The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of dental erosion among Swedish children and adolescents and to examine its relation to soft drink consumption. It was hypothesized that the prevalence of dental erosion would be higher in boys than girls,that it would show a correlation with soft drink consumption and that a further simplification ofa previously-used partial recording screening system for dental erosion would have an acceptable sensitivity and specificity. 801 individuals were invited to participate, of whom 609 (75%) accepted. 135 were 5-6 years, 227 were 13-14 years, and 247 were18-19 years old. A questionnaire survey of each individual's soft drink consumption habits, in addition to a clinical examination, were performed. Severe erosion extending into dentine on one or more maxillary anterior teeth/ molars was found to be 13.3% in the 5-6 group, 11.9% in 13-14 group and 22.3% in 18-19 group. The total prevalence for all age groups was 16.4%. The severity of erosion was highest among 18-19 year-old boys, 34.4 % of whom exhibited one or more teeth with severe erosive damage while none of the girls did so. Soft drink consumption was significantly correlated with severity of dental erosion in the 18-19 and 13-14 groups but not in the 5-6 years old group. A simplified erosion partial recording system (SEPRS) using 4 (permanent) or 6 (primary) surfaces as markers showed excellent sensitivity (100%/100%, respectively) and specificity (98%/100%, respectively) in relation to scoring of all maxillary canines/incisors and first permanent/all primary molars. In view of the high prevalence of dental erosion and soft drink consumption among Swedish children and adolescents reported here,there is clearly a need for a national epidemiological registration system as well as for community-based preventive programs to be implemented. The hypothesis that dental erosion would be higher in boys than girls and that it would show a correlation with soft drink intake was confirmed.
High consumption of fruit juices and carbonated drinks has been related to dental erosion. Teenage male Icelanders consume about 800 ml of carbonated drinks per day on average and this corresponds with the main age group and gender of patients seen with erosion. This study examined the prevalence of dental erosion in 15-year-old children in Reykjavík and looked at the association between erosion and some lifestyle factors in a case-control study drawn from the same sample. A 20% sample of the 15-year-cohort population (n = 278) was selected. Dental erosion was classified by location and severity (1 = enamel erosion; 2 = dentine erosion; 3 = severe dentine erosion) and was seen in 21.6% of subjects (68.3% male; 72% scored as grade 1; 23% grade 2; 5% grade 3). Control subjects were the first healthy subjects examined after a case subject had beens diagnosed. In the case-control study, information was gathered by multiple-choice questionnaire on symptoms of gastric reflux, tooth sensitivity, some lifestyle and dietar-factors. Several lifestyle and dietary factors, previously shown to be significantly related to dental caries in Icelandic teenagers, showed no significant relationship to tooth erosion. Although dietary factors are probably important in causing erosion, dietary recall questionnaires did not help in discovering individuals likely to develop erosion.
Little attention has been directed towards identifying the relationship between physical exercise, dental erosive wear and salivary secretion. The study aimed i) to describe the prevalence and severity of dental erosive wear among a group of physically active young adults, ii) to describe the patterns of dietary consumption and lifestyle among these individuals and iii) to study possible effect of exercise on salivary flow rate.
Young members (age range 18-32 years) of a fitness-centre were invited to participate in the study. Inclusion criteria were healthy young adults training hard at least twice a week. A non-exercising comparison group was selected from an ongoing study among 18-year-olds. Two hundred and twenty participants accepted an intraoral examination and completed a questionnaire. Seventy of the exercising participants provided saliva samples. The examination was performed at the fitness-centre or at a dental clinic (comparison group), using tested erosive wear system (VEDE). Saliva sampling (unstimulated and stimulated) was performed before and after exercise. Occlusal surfaces of the first molars in both jaws and the labial and palatal surfaces of the upper incisors and canines were selected as index teeth.
Dental erosive wear was registered in 64% of the exercising participants, more often in the older age group, and in 20% of the comparison group. Enamel lesions were most observed in the upper central incisors (33%); dentine lesions in lower first molar (27%). One fourth of the participants had erosive wear into dentine, significantly more in males than in females (p = 0.047). More participants with erosive wear had decreased salivary flow during exercise compared with the non-erosion group (p
Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) often relate symptoms to the intake of certain foods. This study assesses differences in diet in subjects with and without IBS.
The cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted in Norway in 2001. Out of 11078 invited subjects, 4621 completed a survey about abdominal complaints and intake of common food items. IBS and IBS subgroups were classified according to Rome II criteria.
