The present study aimed to explore the process in which impulsivity might influence soft drink consumption in adolescents, addressing potential mediating effects of perceived parental regulation regarding unhealthy eating. A cross-sectional survey was performed among 440 13-15-year-olds in Eastern Norway. The survey questionnaire included measures of impulsivity, six types of maternal and paternal regulation (as perceived by the adolescents), and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB). Parallel multiple-mediator analyses were performed to reveal potential mediating effects of perceived parental regulatory behaviors on the association between adolescent impulsivity and SSB consumption. Separate models were run for maternal and paternal regulation. Results from our model analyses (both maternal and paternal models) indicated that all the six measured parental regulatory behaviors jointly acted as mediators on the association between adolescent impulsivity and SSB consumption. However, only perceived maternal and paternal legitimacy of regulation showed a unique contribution to the mediated effect. This finding suggests that adolescents' perception of parental legitimate authority is of particular importance in explaining the relationship between impulsivity and unhealthy eating behaviors in adolescents. Future nutrition interventions targeting adolescents and their parents should take personal factors such as adolescents' level of impulsivity into account. Ultimately; what may be an appropriate approach to impulsive individuals and their parents may diverge from what may be an appropriate approach to less impulsive individuals and their parents.
There are very few large scale studies that have examined the association of prostate cancer with alcohol and other beverages. This relationship was examined in a case-control study conducted in 3 geographical areas of Canada [Metropolitan Toronto (Ontario), Montreal (Quebec), and Vancouver (British Columbia)] with 617 incident cases and 637 population controls. Complete history of beverage intake was assessed by a personal interview with reference to a 1-year period prior to diagnosis or interview. In age- and energy-adjusted models for all centers combined, the odds ratio (OR) for the highest quintile of total alcohol intake was 0.89. For alcoholic beverages separately, it was 0.68 for the highest tertile of beer, 1.12 for wine and 0.86 for liquor. The decreasing trend was significant for beer intake. The results were only significant for British Columbia out of all the 3 centers studied. Whereas coffee and cola intake was not associated with prostate cancer, a decrease in risk was observed with tea intake of more than 500 g per day (OR 0.70). Our results do not support a positive association between total alcohol, coffee and prostate cancer.
The aim was to investigate the relationship between soft drink consumption, oral health and some lifestyle factors in Swedish adolescents.
A clinical dental examination and a questionnaire concerning lifestyle factors, including drinking habits, oral hygiene, dietary consumption, physical activity and screen-viewing habits were completed. Three hundred and ninety-two individuals completed the study (13-14 years, n = 195; 18-19 years, n = 197). The material was divided into high and low carbonated soft drink consumption groups, corresponding to approximately the highest and the lowest one-third of subjects in each age group. Differences between the groups were tested by the Mann-Whitney U-test and logistic regression.
Intake of certain dietary items, tooth brushing, sports activities, meal patterns, screen-viewing behaviors, BMI and parents born outside Sweden differed significantly between high and low consumers in one or both of the two age groups. Dental erosion (both age groups) and DMFT/DMFS (18-19 years group) were significantly higher in the high consumption groups. Logistic regression showed predictive variables for high consumption of carbonated soft drinks to be mainly gender (male), unhealthy dietary habits, lesser physical activity, higher BMI and longer time spent in front of TV/computer.
High soft drink consumption was related to poorer oral health and an unhealthier lifestyle.
The aim of the present study was to describe awareness and attitudes related to dental erosive wear among 18-yr-old adolescents in Oslo and to explore attitudinal differences between participants with and without the condition. All 18-yr-old subjects scheduled for their routine examination at the Public Dental Service clinics during 2008 (n = 3,206) were invited, and 1,456 agreed to participate (a response rate of 45%). The data were collected using structured questionnaires and by clinical examination of the participants. Dental erosive wear was assessed using a pictorial manual - the Visual Erosion Dental Examination scoring system - as a guide. Overall, 88% of participants had heard about dental erosive wear; however, of participants with erosive lesions only 56% were aware of, and only 47% could recall their dentist mentioning, the condition. Participants with erosive wear were more likely to have low or moderate positive attitudes towards acidic drink consumption and to be reluctant to change. In multivariate analyses controlling for gender and behavioural variables, weak or moderate positive awareness of acidic drinks remained significantly associated with higher erosion risk. This study emphasizes the importance of assessment and understanding of awareness and attitudinal aspects in relation to dental erosive wear.
Throughout childhood there is a shift from predominantly milk-based beverage consumption to other types of beverages, including those containing caffeine. Although a variety of health effects in children and adults have been attributed to caffeine, few data exist on caffeine intake in children aged one to five years.
Because beverages provide about 80% of total caffeine consumed in children of this age group, beverage consumption patterns and caffeine intakes were evaluated from two beverage marketing surveys: the 2001 Canadian Facts study and the 1999 United States Share of Intake Panel study.
Considerably fewer Canadian children than American children consume caffeinated beverages (36% versus 56%); Canadian children consume approximately half the amount of caffeine (7 versus 14 mg/day in American children). Differences were largely because of higher intakes of carbonated soft drinks in the US.
Caffeine intakes from caffeinated beverages remain well within safe levels for consumption by young children.
