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The 3-year follow-up study in a block of flats - experiences in the use of the Finnish indoor climate classification.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature185305
Source
Indoor Air. 2003 Jun;13(2):136-47
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2003
Author
M. Tuomainen
A. Tuomainen
J. Liesivuori
A-L Pasanen
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Kuopio, Finland. marja.tuomainen@hengitysliitto.fi
Source
Indoor Air. 2003 Jun;13(2):136-47
Date
Jun-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air pollution, indoor
Allergens - analysis
Ammonia - analysis
Asthma - prevention & control
Bacteria
Carbon Dioxide - analysis
Carbon Monoxide - analysis
Construction Materials - standards
Finland
Follow-Up Studies
Housing - standards
Humans
Humidity
Questionnaires
Spores, Fungal
Temperature
Abstract
Indoor climate of two new blocks of flats was investigated. The case building was built for people with respiratory diseases by following the instructions of the Finnish Classification of Indoor Climate, Construction and Finishing Materials, while the control building was built using conventional building technology. The main indoor air parameters (temperature, relative humidity and levels of CO, CO2, ammonia, total volatile organic compounds, total suspended particles, fungal spores, bacteria and cat, dog and house dust mite allergens) were measured in six apartments of both the buildings on five occasions during the 3-year occupancy. In addition, a questionnaire to evaluate symptoms of the occupants and their satisfaction with their home environment was conducted in connection with indoor air quality (IAQ) measurements. The levels of indoor air pollutants in the case building were, in general, lower than those in the control building. In addition, the asthmatic occupants informed that their symptoms had decreased during the occupancy in the case building. This case study showed that high IAQ is possible to reach by careful design, proper materials and equipment and on high-quality construction with reasonable additional costs. In addition, the study indicated that good IAQ can also be maintained during the occupancy, if sufficient information on factors affecting IAQ and guidance on proper use and care of equipment are available for occupants.
PubMed ID
12756007 View in PubMed
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Air pollution and daily mortality in a city with low levels of pollution.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature187142
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2003 Jan;111(1):45-52
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2003
Author
Sverre Vedal
Michael Brauer
Richard White
John Petkau
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, National Jewish Medical and Research Center, Denver, Colorado, USA. vedals@njc.org
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2003 Jan;111(1):45-52
Date
Jan-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - analysis - classification - poisoning
Air Pollution - adverse effects
British Columbia - epidemiology
Carbon Monoxide - analysis
Carbon monoxide poisoning
Cardiovascular Diseases - chemically induced - mortality
Cause of Death
Databases as Topic
Humans
Linear Models
Meteorological Concepts
Nitrogen Dioxide - analysis - poisoning
Ozone - analysis - poisoning
Particle Size
Respiratory Tract Diseases - chemically induced - mortality
Seasons
Sulfur Dioxide - analysis - poisoning
Urban health
Abstract
The concentration-response relationship between daily ambient inhalable particle (particulate matter less than or equal to 10 micro m; PM(10)) concentrations and daily mortality typically shows no evidence of a threshold concentration below which no relationship is observed. However, the power to assess a relationship at very low concentrations of PM(10) has been limited in studies to date. The concentrations of PM(10) and other air pollutants in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, from January 1994 through December 1996 were very low: the 50th and 90th percentiles of daily average PM(10) concentrations were 13 and 23 micro g/m(3), respectively, and 27 and 39 ppb, respectively, for 1-hr maximum ozone. Analyses of 3 years of daily pollution (PM(10), ozone, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide) concentrations and mortality counts showed that the dominant associations were between ozone and total mortality and respiratory and cardiovascular mortality in the summer, and between nitrogen dioxide and total mortality in the winter, although some association with PM(10) may also have been present. We conclude that increases in low concentrations of air pollution are associated with increased daily mortality. These findings may support the notion that no threshold pollutant concentrations are present, but they also raise concern that these effects may not be effects of the measured pollutants themselves, but rather of some other factor(s) present in the air pollution-meteorology mix.
Notes
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PubMed ID
12515678 View in PubMed
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Air pollution and emergency department visits for ischemic heart disease in Montreal, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature162394
Source
Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2007;20(2):167-73
Publication Type
Article
Date
2007
Author
Mieczyslaw Szyszkowicz
Author Affiliation
Air Health Effects Research Section, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2007;20(2):167-73
Date
2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Air Pollutants - analysis - toxicity
Air Pollution - adverse effects
Carbon Monoxide - analysis - toxicity
Cluster analysis
Emergency Service, Hospital - utilization
Female
Humans
Linear Models
Male
Middle Aged
Myocardial Ischemia - epidemiology - etiology
Nitrogen Dioxide - analysis - toxicity
Quebec - epidemiology
Risk factors
Sex Distribution
Abstract
We examined the associations between emergency department (ED) visits for ischemic heart disease (IHD) and short-term elevations in ambient air pollutants (CO and NO(2)).
