Both alcohol abuse and liver cirrhosis are known risk factors for various cancers. This article was aimed to assess the long-term risk of malignancies among patients with severe alcoholic liver disease (ALD), i.e., alcoholic liver cirrhosis and alcoholic hepatitis. A cohort of 8,796 male and 3,077 female ALD patients from 1996 to 2012 was identified from the Finnish National Hospital Discharge Register. This nationwide cohort was combined with the data from the Finnish Cancer Registry for incidence of malignancies during the years 1996-2013. The cancer cases diagnosed were compared with the number of cancers in the general population. The number of malignancies in our cohort was 1,052 vs. 368 expected. There was statistically significant excess of cancers of the liver, (standardized incidence ratio [SIR] 59.20; 95% CI 53.11-65.61), pancreas (SIR 3.71; 95% CI 2.72-4.94), pharynx (SIR 9.25; 95% CI 6.05-13.56), mouth (SIR 8.31; 95% CI 4.84-13,29), oesophagus (SIR 7.92; 95% CI 5.49-11.07), tongue (SIR 7,21; 95% CI 3.60-12.89), larynx (SIR 5.20; 95% CI 2.77-8.89), lung (SIR 2.77; 95% CI 2.27-3.32), stomach (SIR 2.76; 95% CI 1.79-4.07), kidney (SIR 2.69; 95% CI 1.84-3.79) and colon (SIR 2.33; 95% CI 1.70-3.11). There was no decreased risk of any cancer among ALD patients. Severe ALD is associated with markedly increased risk of malignancies. The risk is especially high for hepatocellular carcinoma, but also significantly increased for cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract, pancreas and kidneys, and warrants cancer surveillance in selected cases.
OBJECTIVES: To assess homozygous alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency (PiZZ) as a risk factor for cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and gallstone disease, and to analyse the respective interrelation-ships and those suggested to exist between PiZZ, alpha 1-antitrypsin and chronic hepatitis B and C. DESIGN/METHODS: This study was based on 31 autopsied adults with severe alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency diagnosed during the period 1963-94, in the city of Malm?, Sweden. For each autopsied PiZZ individual, four age- and sex-matched controls were selected from the same autopsy register. The autopsy rate during the study period was 57.2% of all deaths in the city and 85% of deaths at the hospital. Relative risks were estimated in terms of Mantel-Haenszel odds ratios (ORmh). RESULTS: In the PiZZ group, we found 13 cases of cirrhosis (ORmh = 8.3; 95% CI, 3.8-18.3; P