Air pollution referable to increased ambient levels of sulfur dioxide and suspended particulates is associated with increased episodes of acute bronchitis and is also causally related to some cases of chronic bronchitis. Oxidant air pollution is associated with abnormalities of pulmonary function in children and is a major contributory factor in COP, especially bronchitis, in some areas of the United States. The relationship of nitrogen dioxide atmospheric contamination to COPD is still controversial. In our opinion, the epidemiologic studies conducted to date have been inadequate and further elucidation is indicated. Cadmium fumes and compounds have been found to be instrumental in the development of some cases of chronic bronchitis and emphysema in Sweden. This association is unproved in the United States and warrants a thorough clinical and epidemiologic evaluation.
Many studies have indicated that weather can trigger headache. Here we propose a new methodological approach to assess the relationship between weather, ambient air pollution, and emergency department (ED) visits for this condition.
To examine the associations between ED visits for headache and selected meteorological and air pollution factors.
A hierarchical clusters design was used to study 10,497 ED visits for headache (ICD-9: 784) that occurred at a Montreal hospital between 1997 and 2002. The generalized linear mixed models technique was applied to create Poisson models for the clustered counts of visits for headache.
Statistically significant positive associations were observed between the number of ED visits for headache and the atmospheric pressure for all and for female visits for 1-day and 2-day lagged exposures. The percentage increase in daily ED female visits was 4.1% (95% CI: 2.0, 6.2), 3.4% (95% CI: 1.4, 5.6), and 2.2% (95% CI: 1.4, 5.6) for current day, 1-day and 2-day lagged exposure to SO(2), respectively, for an increase of an interquartile range (IQR) of 2.4 ppb. The percentage increase was also statistically significant for current day and 1-day lagged exposure to NO(2) and CO for all and for female visits.
Presented findings provide support for the hypothesis that ED visits for headache are correlated to weather conditions and ambient air pollution - to atmospheric pressure and exposure to SO(2), NO(2), CO, and PM(2.5). An increase in levels of these factors is associated with an increase in the number of ED visits for headache.
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) affects approximately 1 in 1000 live births and is the most common cause of infant death after the perinatal period.
To determine the influence of air pollution on the incidence of SIDS.
Time-series analyses were performed to compare the daily mortality rates for SIDS and the daily air pollution concentrations in each of 12 Canadian cities during the period of 1984-1999. Serial autocorrelation was controlled for by city, and then the city-specific estimates were pooled. Increased daily rates of SIDS were associated with increases, on the previous day, in the levels of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and carbon monoxide but not ozone or fine particles measured every sixth day. Effects persisted despite adjustments for season alone or the combination of daily mean temperature, relative humidity, and changes in barometric pressure for NO2 and SO2 but not carbon monoxide.
Increases in both SO2 and NO2, equivalent to their interquartile ranges, were associated with a 17.72% increase in SIDS incidence.
Ambient SO2 and NO2 may be important risk factors for SIDS.
BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution has been associated with increases in acute morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the short-term effects of urban air pollution on cardiac hospital readmissions in survivors of myocardial infarction, a potentially susceptible subpopulation. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this European multicenter cohort study, 22,006 survivors of a first myocardial infarction were recruited in Augsburg, Germany; Barcelona, Spain; Helsinki, Finland; Rome, Italy; and Stockholm, Sweden, from 1992 to 2000. Hospital readmissions were recorded in 1992 to 2001. Ambient nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, ozone, and mass of particles
We examined the role that ambient air pollution plays in exacerbating cardiac disease by relating daily fluctuations in admissions to 134 hospitals for congestive heart failure in the elderly to daily variations in ambient concentrations of carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, ozone, and the coefficient of haze in Canada's 10 largest cities for the 11-year period 1981-1991 inclusive. We adjusted the hospitalization time series for seasonal, subseasonal, and weekly cycles and for hospital usage patterns. The logarithm of the daily high-hour ambient carbon monoxide concentration recorded on the day of admission displayed the strongest and most consistent association with hospitalization rates among the pollutants, after stratifying the time series by month of year and adjusting simultaneously for temperature, dew point, and the other ambient air pollutants. The relative risk for a change from 1 ppm to 3 ppm, the 25th and 75th percentiles of the exposure distribution, was 1.065 (95% confidence interval = 1.028-1.104). The regression coefficients of the other air pollutants were much more sensitive to simultaneous adjustment for either multiple pollutant or weather model specifications.
The combined effects of carbon monoxide and low temperature on daily variation in hospital admissions for congestive heart failure (CHF) were examined for a 4-year period in Chicago, Illinois. Medicare hospital admissions for CHF were analyzed as a function of the maximum hourly temperature, maximum hourly levels of carbon monoxide (CO), and other criteria pollutants in Chicago for each day of the 4-year period (1986-1989). The regression analyses for the time series were conducted using single and multipollutant models with interaction terms and adjustments for weather, weekly cycles, seasonal effects, and secular trend. The data were also grouped into three temperature ranges, 75 degrees F, and the relationship between CO and CHF admissions was evaluated for each range. For the 4-year time series, the CO level was positively associated with hospital admissions for CHF in the single pollutant and multipollutant models after adjustment for seasonal effects and weather pattern. The relative risks of hospital admissions for CHF in Chicago associated with the 75th percentile of exposure to CO in the high, medium, and low temperature ranges were 1.02 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.95-1.10], 1.09 (CI, 1.04-1.14), and 1.15 (CI, 1.09-1.22), respectively. In these data, the effect of CO on hospital admissions for CHF was temperature dependent, with the magnitude of the effect increasing with decreasing temperature. This synergy may help to explain the association between ambient CO and CHF admissions demonstrated in other studies.
To study the impact of simulated climatic conditions of the 2010 summer in Moscow on the telomere repeats of chromosomes in human blood cells.
The climatic conditions of July-August 2010 in Moscow were simulated at the Medical Technical Complex, Institute of Biomedical Problems, Russian Academy of Sciences. The relative length of the telomeric repeats of blood cell chromosomes from 6 apparently healthy volunteers was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.
These conditions were ascertained to lead to a statistically significant decline in the length of telomere repeats in the terminal portions of chromosomes by 15%.
Environmental changes and abnormal temperature rises may result in oxidative stress accompanied by telomere shortening, which can be, in turn, a factor of premature aging.