Previous studies have shown that fluoride is present in beverages prepared with fluoridated water. The purpose of this study was to determine the availability of fluoride from beverages consumed in adjacent fluoridated and non-fluoridated communities taking into account fluoride supplementation regimens. Children in grade six were invited to participate in recording of beverage intake in two cities in Alberta, Canada: Wetaskiwin, with water supplies fluoridated at 1.08 ppm F, and Camrose, non-fluoridated with water supplies at 0.23 ppm F. Three-day beverage intake records--"Drink Diaries"--were collected from 179 children in Wetaskiwin and 230 children in Camrose. Fluoride values, based on the analyses of Hargreaves, were assigned to the reported consumption of the children with the three highest and three lowest total beverage intakes in each community. A wide range of available fluoride was found. A substantial source of fluoride was shown to be available in the non-fluoridated community from beverages other than water, primarily from carbonated beverages commercially prepared with fluoridated water. Available beverages and actual consumption should be considered in the prescription of fluoride supplementation for children with minimal fluoride in their drinking water.
Attitudes to sugar and previous experience (liking and use at present and in childhood) of sweet foods as well as hedonic responses to two levels of sweetness in soft drinks were determined in a young adult population (112 males, 112 females). Females were more negative in their attitudes but they reported greater liking of sweet foods. Sugar attitudes were not related to hedonic responses to normal sweetness (9%) in either sex group, but in the case of lower sweetness (5%) negative attitudes increased along with the rated pleasantness, particularly among males. Reported liking and use of soft drinks had some significant correlations with hedonic responses to both sweetness levels, but experiences of other sweet foods were not related to the hedonic responses to sweetness in soft drinks.
Soft drink intake among Yup'ik Eskimo teenagers was assessed as part of a monitoring system for a nutrition education intervention project. Soft drink intakes were found to be three to four times greater than in the general US teenage population. Over half of the soft drinks consumed were in the form of sweetened non-carbonated beverages, e.g., Tang, Koolaid. At the end of two years of intervention, soft drink consumption decreased by 10% in the 10 intervention villages as a whole, while intakes decreased by 4% in the 4 control villages. Soda pop consumption alone decreased by 18% in the intervention villages and increased by 20% in control villages.
From: Fortuine, Robert et al. 1993. The Health of the Inuit of North America: A Bibliography from the Earliest Times through 1990. University of Alaska Anchorage. Citation number 1227.