A hierarchical clusters design was used to study ED visits (n = 4979) for ischemic heart disease (ICD-9: 410-414) that occurred at a Montreal hospital between 1997 and 2002. The generalized linear mixed models technique was applied to create Poisson models for the clustered counts of ED visits for IHD. The analysis was done by gender for two age categories, all patients and patients aged over 64 years.
The results are presented as an excess risk increase associated with the interquartile range (IQR) of daily average of the pollutant concentration. The results for NO(2) (IQR = 9.5 ppb) were 5.9% (95% CI: 2.1-9.9) for all patients and 6.2% (95% CI: 1.2-11.4) for males; for patients aged over 64: 7.1% (95% CI: 2.5-11.9) for all patients, 9.1% (95% CI: 2.8-15.7) for males, and 6.5% (95% CI: 0.7-12.7) for females (for exposure lagged by 1-day). The results for CO (IQR = 0.2 ppm): 5.4% (95% CI: 2.3-8.5) for all patients, and 7.5% (95% CI: 3.6-11.6) for males. For patients aged over 64 years, 4.9% (95% CI: 1.3-8.7) for all patients, and 7.5% (95% CI: 2.6-12.6) for males. The results show the associations for the same day exposures.
The short-term effects of nitrogen dioxide and carbon monoxide are associated significantly with daily ED visits for ischemic heart disease. For NO(2) the associations are stronger for patients aged over 64 years. As indicated by our results, it is likely that vehicular traffic, a producer of NO(2) and CO, contributes to an increased number of ED visits for IHD.
PubMed ID
17638683 View in PubMed
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Air pollution and emergency department visits for otitis media: a case-crossover study in Edmonton, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature141881
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2010 Nov;118(11):1631-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2010
Author
Roger Zemek
Mieczyslaw Szyszkowicz
Brian H Rowe
Author Affiliation
Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario and University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2010 Nov;118(11):1631-6
Date
Nov-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - analysis
Air Pollution - statistics & numerical data
Alberta
Carbon Monoxide - analysis
Child, Preschool
Cross-Over Studies
Emergency Service, Hospital - statistics & numerical data
Environmental monitoring
Epidemiological Monitoring
Female
Humans
Infant
Inhalation Exposure - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Logistic Models
Male
Nitrogen Dioxide - analysis
Odds Ratio
Otitis Media - epidemiology
Ozone - analysis
Particle Size
Particulate Matter - analysis
Risk factors
Sulfur Dioxide - analysis
Weather
Abstract
Otitis media (OM) is one of the most common early childhood infections, resulting in an enormous economic burden to the health care system through unscheduled doctor visits and antibiotic prescriptions.
The objective of this study was to investigate the potential association between ambient air pollution exposure and emergency department (ED) visits for OM.
Ten years of ED data were obtained from Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, and linked to levels of air pollution: carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), sulfur dioxide, and particulate matter (PM) of median aerometric diameter
Notes
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PubMed ID
20663739 View in PubMed
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Ambient carbon monoxide may influence heart rate variability in subjects with coronary artery disease.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature177018
Source
J Occup Environ Med. 2004 Dec;46(12):1217-21
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2004
Author
Robert Dales
Author Affiliation
HECSB/SEP/ECB/AHED/AQHER, Ottawa, Health Canada Air Quality-Health Effects Research Section, Health Canada, 275 Slater Street, 7th Floor, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0L2. rdales@ohri.ca
Source
J Occup Environ Med. 2004 Dec;46(12):1217-21
Date
Dec-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adrenergic beta-Antagonists - therapeutic use
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Angina Pectoris - drug therapy - epidemiology
Carbon Monoxide - analysis - toxicity
Comorbidity
Coronary Artery Disease - drug therapy - epidemiology - physiopathology
Environmental Exposure - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Environmental Monitoring - statistics & numerical data
Epidemiological Monitoring
Female
Heart Rate - drug effects
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Ontario - epidemiology
Abstract
Days of high ambient carbon dioxide (CO) have been associated with increased hospital admissions for cardiac disease. This study was conducted to determine if daily concentrations of CO and fine particulates (PM2.5) are associated with daily changes in heart rate variability.
