE) models to compare adjusted estimates for associations between in situ incidences and invasive carcinomas over counties. RESULTS: The overall decrease in SCC incidence in Sweden following the introduction of cervical screening confirms the beneficial nature of cervical screening on SCC incidence over the last 30 years. A similar benefit was not apparent for adenocarcinoma. GEE estimates for the relative change in SCC for an increase of 100 CIS cases per 100,000 women-years were 1.05 for the 5-year and 1.02 for the 10-year lag periods. For adenocarcinoma and AIS, similar analyses gave corresponding estimates of 1.17 for the 5-year and 1.08 for the 10-year lag periods. The lack of an inverse correlation suggests that increased reported incidence of CIS in certain counties did not forecast a reduction in SCC for those counties. CONCLUSION: Our data confirm the effectiveness of Pap smear screening in reducing the incidence of SCC, but suggest no clear benefit on adenocarcinoma. Our data also suggest that relaxed histopathologic criteria for diagnosis of cervical CIS may increase its recorded incidence with no measurable benefit in the reduction of invasive cancer.
Examine long-term incidence trends of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancer in Norway, and estimate the number of cancer cases preventable by vaccines against HPV 16/18 or HPV 16/18/31/33/45/52/58.
Observational registry-based study. We extracted incident cases of HPV-related cancer during 1953-2015 from the Cancer Registry of Norway. Tumour HPV prevalence estimates from large international meta-analyses or from Norway were used to estimate the protective potential of HPV vaccines.
The Norwegian population.
Incidence trend analyses during 1953-2015 for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the cervix, vulva, vagina, oropharynx, anus and penis, and adenocarcinoma of the cervix. Additionally, the number of cancer cases preventable by HPV vaccination.
Among women, incidences of SCC of the anus, oropharynx, vulva and cervical adenocarcinoma increased, while vaginal SCC showed no trend. For these cancers combined, the average annual percentage change (AAPC) during 1953-2015 was 1.2 (95% CI 0.7 to 1.6). The incidence of cervical SCC generally decreased during 1976-2004 and remained stable thereafter. Among men, incidences of SCC of the anus, oropharynx and penis increased. The AAPC during 1953-2015 combined for all male HPV-related cancer was 1.9 (95% CI 1.3 to 2.5). A vaccine against HPV 16/18 might yearly prevent 402 (95% CI 382 to 420) cancers. A vaccine against HPV 16/18/31/33/45/52/58 might yearly prevent 478 (95% CI 464 to 490) cancers, of which 206 (95% CI 202 to 209) occur in non-cervical organs, and 113 (95% CI 110 to 115) occur among men.
The incidences of HPV-related cancers that are not effectively prevented by screening have generally increased during 1953-2015. HPV vaccination can prevent a substantial number of cancers in Norway, in cervical and non-cervical organs, among women and men.
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With respect to cervical cancer management, Finland and the Netherlands are comparable in relevant characteristics, e.g., fertility rate, age-of-mother at first birth and a national screening programme for several years. The aim of this study is to compare trends in incidence of and mortality from cervical cancer in Finland and the Netherlands in relation to the introduction and intensity of the screening programmes. Therefore, incidence and mortality rates were calculated using the Cancer Registries of Finland and the Netherlands. Data on screening intensity were obtained from the Finnish Cancer Registry and the Dutch evaluation centre at ErasmusMC-Rotterdam. Women aged 30-60 have been screened every 5 years, in Finland since 1992 and in the Netherlands since 1996. Screening protocols for smear taking and referral to the gynaecologist are comparable. Incidence and mortality rates have declined more in Finland. In 2003, age-adjusted incidence and mortality in Finland were 4.0 and 0.9 and in the Netherlands 4.9 and 1.4 per 100,000 woman-years, respectively. Excess smear use in the Netherlands was estimated to be 24 per 1,000 women during a 5-year interval compared to 121 in Finland. The decline in mortality in Finland seems to be almost completely related to the screening programme whereas in the Netherlands it was initially considered to be a natural decline. Differences in risk factors might also play a role: the Netherlands has higher population density and higher percentages of immigrants and (female) smokers. The greater excess smear use in Finland might also have affected incidence.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may prevent the development of cancer by inhibiting cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes, which are involved in carcinogenesis. Therefore, the authors of this report examined the association between NSAID use and the risk of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), basal cell carcinoma (BCC), and malignant melanoma (MM).
From 1991 through 2009, all incident cases of SCC (n = 1974), BCC (n = 13,316), and MM (n = 3242) in northern Denmark were identified. Approximately 10 population controls (n = 178,655) were matched to each case by age, gender, and county of residence. The use of aspirin, other nonselective NSAIDs, or selective COX-2 inhibitors was ascertained through a prescription database. Conditional logistic regression analyses adjusted for potential confounders were used to compute odds ratios as estimates of incidence rate ratios (IRRs).
For NSAIDs overall, ever use (>2 prescriptions) compared with nonuse (=2 prescriptions) was associated with a decreased risk of SCC (IRR, 0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76-0.94) and MM (IRR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.80-0.95), especially for long-term use (=7 years) and high-intensity use (>25% prescription coverage during the total duration of use). NSAID use was not associated with a reduced risk of BCC overall (IRR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.93-1.01), but the risk of BCC at sites other than the head and neck was reduced in association with long-term use (IRR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.76-0.95) and high-intensity use (IRR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.69-0.91). All estimates of reduced risk were driven primarily by the use of nonselective NSAIDs and older COX-2 inhibitors (diclofenac, etodolac, and meloxicam).
The current results indicated that NSAID use may decrease the risk of SCC and MM.
BACKGROUND: Screening by cytology is a potentially highly effective procedure for preventing carcinoma of the uterine cervix. To elucidate any weaknesses in the screening procedure in a Swedish county where screening started many years ago, the detection of invasive cervical squamous cell carcinoma was compared to the prior cytological screening. METHODS: On the basis of the complete Pathology data files, including cytology and histology, all 112 women with invasive cervical squamous carcinoma were compared to 112 matched controls from the Swedish Population Register, regarding attendance rate and results of Pap-smears prior to the date of discovery of an invasive carcinoma in the case. RESULTS: Almost as many cases as controls had a history of pap-smear testing, but the cases had significantly more prior atypias registered. Only 16% of women with cervical carcinoma and younger than 60 years were lacking Pap-smear tests prior to the carcinoma diagnosis, but 46% had former atypias registered. More than half of them presented, however, a negative Pap-smear test less than three years before the diagnosis. Among the controls, 10% were lacking prior Pap-smears and only 9% had former atypias registered. CONCLUSION: The policy for follow-up and treatment of cervical dysplasias has to be improved in order to achieve a further reduction of the incidence of invasive carcinoma.