According to results from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey-Nutrition, total beverage consumption among adults declined steadily with age. This reflects drops in the percentage of adults consuming most beverages and in the amounts consumed. While water was the beverage consumed most frequently and in the greatest quantity by adults, for many of them, coffee ranked second. Largely as a result of drinking coffee, more than 20% of men and 15% of women aged 31 to 70 exceeded the recommended maximum of 400 milligrams of caffeine per day. About 20% of men aged 19 to 70 consumed more than two alcoholic drinks a day. Owing to declines in the consumption of soft drinks and alcohol, the contribution of beverages to adults' total calorie intake falls at older ages. Regardless of age, men were generally more likely than women to report drinking most beverages, and those who did, drank more. There were, however, a few exceptions, with higher percentages of women than men reporting that they drank water and tea.
According to results from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey--Nutrition, children and teens get about one-fifth of their daily calories from beverages. As they get older, boys and girls drink less milk and fruit juice, and more soft drinks and fruit drinks. By ages 14 to 18, boys' average daily consumption of soft drinks matches their consumption of milk, and exceeds their consumption of fruit juice and fruit drinks. Beverage consumption by children and teens varies little by province, except in Newfoundland and Labrador where it tends to be comparatively high, and in British Columbia where it tends to be low.
To investigate the beverage intake patterns of Canadian adults and explore characteristics of participants in different beverage clusters.
Analyses of nationally representative data with cross-sectional complex stratified design.
Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2.2 (2004).
A total of 14 277 participants aged 19-65 years, in whom dietary intake was assessed using a single 24 h recall, were included in the study. After determining total intake and the contribution of beverages to total energy intake among age/sex groups, cluster analysis (K-means method) was used to classify males and females into distinct clusters based on the dominant pattern of beverage intakes. To test differences across clusters, ?2 tests and 95 % confidence intervals of the mean intakes were used.
Six beverage clusters in women and seven beverage clusters in men were identified. 'Sugar-sweetened' beverage clusters - regular soft drinks and fruit drinks - as well as a 'beer' cluster, appeared for both men and women. No 'milk' cluster appeared among women. The mean consumption of the dominant beverage in each cluster was higher among men than women. The 'soft drink' cluster in men had the lowest proportion of the higher levels of education, and in women the highest proportion of inactivity, compared with other beverage clusters.
Patterns of beverage intake in Canadian women indicate high consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages particularly fruit drinks, low intake of milk and high intake of beer. These patterns in women have implications for poor bone health, risk of obesity and other morbidities.
Certain beverages contribute energy, protein, vitamins, and minerals. North American adolescents have shifted their beverage intake from predominantly milk to predominantly sugary beverages. Intake of these sugary beverages, in sufficient quantity, may increase the risk of bone fractures, may contribute to obesity, and may lead to tooth decay. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a school-nutrition education program (Fluids Used Effectively for Living) on nutrition knowledge, attitude, and self-reported behavior of grade 9 students in Saskatchewan, Canada. Two classes of grade 9 students, 1 (n = 33) in a high school in Saskatoon (n = 33) and 1 (n = 24) in a large high school in Prince Albert, Saskatchewan, received the peer educator intervention. Two other classes in the 2 cities (n = 24 and n = 24, respectively) were controls. Six sessions of Fluids Used Effectively for Living nutrition education were delivered by using 2 peer educator models (multiple and single), and the intervention was delivered in a 45-minute weekly class session over a 6-week period. After the intervention, students in these 2 peer educator classes decreased their sugary beverage intake significantly, which was sustained for 3 months. Students in the control self-taught class increased their juice intake at the end of the year. The significant decrease of juice and sugary beverage intakes in the single model peer educator class disappeared after Bonferroni correction. Carbonated sugary beverage intake of students in the control self-taught classes declined, but it was not sustainable at the 3-month follow-up. A peer educator school-based nutrition education approach can lead to a decrease in sugary beverage intake in high school children.
BACKGROUND: It is not known whether the consumption of caffeine is associated with excess risk of atrial fibrillation. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the risk of atrial fibrillation or flutter in association with daily consumption of caffeine from coffee, tea, cola, cocoa, and chocolate. DESIGN: We prospectively examined the association between the amount of caffeine consumed per day and the risk of atrial fibrillation or flutter among 47 949 participants (x age: 56 y) in the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health Study. Subjects were followed in the Danish National Registry of Patients and in the Danish Civil Registration System. The consumption of caffeine was analyzed by quintiles with Cox proportional-hazard models. RESULTS: During follow-up (x: 5.7 y), atrial fibrillation or flutter developed in 555 subjects (373 men and 182 women). When the lowest quintile of caffeine consumption was used as a reference, the adjusted hazard ratios (95% CIs) in quintiles 2, 3, 4, and 5 were 1.12 (0.87, 1.44), 0.85 (0.65, 1.12), 0.92 (0.71, 1.20), and 0.91 (0.70, 1.19), respectively. CONCLUSION: Consumption of caffeine was not associated with risk of atrial fibrillation or flutter.