Each of 36 adults with coronary artery disease had personal exposure to PM2.5 and CO measured along with heart rate variability for one 24-hour period each week for up to 10 weeks.
Among those not taking beta-receptor blockers, there was a positive association between the standard deviation of the R-to-R intervals and CO (P = 0.02). No effect was found for PM2.5.
Urban exposure to CO may exert a biologic effect on the heart, which may be modified by medications.
PubMed ID
15591973 View in PubMed
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The analysis of mainstream smoke emissions of Canadian 'super slim' cigarettes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature122402
Source
Tob Control. 2013 Nov;22(6):e10
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2013
Author
May Siu
Nemanja Mladjenovic
Evelyn Soo
Author Affiliation
Tobacco Research Division, Office of Research and Surveillance, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Tob Control. 2013 Nov;22(6):e10
Date
Nov-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - analysis
Amines - analysis
Ammonia - analysis
Canada
Carbon Monoxide - analysis
Environmental Exposure - analysis
Formaldehyde - analysis
Humans
Nicotine - analysis
Nitrosamines - analysis
Phenols - analysis
Reference Values
Smoking
Tobacco
Tobacco Products - analysis
Tobacco Smoke Pollution - analysis
Volatile Organic Compounds - analysis
Abstract
Super slim cigarettes are a relatively new type of cigarette in Canada, and an analysis of select toxicants in the mainstream smoke emissions of the super slim cigarette was conducted.
The yields of selected toxicants in the mainstream smoke emissions of six brands of super slim cigarettes were compared with the Canadian Benchmark, which represents the cigarette designs most commonly found in Canada. A super slim cigarette was also compared with a 'Reference Cigarette' to study the impact of the significantly reduced circumference on mainstream smoke emissions.
Compared with the Canadian Benchmark, the yields of carbon monoxide, the carbonyls, volatiles and the aromatic amines were significantly lower for the super slim cigarette, but the yields of formaldehyde and ammonia were significantly higher. For brands containing a mixed tobacco blend, the yields of tobacco-specific nitrosamines were increased significantly. The reduced circumference of the super slim cigarette resulted in a lower tobacco weight, which together with filter ventilation resulted in lower yields of many toxicants. However, the reduced circumference increased significantly the yields of formaldehyde and phenols in mainstream smoke emissions.
The notably slimmer design of the super slim cigarette resulted in lower yields of some toxicants in the mainstream smoke emissions. However, there were also significant increases in some toxicant levels in the mainstream smoke emissions including formaldehyde, ammonia and the phenols. There are no changes in emission levels that have been shown to reduce exposure or risk in a way that is meaningful, and therefore, the super slim cigarette should not be considered a 'less harmful' cigarette.
PubMed ID
22821751 View in PubMed
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[Anthropogenic environmental factors and their role in the occurrence of acute respiratory diseases].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature197074
Source
Gig Sanit. 1998 Nov-Dec;(6):11-3
Publication Type
Article
Author
M V Skachkov
N N Verashchagin
M A Skachkova
T N Kalinina
S A Osiian
Source
Gig Sanit. 1998 Nov-Dec;(6):11-3
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Air Pollutants - analysis
Air Pollution - adverse effects
Carbon Monoxide - analysis
Data Interpretation, Statistical
Dioxins - analysis
Dust - adverse effects
Fluorides - analysis
Humans
Nitrogen Dioxide - analysis
Respiratory Tract Diseases - epidemiology
Risk factors
Siberia - epidemiology
Sulfur Dioxide - analysis
Abstract
The incidence of acute respiratory diseases (ARD) in two districts of the Orenburg Region which have different levels of environmental pollution was comparatively analyzed. The higher incidence of ARD in the more polluted district (Kuvandyksky) than in the control one (Belyaevsky). The incidence rate (41.8%) of ARD correlated with the level of the ambient air pollution by dust, CO, NO2, NF and fluoride aerosols in the Kuvandyksky district.
