BACKGROUND: The reasons for the increasing incidence of and strong male predominance in patients with oesophageal and cardia adenocarcinoma remain unclear. The authors hypothesised that airborne occupational exposures in male dominated industries might contribute. METHODS: In a nationwide Swedish population based case control study, 189 and 262 cases of oesophageal and cardia adenocarcinoma respectively, 167 cases of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and 820 frequency matched controls underwent personal interviews. Based on each study participant's lifetime occupational history the authors assessed cumulative airborne occupational exposure for 10 agents, analysed individually and combined, by a deterministic additive model including probability, frequency, and intensity. Furthermore, occupations and industries of longest duration were analysed. Relative risks were estimated by odds ratios (OR), with 95% confidence intervals (CI), using conditional logistic regression, adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: Tendencies of positive associations were found between high exposure to pesticides and risk of oesophageal (OR 2.3 (95% CI 0.9 to 5.7)) and cardia adenocarcinoma (OR 2.1 (95% CI 1.0 to 4.6)). Among workers highly exposed to particular agents, a tendency of an increased risk of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma was found. There was a twofold increased risk of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma among concrete and construction workers (OR 2.2 (95% CI 1.1 to 4.2)) and a nearly fourfold increased risk of cardia adenocarcinoma among workers within the motor vehicle industry (OR 3.9 (95% CI 1.5 to 10.4)). An increased risk of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OR 3.9 (95% CI 1.2 to 12.5)), and a tendency of an increased risk of cardia adenocarcinoma (OR 2.8 (95% CI 0.9 to 8.5)), were identified among hotel and restaurant workers. CONCLUSIONS: Specific airborne occupational exposures do not seem to be of major importance in the aetiology of oesophageal or cardia adenocarcinoma and are unlikely to contribute to the increasing incidence or the male predominance.
A case-control study of male-female differences in cigarette smoking and lung cancer was conducted during 1981-1985 in Toronto, St. Catharine's, and Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada. In total, 442 female and 403 male histologically verified cancer cases were individually matched by age and area of residence to each other and to 410 female and 362 male randomly selected population controls. Subjects were interviewed concerning their exposures to various life-style factors, and in particular, they received detailed questioning regarding their lifelong histories of usage of tobacco products. It was found that, for both sexes, a greatly elevated risk of developing lung cancer was associated with cigarette consumption, increasing with pack-years of cigarettes smoked and declining with duration of time since quitting smoking. Furthermore, the association was significantly (p = 0.010) and appreciably stronger for females than for males. At a history of 40 pack-years relative to lifelong nonsmoking, the odds ratio for women was 27.9 (95% confidence interval (CI) 14.9-52.0) and that for men was 9.60 (95% CI 5.64-16.3). Higher odds ratios for females were also seen within each of the major histologic groupings. Thus, the higher elevated risk of lung cancer currently observed in other studies for female ever smokers compared with male ever smokers, while possibly attributable in part to greater smoking cessation among males, may be due to higher susceptibility among females.
A central role in anal carcinogenesis of high-risk types of human papillomaviruses (hrHPV) was recently established, but the possible role of benign anal lesions has not been addressed in hrHPV-positive and -negative anal cancers. As part of a population-based case-control study in Denmark and Sweden, we interviewed 417 case patients (93 men and 324 women) diagnosed during the period 1991-94 with invasive or in situ anal cancer, 534 patients with adenocarcinoma of the rectum and 554 population controls. Anal cancer specimens (n = 388) were tested for HPV by the polymerase chain reaction. Excluding the 5 years immediately before diagnosis, men, but not women, with anal cancer reported a history of haemorrhoids [multivariate odds ratio (OR) 1.8; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-3.2] and unspecific anal irritation (OR 4.5; CI 2.3-8.7) significantly more often than controls. Women with anal cancer did not report a history of benign anal lesions other than anal abscess to any greater extent than controls, but they had used anal suppositories more often (OR 1.5; CI 1.1-2.0). Patients with hrHPV in anal cancer tissue (84%) and those without (16%) reported similar histories of most benign anal lesions, but anal fissure or fistula was more common among hrHPV-positive cases. Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, reported by
Data for the incidence of basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the skin, registered for six regions of Norway during 10 years (1976-1985), were used to evaluate the biological amplification factor Ab for induction of these cancers by sunlight. Ab is the ratio of the increment in skin cancer production to the increment in causative sunlight exposure. Two different approximations were used for the action spectrum for carcinogenesis: an erythema action spectrum; and an action spectrum for mutagenesis of cells in the basal layer of the skin. These two fundamentally different approaches yielded Ab values that were similar to within about 10%: 2.1-2.3 for BCCs; and 1.6-1.8 for SCCs. Using a radiation amplification factor for ozone depletion of 0.8-1.1, we find that the total amplification factor for BCCs is within the range 1.6-2.1 and that that for SCCs is within the range 1.3-1.7 at northern latitudes of 60-70 degrees. Thus, an ozone depletion of 1% will result in an increase in the incidence of BCCs by 1.6-2.1% and of SCCs by 1.3-1.7%. There were no significant differences between the values for men and women. Neither was there any significant difference between Ab values found for skin commonly exposed to sunlight (face) and for skin sites normally covered by clothes and therefore receiving much lower exposures, in spite of the fact that the tumor density per unit skin area was a factor of 20 or more larger at the former sites. This observation, as well as the curves relating cancer incidence with annual exposure to carcinogenic sunlight, supports a power law relationship between cancer incidence and annual sun exposure. Sunlight appears to be the main cause of BCCs and SCCs even at the high latitudes of Northern Norway. All over, BCCs were found to be about 6 times more frequent than SCCs. The ratio of the incidence of BCCs to that of SCCs seemed to be independent of the latitude. Finally, BCCs were found to be equally frequent among men and women, while SCCs were found to be about twice as frequent among men as among women.
