The aim was to investigate the relationship between soft drink consumption, oral health and some lifestyle factors in Swedish adolescents.
A clinical dental examination and a questionnaire concerning lifestyle factors, including drinking habits, oral hygiene, dietary consumption, physical activity and screen-viewing habits were completed. Three hundred and ninety-two individuals completed the study (13-14 years, n = 195; 18-19 years, n = 197). The material was divided into high and low carbonated soft drink consumption groups, corresponding to approximately the highest and the lowest one-third of subjects in each age group. Differences between the groups were tested by the Mann-Whitney U-test and logistic regression.
Intake of certain dietary items, tooth brushing, sports activities, meal patterns, screen-viewing behaviors, BMI and parents born outside Sweden differed significantly between high and low consumers in one or both of the two age groups. Dental erosion (both age groups) and DMFT/DMFS (18-19 years group) were significantly higher in the high consumption groups. Logistic regression showed predictive variables for high consumption of carbonated soft drinks to be mainly gender (male), unhealthy dietary habits, lesser physical activity, higher BMI and longer time spent in front of TV/computer.
High soft drink consumption was related to poorer oral health and an unhealthier lifestyle.
Overweight appear one of the serious problem in European region WHO today. Obesity is polyetiological disease and result of different factors. The aim of the current studies was investigation of connection between consumption confectionary, fast food stuffs and soft drinks and body-mass index (BMI). At the beginning, was inspection of 434 schoolchildren 7-18 age old. As a result, was determined, that confectionary, fast food stuffs and soft drinks mach more popular, than ever stuffs. At the same time, was determined, that mean significance BMI was reliable above for children, who used confectionary, fast food stuffs and soft drinks frequently.
Manitoba Institute of Child Health, Winnipeg, Canada (RCM, MS, ACM, JH, BAW, KDMW, EACS, HJD, and JMM); the Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada (RCM, MS, ACM, JH, BAW, KDMW, EACS, HJD, and JMM); the Department of Physiotherapy, Health Sciences Centre, Winnipeg, Canada (KDMW); CancerCare Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada (LR); and the Diabetes Research Group Health Sciences Centre, Winnipeg, Canada (LB).
Dietary determinants of hepatic steatosis, an important precursor for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, are undefined.
We explored the roles of sugar and fat intake as determinants of hepatic steatosis and visceral obesity in overweight adolescents at risk of type 2 diabetes.
This was a cross-sectional study of dietary patterns and adipose tissue distribution in 74 overweight adolescents (aged: 15.4 ± 1.8 y; body mass index z score: 2.2 ± 0.4). Main outcome measures were hepatic steatosis (=5.5% fat:water) measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and visceral obesity (visceral-to-subcutaneous adipose tissue ratio =0.25) measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Main exposure variables were dietary intake and habits assessed by the Harvard Youth Adolescent Food Frequency Questionnaire.
Hepatic steatosis and visceral obesity were evident in 43% and 44% of the sample, respectively. Fried food consumption was more common in adolescents with hepatic steatosis than in adolescents without hepatic steatosis (41% compared with 18%; P = 0.04). Total fat intake (ß = 0.51, P = 0.03) and the consumption of >35% of daily energy intake from fat (OR: 11.8; 95% CI: 1.6, 86.6; P = 0.02) were both positively associated with hepatic steatosis. Available carbohydrate (ß = 0.54, P = 0.02) and the frequent consumption of soda were positively associated with visceral obesity (OR: 6.4; 95% CI: 1.2, 34.0; P = 0.03). Daily fiber intake was associated with reduced odds of visceral obesity (OR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.68, 0.98; P = 0.02) but not hepatic steatosis.
Hepatic steatosis is associated with a greater intake of fat and fried foods, whereas visceral obesity is associated with increased consumption of sugar and reduced consumption of fiber in overweight and obese adolescents at risk of type 2 diabetes.