Comment In: Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Mar;81(3):539-4015755819
The increased intake of carbonated soft drinks parallels the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma. To determine whether an association exists between carbonated drink intake and esophageal and cardia adenocarcinoma, we analyzed data from a Swedish nationwide, population-based, case-control study. During data collection in 1995-1997, 189 patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma (88% of all eligible), 262 patients with cardia adenocarcinoma (84%), and 820 control subjects (73%) were interviewed in person. All cancers were histologically classified. We calculated odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals using conditional logistic regression and multivariable analyses. Frequency of intake of carbonated soft drinks was not associated with risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma; high consumers (intake more than six times weekly) were at a statistically nonsignificantly decreased risk compared with never users (odds ratio = 0.89, 95% confidence interval = 0.49 to 1.64). Consumption of carbonated low-alcohol beer and combined intake of carbonated drinks were not associated with risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma. No association between intake of carbonated soft drinks or low-alcohol beer and risk of cardia adenocarcinoma was observed.
To analyse (i) differences in beverage pattern among Norwegian children in 2001 and 2008; (ii) beverage intake related to gender, parental education and family composition; and (iii) potential disparities in time trends among the different groups.
Within the Fruits and Vegetables Make the Marks (FVMM) project, 6th and 7th grade pupils filled in a questionnaire about frequency of beverage intake (times/week) in 2001 and 2008.
Twenty-seven elementary schools in two Norwegian counties.
In 2001 a total of 1488 and in 2008 1339 pupils participated.
Between 2001 and 2008, a decreased consumption frequency of juice (from 3·6 to 3·4 times/week, P = 0·012), lemonade (from 4·8 to 2·5 times/week, P
There is a lack of research exploring the effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery on the patient's family's eating behaviour and food choices. The aim of the current study was to investigate changes in partners' and children's eating behaviour and food choices following maternal RYGB.
Sixty-nine women and their families were recruited from RYGB waiting lists at five Swedish surgical clinics. Data were collected during home visits 3 months before and 9 months after RYGB. Anthropometrical measures were taken, the adults completed the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire and the children completed the Children's Eating Attitudes Test (ChEAT). All participants also completed a short food frequency questionnaire.
Changes in scores were analysed using paired t-tests for unadjusted estimates or linear regression models with robust variance (General Estimating Equations) in order to enable age- and sex-adjusted estimates for the children. There were no meaningful differences in the partners' eating behaviour or food choices. The boys, but not the girls, improved their ChEAT scores, as did the overweight/obese children in comparison with the normal-weight children. The boys, unlike the girls, also decreased their intake of soft drinks, as did the normal-weight children when compared with the overweight/obese children.
No clear-cut changes were found in partners' eating behaviour and food choices. Eating attitudes and soft drinks intake were improved among boys but not among girls. Differing modelling behaviour may partially explain these findings, but available data did not allow us to understand the underlying mechanisms.
Soft drinks can be a major source of sucrose, which may influence serum lipid concentration. We have examined the association between intake frequency of various types of soft drinks and the concentration of serum triglycerides (TG) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in the cross-sectional Oslo Health Study. A total of 14 188 subjects of the altogether 18,770 participants of the study had data on intake frequency of colas and non-colas, with or without sugar. The population sample consisted of both sexes and 3 age groups: group 1 (30 years of age), group 2 (40 and 45 years of age), and group 3 (59-60 years of age). In both sexes, HDL decreased and TG increased significantly (p
Overweight appear one of the serious problem in European region WHO today. Obesity is polyetiological disease and result of different factors. The aim of the current studies was investigation of connection between consumption confectionary, fast food stuffs and soft drinks and body-mass index (BMI). At the beginning, was inspection of 434 schoolchildren 7-18 age old. As a result, was determined, that confectionary, fast food stuffs and soft drinks mach more popular, than ever stuffs. At the same time, was determined, that mean significance BMI was reliable above for children, who used confectionary, fast food stuffs and soft drinks frequently.