American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/AN) have the highest prevalence of obesity for any racial/ethnic group. Previous studies examining risk factors for obesity have identified excessive sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) and inadequate water consumption as major risk factors for this population group. The historical scarcity of water in rural Alaska may explain consumption patterns including reliance on SSBs and other packaged drinks.
Our study was designed to assess SSB, water and other beverage consumption and attitudes towards consumption in Alaska Native children and adults residing in rural Alaska. During summer 2014, 2 focus groups were conducted employing community members in a small rural village more than 200 air miles west of Fairbanks, Alaska. Interviews were completed with shop owners, Early Head Start and Head Start program instructors (n=7). SSB and total beverage intakes were measured using a modified version of the BEVQ-15, (n=69).
High rates of SSB consumption (defined as sweetened juice beverages, soda, sweet tea, energy drink or sports drinks) and low rates of water consumption were reported for all age groups in the village. All adolescents and 81% of children reported drinking SSBs at least once per week in the last month, and 48% of adolescents and 29% of younger children reported daily consumption. Fifty-two per cent of adults reported consuming SSBs at least once per week and 20% reported daily consumption. Twenty-five per cent of adolescents reported never drinking water in the past month, and 19% of younger children and 21% of adults did not consume water daily.
Alaska Native children and adults living in the Interior Alaska consume high amounts of SSBs including energy drinks and insufficient amounts of water. Interventions targeting beverage consumption are urgently needed for the Alaska Native population in rural Alaska.
Certain beverages contribute energy, protein, vitamins, and minerals. North American adolescents have shifted their beverage intake from predominantly milk to predominantly sugary beverages. Intake of these sugary beverages, in sufficient quantity, may increase the risk of bone fractures, may contribute to obesity, and may lead to tooth decay. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a school-nutrition education program (Fluids Used Effectively for Living) on nutrition knowledge, attitude, and self-reported behavior of grade 9 students in Saskatchewan, Canada. Two classes of grade 9 students, 1 (n = 33) in a high school in Saskatoon (n = 33) and 1 (n = 24) in a large high school in Prince Albert, Saskatchewan, received the peer educator intervention. Two other classes in the 2 cities (n = 24 and n = 24, respectively) were controls. Six sessions of Fluids Used Effectively for Living nutrition education were delivered by using 2 peer educator models (multiple and single), and the intervention was delivered in a 45-minute weekly class session over a 6-week period. After the intervention, students in these 2 peer educator classes decreased their sugary beverage intake significantly, which was sustained for 3 months. Students in the control self-taught class increased their juice intake at the end of the year. The significant decrease of juice and sugary beverage intakes in the single model peer educator class disappeared after Bonferroni correction. Carbonated sugary beverage intake of students in the control self-taught classes declined, but it was not sustainable at the 3-month follow-up. A peer educator school-based nutrition education approach can lead to a decrease in sugary beverage intake in high school children.
In 2007, the Finnish National Board of Education (FNBE) and the National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL) gave a national recommendation that Finnish upper comprehensive schools should not sell sweet products. The aim was to find out how the national recommendation changed the schools' selling of sweet products.
This longitudinal survey was conducted in Finnish upper comprehensive school classes 7-9 (13-15-year-old pupils) in 2007 and 2010. All the schools (N=970) were invited to answer the questionnaire and 237 schools answered in both years (response rate 24%). The questionnaires contained questions concerning the selling of sweet and healthy products and school policy on sweet selling guidelines. Of the nine items in the questionnaire, three weighted sum scores were formed for oral health promotion: Exposure, enabling and policy (higher score indicating better actions). These sum scores were also trichotomized. Statistical significances of the changes were analyzed using nonparametric Wilcoxon's test, McNemar's test, and McNemar-Bowker's test.
Schools had decreased exposure of pupils to sweet products (p
The aim of this study was to describe the daily use of certain between-meal sugar products (soft drinks and sweets) of schoolchildren in 20 European countries, Israel and Canada as a part of the Cross-National Survey on Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children--a WHO Collaborative Study. The data were collected using standardised anonymous questionnaires in school classrooms during the 1993/1994 school year. In each country nationally or regionally representative samples of about 1,300 schoolchildren (450 in Greenland) were targeted. Use of sugar products was analysed according to sex, age, country, self-reported school performance and self-reported family economy. One third to one half of the children (30-48 per cent) drank coke or other soft drinks more than once a day in Israel, Northern Ireland, Scotland, the Slovak Republic and Flemish-speaking Belgium. Use of soft drinks was very uncommon in Finland, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Latvia and Estonia. The strongest association (odds ratios) was between the use of soft drinks and good family economy; in Russia (20.3), in Lithuania (11.3), in Latvia (10.0), in Poland (8.5) and in Estonia (8.0). In Israel, Scotland, Northern Ireland, Russia and French-speaking Belgium 41-29 per cent of the children ate sweets more than once a day. Boys drank soft drinks and ate sweets slightly more often than girls did. In conclusion, large differences were found between the different countries in the frequency of use of soft drinks and sweets. This should be considered when developing the content of oral health promotion programmes.
