There are very few large scale studies that have examined the association of prostate cancer with alcohol and other beverages. This relationship was examined in a case-control study conducted in 3 geographical areas of Canada [Metropolitan Toronto (Ontario), Montreal (Quebec), and Vancouver (British Columbia)] with 617 incident cases and 637 population controls. Complete history of beverage intake was assessed by a personal interview with reference to a 1-year period prior to diagnosis or interview. In age- and energy-adjusted models for all centers combined, the odds ratio (OR) for the highest quintile of total alcohol intake was 0.89. For alcoholic beverages separately, it was 0.68 for the highest tertile of beer, 1.12 for wine and 0.86 for liquor. The decreasing trend was significant for beer intake. The results were only significant for British Columbia out of all the 3 centers studied. Whereas coffee and cola intake was not associated with prostate cancer, a decrease in risk was observed with tea intake of more than 500 g per day (OR 0.70). Our results do not support a positive association between total alcohol, coffee and prostate cancer.
To investigate the beverage intake patterns of Canadian adults and explore characteristics of participants in different beverage clusters.
Analyses of nationally representative data with cross-sectional complex stratified design.
Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2.2 (2004).
A total of 14 277 participants aged 19-65 years, in whom dietary intake was assessed using a single 24 h recall, were included in the study. After determining total intake and the contribution of beverages to total energy intake among age/sex groups, cluster analysis (K-means method) was used to classify males and females into distinct clusters based on the dominant pattern of beverage intakes. To test differences across clusters, ?2 tests and 95 % confidence intervals of the mean intakes were used.
Six beverage clusters in women and seven beverage clusters in men were identified. 'Sugar-sweetened' beverage clusters - regular soft drinks and fruit drinks - as well as a 'beer' cluster, appeared for both men and women. No 'milk' cluster appeared among women. The mean consumption of the dominant beverage in each cluster was higher among men than women. The 'soft drink' cluster in men had the lowest proportion of the higher levels of education, and in women the highest proportion of inactivity, compared with other beverage clusters.
Patterns of beverage intake in Canadian women indicate high consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages particularly fruit drinks, low intake of milk and high intake of beer. These patterns in women have implications for poor bone health, risk of obesity and other morbidities.
Our objective was to investigate the relations between the consumption of coffee, tea and carbonated beverages and the development of prostate cancer. The design was a population-based case-control study set in Montreal. The analysis was restricted to the subset of men, aged 45-70 years, who underwent interviews in which aspects of lifelong consumption of non-alcoholic beverages were ascertained. There were 399 incident cases of prostate cancer, 476 population controls and 621 cancer controls. There was no association between the consumption of either coffee or carbonated beverages and the development of prostate cancer. Among daily tea drinkers, the odds ratio associated with the highest tertile of cumulative consumption was 2.0 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-3.0) when using population controls and 1.6 (95% CI 1.0-2.4) when using cancer controls. In conclusion, the consumption of coffee or carbonated beverages does not influence the risk of prostate cancer. Our findings provide no support to the hypothesis that tea consumption may be protective. While tea consumption may increase prostate cancer risk, we were unable to rule out alternative explanations for the positive association that we observed.
The aim of the study was to investigate how soft drink and fruit juice consumption in teenagers is associated with life-style, other food choices, eating behaviour and maternal characteristics. A cross-sectional study of 16-year-old girls (n 275) and boys (n 199) and their mothers was undertaken. Questionnaires were used to assess habitual dietary intake, eating behaviour, physical activity, smoking and educational level. Weight and height were measured. It was found that eating breakfast less than five times per week was independently associated with a high soft drink consumption in both girls and boys. A low intake of cooked meals and milk and a high intake of salty snacks were associated with soft drinks in boys only, and a low intake of fruits in girls only. A high maternal juice intake, low milk and high fruit consumption were independent correlates of fruit juice intake in both girls and boys. In girls, being a smoker, having a smoking mother, a high soft drink intake, scoring low on emotional eating and high on cognitive restraint were also associated with fruit juice intake. A low intake of soft drinks and cooked meals was associated with fruit juice intake in boys only. Neither soft drinks nor fruit juice was associated with BMI. In conclusion, a high intake of both fruit juice and soft drinks were associated with a lower intake of foods such as milk and cooked meals. It might be possible to influence fruit juice intake among teenagers by aiming at their mothers, whereas the adolescents themselves should be targeted when the aim is to reduce soft drink consumption.