To identify if particular foods or food groups may be associated with obesity in children and adolescents and to determine if consuming food away from home (FAFH) has an effect on the nutritional quality of their diets.
One-year cross-sectional study.
The obese subjects (n = 91) were on the waiting list for a hospital-based weight control treatment program. The non-obese subjects (n = 90) were recruited from community advertisements.
Information on food intake was obtained using the dietary history method by a Registered Dietitian. Body fat was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis.
Obese children and adolescents consumed significantly more servings of meat and alternatives, grain products, FAFH, sugar-sweetened drinks and potato chips which contributed to a higher calorie, fat and sugar intake compared to non-obese children and adolescents. Sugar-sweetened drinks were only significantly greater in boys. The consumption of meat servings, sugar-sweetened drinks and FAFH was positively correlated with percent body fat. The frequency of food consumed outside of the Canada's Food Guide To Healthy Eating was not different between the two groups.
Obese children and adolescents need to limit their access to food consumed away from home and sugar-sweetened drinks as there is a relationship between these foods and body fatness.
Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages is associated with obesity, and this association may be modified by a genetic predisposition to obesity.
We examined the interactions between a molecular genetic predisposition to various aspects of obesity and the consumption of soft drinks, which are a major part of sugar-sweetened beverages, in relation to changes in adiposity measures.
A total of 4765 individuals were included in the study. On the basis of 50 obesity-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms that are associated with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), or the waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (WHRBMI), the following 4 genetic predisposition scores (GRSs) were constructed: a complete genetic predisposition score including all 50 single nucleotide polymorphisms (GRSComplete), a genetic predisposition score including BMI-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (GRSBMI), a genetic predisposition score including waist circumference-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (GRSWC), and a genetic predisposition score including the waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for BMI-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (GRSWHR). Associations between soft drink intake and the annual change (?) in body weight (BW), WC, or waist circumference adjusted for BMI (WCBMI) and possible interactions with the GRSs were examined with the use of linear regression analyses and meta-analyses.
For each soft drink serving per day, soft drink consumption was significantly associated with a higher ?BW of 0.07 kg/y (95% CI: 0.01, 0.13 kg/y; P = 0.020) but not with the ?WC or ?WCBMI In analyses of the ?BW, we showed an interaction only with the GRSWC (per risk allele for each soft drink serving per day: -0.06 kg/y; 95% CI: -0.10, -0.02 kg/y; P = 0.006). In analyses of the ?WC, we showed interactions only with the GRSBMI and GRSComplete [per risk allele for each soft drink serving per day: 0.05 cm/y (95% CI: 0.02, 0.09 cm/y; P = 0.001) and 0.05 cm/y (95% CI: 0.02, 0.07 cm/y; P = 0.001), respectively]. Nearly identical results were observed in analyses of the ?WCBMI CONCLUSIONS: A genetic predisposition to a high WC may attenuate the association between soft drink intake and BW gain. A genetic predisposition to high BMI as well as a genetic predisposition to high BMI, WC, and WHRBMI combined may strengthen the association between soft drink intake and WC gain. However, the public health impact may be limited.
In Norway, there were parallel increases and subsequent decreases in birth weight (BW) and consumption of sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drinks (SSC) during the period 1990-2010, and by an ecological approach, we have suggested that the relationship was causal. The objective of this study was to examine if such a relationship was present in a prospectively followed cohort of pregnant women. The study population included 62,494 term singleton mother-infant dyads in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), a national prospective cohort study in Norway from 1999 to 2008. The association between SSC consumption and BW was assessed using multiple regression analyses with adjustment for potential confounders. Each 100 ml intake of SSC was associated with a 7.8 g (95% confidence interval [CI]: -10.3 to -5.3) decrease in BW, a decreased risk of BW > 4,500 g (odds ratio [OR]: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.90 to 0.97) and a near significantly increased risk of BW 4,500 g (OR: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.00 to 1.39) and a trend towards significant increase in mean BW (25.1 g, 95% CI: -2.0 to 52.2) per 100 ml SSC. Our findings suggest that increasing consumption of rapidly absorbed sugar from SSC had opposite associations with BW in normal pregnancies and pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus.