IBS was diagnosed in 388 subjects (8.4%) and, of these, 26.5% had constipation-predominant IBS (C-IBS), 44.8% alternating IBS (A-IBS), and 28.6% diarrhoea-predominant IBS (D-IBS). Low intake of dairy products (portions/day) (Odds Ratio 0.85 [CI 0.78 to 0.93], p?=?0.001) and high intake of water (100 ml/day) (1.08 [1.02 to 1.15], p?=?0.002), tea (1.05 [1.01 to 1.10], p?=?0.019) and carbonated beverages (1.07 [1.01 to 1.14], p?=?0.023) were associated with IBS. A lower intake of dairy products and a higher intake of alcohol and carbonated beverages were associated with D-IBS and a higher intake of water and tea was associated with A-IBS. In subjects with IBS the severity of symptoms was associated with a higher intake of vegetables and potatoes in subjects with C-IBS, with a higher intake of vegetables in subjects with A-IBS, and with a higher intake of fruits and berries, carbonated beverages and alcohol in subjects with D-IBS.
In this study, the diet differed in subjects with and without IBS and between IBS subgroups and was associated with the severity of symptoms.
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During the last decade, a continuous decrease in dental caries has been observed among schoolchildren in Iceland. In this paper, various epidemiological studies have been reviewed and summarized to illustrate caries prevalence, and how it has changed during the last decades. Furthermore, an attempt has been made to describe some of the factors involved and their possible effects on caries disease. During this period, sugar consumption increased, especially in the form of sweets and soft drinks. At the same time, the import of toothpaste increased, and preventive measures such as fissure sealants and fluoride rinsing programs were intensified. Other factors likely to have had an impact were changes in treatment philosophy and increased personnel resources. There does not seem to be any single factor responsible for the onset of the caries decline. It rather looks as if this was a multifactorial effect due to a number of different preventive measures. During recent years, a change in treatment philosophy, the evident increase in fluoride toothpaste consumption, and possible changes in the oral microbial flora, together with the use of fluoride varnishes, sealants, and increased manpower, may explain the decline.
OBJECTIVE: To elucidate status and trends in portion size of foods rich in fat and/or added sugars during the past decades, and to bring portion size into perspective in its role in obesity and dietary guidelines in Denmark. DATA SOURCES: Information about portion sizes of low-fat and full-fat food items was obtained from a 4-day weighed food record (Study 1). Trends in portion sizes of commercial foods were examined by gathering information from major food manufacturers and fast food chains (Study 2). Data on intakes and sales of sugar-sweetened soft drinks and confectionery were obtained through nation-wide dietary surveys and official sales statistics (Study 3). RESULTS: Study 1: Subjects ate and drank significantly more when they chose low-fat food and meal items (milk used as a drink, sauce and sliced cold meat), compared with their counterparts who chose food and meal items with a higher fat content. As a result, almost the same amounts of energy and fat were consumed both ways, with the exception of sliced cold meat (energy and fat) and milk (fat). Study 2: Portion sizes of commercial energy-dense foods and beverages, and fast food meals rich in fat and/or added sugars, seem to have increased over time, and in particular in the last 10 years. Study 3: The development in portion sizes of commercial foods has been paralleled by a sharp increase of more than 50% in the sales of sugar-sweetened soft drinks and confectionery like sweets, chocolate and ice creams since the 1970s. CONCLUSIONS: Larger portion sizes of foods low in fat and commercial energy-dense foods and beverages could be important factors in maintaining a high energy intake, causing over-consumption and enhancing the prevalence of obesity in the population. In light of this development, portion size ought to take central place in dietary guidelines and public campaigns.
To investigate how consumption of ultra-processed foods has changed in Sweden in relation to obesity.
Nationwide ecological analysis of changes in processed foods along with corresponding changes in obesity. Trends in per capita food consumption during 1960-2010 were investigated using data from the Swedish Board of Agriculture. Food items were classified as group 1 (unprocessed/minimally processed), group 2 (processed culinary ingredients) or group 3 (3·1, processed food products; and 3·2, ultra-processed products). Obesity prevalence data were pooled from the peer-reviewed literature, Statistics Sweden and the WHO Global Health Observatory.
Nationwide analysis in Sweden, 1960-2010.
Swedish nationals aged 18 years and older.
During the study period consumption of group 1 foods (minimal processing) decreased by 2 %, while consumption of group 2 foods (processed ingredients) decreased by 34 %. Consumption of group 3·1 foods (processed food products) increased by 116 % and group 3·2 foods (ultra-processed products) increased by 142 %. Among ultra-processed products, there were particularly large increases in soda (315 %; 22 v. 92 litres/capita per annum) and snack foods such as crisps and candies (367 %; 7 v. 34 kg/capita per annum). In parallel to these changes in ultra-processed products, rates of adult obesity increased from 5 % in 1980 to over 11 % in 2010.
The consumption of ultra-processed products (i.e. foods with low nutritional value but high energy density) has increased dramatically in Sweden since 1960, which mirrors the increased prevalence of obesity. Future research should clarify the potential causal role of ultra-processed products in weight gain and obesity.