To explore how the quality of school lunch consumed reflected overall eating patterns in school-aged children.
Children filled in an Internet-based questionnaire about their eating patterns. The children were then divided into balanced and imbalanced school lunch eaters on the basis of their responses in the questionnaire. A balanced school lunch consisted of, by the definition used in the present study, a main dish, salad and bread.
Eleven primary schools and one middle school in eastern Finland.
A total of 531 schoolchildren (247 boys and 284 girls) aged 11-16 years.
The school lunch was balanced in 46·5% of children. Eating a balanced school lunch was associated with overall healthier eating patterns outside school. Children who ate a balanced school lunch had more regular meal times and consumed healthier snacks. They ate fruit or berries and vegetables, dairy products and wholegrain foods more often, consumed fewer salty snacks, pizzas, meat pies and drank fewer soft drinks and energy drinks. Their eating patterns at home were also healthier, with vegetables being offered at every family dinner and fruit being offered daily, whereas soft drinks were offered seldom.
The choices made by children in their school lunch reflect the overall eating patterns among school-aged children. Eating a balanced school lunch is associated with more regular meal patterns, the availability of healthier foods at home and an overall healthier diet, suggesting that healthy eating patterns are learnt at home.
Attitudes to sugar and previous experience (liking and use at present and in childhood) of sweet foods as well as hedonic responses to two levels of sweetness in soft drinks were determined in a young adult population (112 males, 112 females). Females were more negative in their attitudes but they reported greater liking of sweet foods. Sugar attitudes were not related to hedonic responses to normal sweetness (9%) in either sex group, but in the case of lower sweetness (5%) negative attitudes increased along with the rated pleasantness, particularly among males. Reported liking and use of soft drinks had some significant correlations with hedonic responses to both sweetness levels, but experiences of other sweet foods were not related to the hedonic responses to sweetness in soft drinks.
To identify sociodemographic and environmental correlates of sweetened beverages (regular soft drinks, fruit juice) among children of pre-school age.
Children's dietary intake, food behaviours and screen time were measured by parental report. A Geographic Informational System was used to assess the number of grocery stores and fast-food restaurants available within 1 km of the children's residence. Multivariate log-binomial regression models were constructed to determine correlates of drinking soft drinks during the previous week.
Edmonton region, Canada.
Children aged 4 and 5 years (n 2114) attending a public health unit for immunization were recruited for a cohort study on determinants of childhood obesity, between 2005 and 2007.
Children from neighbourhoods with low socio-economic status (relative risk (RR) = 1·17, 95 % CI 0·98, 1·40) or who participated in >2 h of screen time daily (RR = 1·28, 95 % CI 1·13, 1·45) were significantly more likely to have consumed regular soft drinks within the last week. Those who lived within 1 km of a grocery store were significantly less likely to consume regular soft drinks (RR = 0·84, 95 % CI 0·73, 0·96). Children who participated in >2 h of screen time daily (RR = 1·16, 95 % CI 1·06, 1·27) were more likely to exceed the recommended weekly number of servings of fruit juice.
Socio-economic and built environment factors are associated with soft drink consumption in children of pre-school age. These findings may help health professionals to advocate for policies that reduce soft drink consumption among children.
Soft drink intake among Yup'ik Eskimo teenagers was assessed as part of a monitoring system for a nutrition education intervention project. Soft drink intakes were found to be three to four times greater than in the general US teenage population. Over half of the soft drinks consumed were in the form of sweetened non-carbonated beverages, e.g., Tang, Koolaid. At the end of two years of intervention, soft drink consumption decreased by 10% in the 10 intervention villages as a whole, while intakes decreased by 4% in the 4 control villages. Soda pop consumption alone decreased by 18% in the intervention villages and increased by 20% in control villages.
From: Fortuine, Robert et al. 1993. The Health of the Inuit of North America: A Bibliography from the Earliest Times through 1990. University of Alaska Anchorage. Citation number 1227.