The aim of the this study was to present data on oral care habits and knowledge of oral health in 2013, and to compare these data with results from a series of four previous cross-sectional epidemiological studies. All these studies were carried out in the city of Jönköping, Sweden, in 1973, 1983, 1993, 2003, and 2013. The 1973 study constituted a random sample of 1,ooo individuals evenly distributed in the age groups 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 years. The same age groups with addition of a group of 80-year-olds were included in the 1983, 1993, 2003, and 2013 studies, which comprised 1,104; 1,078; 987; and 1,010 individuals, respectively. A questionnaire about dental care habits and knowledge of oral health was used. The questionnaire contained the same questions in all the five studies, although some had to be slightly modernised during the 40-year period. During the period 1973-2013, a continous increase of individuals in the age group 20-60 years were treated by the Public Dental Service amounting to about 50%. Almost 70% of the 70- and 80-year-olds were treated by private practitioners. In 2013, 10-20% of the individuals in the age groups 30-40 years did not regularly visit neither Public Dental Service nor a private practitioner. The corresponding figures for the individuals 50-80 years old were 4-7%. Similar number of avoidance was reported in the previous studies. In the survey 2013, about 20-30% of the individuals in the age groups 20-50 felt frightened, sick, or ill at ease at the prospect of an appointment with the dentist. These findings were in agreement with the results from the surveys 1973-2003. Among the younger age groups, 0-15 years, a reduction in self-reported "ill at ease" was found in the surveys 2003 and 2013 compared to the previous surveys in this series. In 2013, the knowledge of the etiology of caries was known by about 60% of the individuals which was similar to that reported 1973-2003. Twenty per cent of the individuals stated that they did not know which etiological factors that causes caries. This percentage was equivalent during the period 1973-2013.About 85% of the individuals in all age groups brushed their teeth with fluoride tooth paste at least two times a day. These frequencies have gradually increased during the 40-year period. Around 40% in the age groups 50-80 years used toothpicks regularly in 2013. This is a about 1/3-1/2 less compared to 2003. In the age groups 20-40 years 3-14% used toothpicks for proximal cleaning in 2013. In 2013, about 35% of the individuals never consumed soft drinks, in comparison with 20% in 2003. In the age groups 3-20 years about 20% were consuming soft drinks every day or several times a week,which is a reduction by half compared to 2013.
It has been reported that the frequency of cola intake (COLA) is positively associated with serum triglycerides and negatively associated with high-density-lioprotein (HDL) cholesterol, both components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). The question now is whether noncola soft drink intake (NCOLA) is associated with MetS. Among the 18 770 participants in the Oslo Health Study, 5373 men and 6181 women had data on COLA and NCOLA and risk factors for MetS (except fasting glucose). Main MetS requirements are central obesity and 2 of the following: increased triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol, increased systolic or diastolic blood pressure, and elevated fasting blood glucose. The MetSRisk index was calculated to estimate many MetS components. Using regression analyses, the association between COLA (NCOLA) and MetS (MetSRisk) was studied. In young (aged 30 years), middle-aged (aged 40 and 45 years), and senior (aged 59 and 60 years) men and women, there was, in general, a positive correlation between COLA and MetSRisk, and between COLA and single MetS risk factors, except HDL cholesterol, which was negatively correlated. A less consistent picture was found for NCOLA. By regression analyses, after adjustment for sex, age, time since last meal, and use of sugar-sweetened soft drinks, a positive association between COLA (NCOLA) and MetSRisk (MetS) was still found. However, when also controlling for cheese, fatty fish, coffee, alcohol, smoking, physical activity, education, and birthplace, only the association with COLA remained significant, irrespective of the presence or absence of sugar. In conclusion, the self-reported intake frequency of soft drinks can be positively associated with MetS.