PubMed ID
11013734 View in PubMed
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Apparent temperature and cause-specific mortality in Copenhagen, Denmark: a case-crossover analysis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature130287
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2011 Sep;8(9):3712-27
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2011
Author
Janine Wichmann
Zorana Jovanovic Andersen
Matthias Ketzel
Thomas Ellermann
Steffen Loft
Author Affiliation
Section of Environmental Health, Institute of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Øster Farimagsgade 5A, Copenhagen DK-1014, Denmark. jawic@sund.ku.dk
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2011 Sep;8(9):3712-27
Date
Sep-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Air Pollutants - analysis
Carbon Monoxide - analysis
Cardiovascular Diseases - mortality
Cause of Death
Denmark - epidemiology
Environmental monitoring
Epidemiological Monitoring
Female
Hospitals - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Humidity
Male
Middle Aged
Nitrogen Dioxide - analysis
Particulate Matter - analysis
Patient Admission - statistics & numerical data
Respiratory Tract Diseases - mortality
Temperature
Young Adult
Abstract
Temperature, a key climate change indicator, is expected to increase substantially in the Northern Hemisphere, with potentially grave implications for human health. This study is the first to investigate the association between the daily 3-hour maximum apparent temperature (Tapp(max)), and respiratory, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular mortality in Copenhagen (1999-2006) using a case-crossover design. Susceptibility was investigated for age, sex, socio-economic status and place of death. For an inter-quartile range (7 °C) increase in Tapp(max), an inverse association was found with cardiovascular mortality (-7% 95% CI -13%; -1%) and none with respiratory and cerebrovascular mortality. In the cold period all associations were inverse, although insignificant.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22016711 View in PubMed
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Assessment of indoor environmental quality in existing multi-family buildings in North-East Europe.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature268743
Source
Environ Int. 2015 Jun;79:74-84
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2015
Author
Liuliu Du
Tadas Prasauskas
Virpi Leivo
Mari Turunen
Maria Pekkonen
Mihkel Kiviste
Anu Aaltonen
Dainius Martuzevicius
Ulla Haverinen-Shaughnessy
Source
Environ Int. 2015 Jun;79:74-84
Date
Jun-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - analysis
Air Pollution, Indoor - analysis
Carbon Dioxide - analysis
Carbon Monoxide - analysis
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Finland
Formaldehyde - analysis
Housing - standards
Humans
Lithuania
Nitrogen Dioxide - analysis
Particulate Matter - analysis
Ventilation - standards
Volatile Organic Compounds - analysis
Abstract
Sixteen existing multi-family buildings (94 apartments) in Finland and 20 (96 apartments) in Lithuania were investigated prior to their renovation in order to develop and test out a common protocol for the indoor environmental quality (IEQ) assessment, and to assess the potential for improving IEQ along with energy efficiency. Baseline data on buildings, as well as data on temperature (T), relative humidity (RH), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matter (PM), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), formaldehyde, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), radon, and microbial content in settled dust were collected from each apartment. In addition, questionnaire data regarding housing quality and health were collected from the occupants. The results indicated that most measured IEQ parameters were within recommended limits. However, different baselines in each country were observed especially for parameters related to thermal conditions and ventilation. Different baselines were also observed for the respondents' satisfaction with their residence and indoor air quality, as well as their behavior related to indoor environment. In this paper, we present some evidence for the potential in improving IEQ along with energy efficiency in the current building stock, followed by discussion of possible IEQ indicators and development of the assessment protocol.
PubMed ID
25797585 View in PubMed
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Assessment of long-term exposure to air pollution in a longitudinal national health survey.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature142360
Source
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2011 Jul-Aug;21(4):337-42
Publication Type
Article
Author
Mireille Guay
David M Stieb
Marc Smith-Doiron
Author Affiliation
Population Studies Division, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0K9.
Source
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2011 Jul-Aug;21(4):337-42
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Air Pollutants - analysis
Air Pollution - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Canada - epidemiology
Carbon Monoxide - analysis
Cardiovascular Diseases - chemically induced - epidemiology
Child
Cities - epidemiology
Demography
Environmental Monitoring - methods - statistics & numerical data
Epidemiological Monitoring
Health Surveys
Humans
Nitrogen Dioxide - analysis
Ozone - analysis
Particulate Matter - analysis
Respiratory Tract Diseases - chemically induced - epidemiology
Risk assessment
Sulfur Dioxide - analysis
Time Factors
Young Adult
Abstract
Self-reported data on the municipality of residence were used to assess long-term exposure to outdoor air pollution from 1980 to 2002 in the longitudinal Canadian National Population Health Survey. Exposure to carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide, and particulate matter was determined using data obtained from fixed-site air pollution monitors operated principally in urban areas. Four different methods of attributing pollution exposure were used based on residence in (1) 1980, (2) 1994, (3) 1980 and 1994, and (4) at all locations between 1980 and 2002. Between 1,693 and 4,274 of 10,515 members of the cohort could be assigned exposures to individual pollutants using these methods. On average, subjects spent 71.4% of the 1980-2002 period in the census subdivision where they lived in 1980. A single exposure measure in 1980 or 1994 or a mean of the two measures was highly correlated (r>0.7, P
PubMed ID
20606704 View in PubMed
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60 records – page 1 of 6.