The Northern Finland 1966 birth cohort (NFBC 1966) is an epidemiological study where the participants have been controlled since pregnancy both in field tests and using questionnaires. This study aimed to evaluate cross-sectionally the association of self-reported oral symptoms (dental caries and bleeding of gums) with sociodemographic and health behavior factors among the subjects.
Of the 11,541 original members of the cohort, 8,690 (75%) responded to the questionnaire on oral health (dental decay, gingival bleeding and self-estimated dental treatment need) and sociodemographic factors, general health and health behavior. Cross-tabulation and chi-squared tests as well as multiple logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the association between the outcome and explanatory variables.
The study group was equally distributed between the genders. One third of the subjects reported having dental decay, one fourth gingival bleeding and a half a dental treatment need. As compared to women, men reported significantly more frequently symptoms (p?
Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) may play a role in increased rates of obesity. This study examined patterns and frequencies of beverage consumption among youth in 3 distinct regions in Canada, and examined associations between beverage consumption and age, sex, body mass index (BMI), physical activity and dieting behavior, as well as beverage displacement.
The study included data from 10,188 youth (ages 13-18) from Hamilton and Thunder Bay, Ontario, and Prince Edward Island (PEI) in 2009 to 2010. The study used in-school self-reported surveys with 12 questions regarding beverage consumption during the previous day, along with self-reported height, weight, physical activity levels, and demographic information. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine variables associated with SSB intake.
Overall, 80% of youth consumed at least 1 SSB in the previous day, with 44% consuming 3 or more SSBs. Youth in Thunder Bay consumed significantly more SSBs than Hamilton and PEI, and youth in Hamilton consumed more SSBs than PEI. Boys consumed significantly more SSBs than girls. Older and more physically active youth consumed significantly fewer SSBs. No significant association between BMI and SSB consumption was observed in any model. A modest positive correlation was identified between SSB consumption and milk (r = .06, p
The consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), which has increased substantially during the last decades, has been associated with obesity and weight gain.
Common genetic susceptibility to obesity has been shown to modify the association between SSB intake and obesity risk in 3 prospective cohorts from the United States. We aimed to replicate these findings in 2 large Swedish cohorts.
Data were available for 21,824 healthy participants from the Malmö Diet and Cancer study and 4902 healthy participants from the Gene-Lifestyle Interactions and Complex Traits Involved in Elevated Disease Risk Study. Self-reported SSB intake was categorized into 4 levels (seldom, low, medium, and high). Unweighted and weighted genetic risk scores (GRSs) were constructed based on 30 body mass index [(BMI) in kg/m(2)]-associated loci, and effect modification was assessed in linear regression equations by modeling the product and marginal effects of the GRS and SSB intake adjusted for age-, sex-, and cohort-specific covariates, with BMI as the outcome. In a secondary analysis, models were additionally adjusted for putative confounders (total energy intake, alcohol consumption, smoking status, and physical activity).
In an inverse variance-weighted fixed-effects meta-analysis, each SSB intake category increment was associated with a 0.18 higher BMI (SE = 0.02; P = 1.7 × 10(-20); n = 26,726). In the fully adjusted model, a nominal significant interaction between SSB intake category and the unweighted GRS was observed (P-interaction = 0.03). Comparing the participants within the top and bottom quartiles of the GRS to each increment in SSB intake was associated with 0.24 (SE = 0.04; P = 2.9 × 10(-8); n = 6766) and 0.15 (SE = 0.04; P = 1.3 × 10(-4); n = 6835) higher BMIs, respectively.
The interaction observed in the Swedish cohorts is similar in magnitude to the previous analysis in US cohorts and indicates that the relation of SSB intake and BMI is stronger in people genetically predisposed to obesity.
Cites: Scand J Public Health Suppl. 2003;61:18-2414660243