American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/AN) have the highest prevalence of obesity for any racial/ethnic group. Previous studies examining risk factors for obesity have identified excessive sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) and inadequate water consumption as major risk factors for this population group. The historical scarcity of water in rural Alaska may explain consumption patterns including reliance on SSBs and other packaged drinks.
Our study was designed to assess SSB, water and other beverage consumption and attitudes towards consumption in Alaska Native children and adults residing in rural Alaska. During summer 2014, 2 focus groups were conducted employing community members in a small rural village more than 200 air miles west of Fairbanks, Alaska. Interviews were completed with shop owners, Early Head Start and Head Start program instructors (n=7). SSB and total beverage intakes were measured using a modified version of the BEVQ-15, (n=69).
High rates of SSB consumption (defined as sweetened juice beverages, soda, sweet tea, energy drink or sports drinks) and low rates of water consumption were reported for all age groups in the village. All adolescents and 81% of children reported drinking SSBs at least once per week in the last month, and 48% of adolescents and 29% of younger children reported daily consumption. Fifty-two per cent of adults reported consuming SSBs at least once per week and 20% reported daily consumption. Twenty-five per cent of adolescents reported never drinking water in the past month, and 19% of younger children and 21% of adults did not consume water daily.
Alaska Native children and adults living in the Interior Alaska consume high amounts of SSBs including energy drinks and insufficient amounts of water. Interventions targeting beverage consumption are urgently needed for the Alaska Native population in rural Alaska.
According to results from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey-Nutrition, total beverage consumption among adults declined steadily with age. This reflects drops in the percentage of adults consuming most beverages and in the amounts consumed. While water was the beverage consumed most frequently and in the greatest quantity by adults, for many of them, coffee ranked second. Largely as a result of drinking coffee, more than 20% of men and 15% of women aged 31 to 70 exceeded the recommended maximum of 400 milligrams of caffeine per day. About 20% of men aged 19 to 70 consumed more than two alcoholic drinks a day. Owing to declines in the consumption of soft drinks and alcohol, the contribution of beverages to adults' total calorie intake falls at older ages. Regardless of age, men were generally more likely than women to report drinking most beverages, and those who did, drank more. There were, however, a few exceptions, with higher percentages of women than men reporting that they drank water and tea.
According to results from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey--Nutrition, children and teens get about one-fifth of their daily calories from beverages. As they get older, boys and girls drink less milk and fruit juice, and more soft drinks and fruit drinks. By ages 14 to 18, boys' average daily consumption of soft drinks matches their consumption of milk, and exceeds their consumption of fruit juice and fruit drinks. Beverage consumption by children and teens varies little by province, except in Newfoundland and Labrador where it tends to be comparatively high, and in British Columbia where it tends to be low.
To investigate the beverage intake patterns of Canadian adults and explore characteristics of participants in different beverage clusters.
Analyses of nationally representative data with cross-sectional complex stratified design.
Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2.2 (2004).
A total of 14 277 participants aged 19-65 years, in whom dietary intake was assessed using a single 24 h recall, were included in the study. After determining total intake and the contribution of beverages to total energy intake among age/sex groups, cluster analysis (K-means method) was used to classify males and females into distinct clusters based on the dominant pattern of beverage intakes. To test differences across clusters, ?2 tests and 95 % confidence intervals of the mean intakes were used.
Six beverage clusters in women and seven beverage clusters in men were identified. 'Sugar-sweetened' beverage clusters - regular soft drinks and fruit drinks - as well as a 'beer' cluster, appeared for both men and women. No 'milk' cluster appeared among women. The mean consumption of the dominant beverage in each cluster was higher among men than women. The 'soft drink' cluster in men had the lowest proportion of the higher levels of education, and in women the highest proportion of inactivity, compared with other beverage clusters.
Patterns of beverage intake in Canadian women indicate high consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages particularly fruit drinks, low intake of milk and high intake of beer. These patterns in women have implications for poor bone health, risk of obesity and other morbidities.
Certain beverages contribute energy, protein, vitamins, and minerals. North American adolescents have shifted their beverage intake from predominantly milk to predominantly sugary beverages. Intake of these sugary beverages, in sufficient quantity, may increase the risk of bone fractures, may contribute to obesity, and may lead to tooth decay. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a school-nutrition education program (Fluids Used Effectively for Living) on nutrition knowledge, attitude, and self-reported behavior of grade 9 students in Saskatchewan, Canada. Two classes of grade 9 students, 1 (n = 33) in a high school in Saskatoon (n = 33) and 1 (n = 24) in a large high school in Prince Albert, Saskatchewan, received the peer educator intervention. Two other classes in the 2 cities (n = 24 and n = 24, respectively) were controls. Six sessions of Fluids Used Effectively for Living nutrition education were delivered by using 2 peer educator models (multiple and single), and the intervention was delivered in a 45-minute weekly class session over a 6-week period. After the intervention, students in these 2 peer educator classes decreased their sugary beverage intake significantly, which was sustained for 3 months. Students in the control self-taught class increased their juice intake at the end of the year. The significant decrease of juice and sugary beverage intakes in the single model peer educator class disappeared after Bonferroni correction. Carbonated sugary beverage intake of students in the control self-taught classes declined, but it was not sustainable at the 3-month follow-up. A peer educator school-based nutrition education approach can lead to a decrease in sugary beverage intake in high school children.