In a cohort of 254,417 male Swedish farmers (4,330,717 person-years) the incidence of cancer of the respiratory organs was compared to a reference cohort of 1,725,845 men (30,131,664 person-years) employed in other economic activities than agriculture or forestry. In the study cohort 1450 cases of cancer in the respiratory organs were found in 1961 to 1979 resulting in an estimated relative risk (RR) of 0.38 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.36-0.40). For cancer of trachea, bronchus and lung, the decreased risk was equal for adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. No time related trend in RR for any of the histologic subtypes could be seen. However, for squamous cell carcinoma in nose and nasal sinuses RR has increased from 0.42 (95% CI: 0.20-0.80) in 1961 to 1966 to 2.06 (95% CI: 1.22-3.50) in 1974 to 1979.
Squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue is the most common intraoral malignancy. It may be preceded by visible precursor lesions showing hyperkeratosis, erythroplakia or a combination of these conditions. The clinical appearance is highly variable, and ranges from asymptomatic white patches to large fungating, infiltrating lesions. Earlier detection of squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue should improve survival rates for this malignancy, which have not appreciably increased over the past several decades. The oral cavity is an accessible site and the dentist has an important role to play in early detection.
Comment In: J Can Dent Assoc. 1995 Nov;61(11):922, 9448521318
The role of smoking and other risk factors for cervical neoplasia was investigated in a population-based case-control study of 586 women with histologically verified cervical squamous-cell carcinoma in situ (CIS), and 59 women with invasive squamous-cell cervical cancer from Copenhagen. Controls were randomly selected from the general female population using the computerized Danish Central Population Register. After adjustment for a variety of confounding variables, which were all significantly associated with CIS risk and included age, number of partners, proportion of sexually active life without barrier contraceptive use, years with intra-uterine devices, number of births, and age at first episode of genital warts (as a proxy measure for human papillomavirus exposure), current cigarette smoking was found to be significantly associated with CIS [adjusted relative risk (RR) = 2.4; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.7-3.4]. Ex-smokers had a lower, but still significantly increased risk (RR = 1.6; 95% CI: 1.0-2.7). A dose-response relationship was present, especially for number of cigarettes smoked per day. In contrast, the crude estimates showed a weak association between invasive cervical cancer and smoking, which however disappeared after confounder control. The results of the present study support the hypothesis implicating smoking as a risk factor for CIS.
Cancer of the larynx represents worldwide approximately 1-2% of all cancers and generally occurs predominantly in males. Based upon many reports, the age-adjusted incidence of laryngeal cancer has been rising in recent years, especially among women. Squamous cell carcinomas arising in the glottic region are the most common of all laryngeal cancers and more prevalent than the supraglottic ones. Subglottic disease is still rare. The Finnish Head and Neck Oncology Group evaluated the present occurrence of laryngeal cancer by site and gender in Finland. The annual age-standardized incidence of laryngeal cancer is 3.2 per 100,000 for men and 0.3 per 100,000 for women. The proportion of females in the five university centers reviewed was 5%. During the 30-year time period from the early 1960s to the 1990s there has been a significant decrease in the laryngeal cancer incidence rates for males, but no change for females. Finland thus seems to be the only Western country with clearly declining occurrence rates in recent decades. In the same time period a clear decrease in the incidence of bronchial cancer has occurred in males and an increase in females. The results also show that in all five university hospital districts glottic cancer became more common (50-68%) in the late 1980s and 1990s, which is opposite to the situation in the 1960s when supraglottic localizations (65%) dominated in Finland.