Indoor climate of two new blocks of flats was investigated. The case building was built for people with respiratory diseases by following the instructions of the Finnish Classification of Indoor Climate, Construction and Finishing Materials, while the control building was built using conventional building technology. The main indoor air parameters (temperature, relative humidity and levels of CO, CO2, ammonia, total volatile organic compounds, total suspended particles, fungal spores, bacteria and cat, dog and house dust mite allergens) were measured in six apartments of both the buildings on five occasions during the 3-year occupancy. In addition, a questionnaire to evaluate symptoms of the occupants and their satisfaction with their home environment was conducted in connection with indoor air quality (IAQ) measurements. The levels of indoor air pollutants in the case building were, in general, lower than those in the control building. In addition, the asthmatic occupants informed that their symptoms had decreased during the occupancy in the case building. This case study showed that high IAQ is possible to reach by careful design, proper materials and equipment and on high-quality construction with reasonable additional costs. In addition, the study indicated that good IAQ can also be maintained during the occupancy, if sufficient information on factors affecting IAQ and guidance on proper use and care of equipment are available for occupants.
It is predicted that Arctic Ocean acidity will increase during the next century as a result of carbon dioxide accumulation in the atmosphere and migration into ocean waters. This change has implications for sound transmission because low-pH seawater absorbs less sound than high-pH water. Altered pH will affect sound in the 0.3-10?kHz range if the criterion is met that absorption is the primary cause of attenuation, rather than the alternatives of loss in the ice or seabed. Recent work has exploited sound that meets the criterion, sound trapped in a Beaufort Sea duct composed of Pacific Winter Water underlying Pacific Summer Water. Arctic pH is expected to drop from 8.1 to 7.9 (approximately) over the next 30-50?yr, and effects of this chemical alteration on the intensity levels of this ducted sound, and on noise, are examined here. Sound near 900?Hz is predicted to undergo the greatest change, traveling up to 38% further. At ranges of 100-300?km, sound levels from a source in the duct may increase by 7?dB or more. Noise would also increase, but noise is ducted less efficiently, with the result that 1?kHz noise is predicted to rise approximately 0.5?dB.
To explore associations between diet-related greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE), nutrient intakes and adherence to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations among Swedish adults.
Diet was assessed by 4d food records in the Swedish National Dietary Survey. GHGE was estimated by linking all foods to carbon dioxide equivalents, using data from life cycle assessment studies. Participants were categorized into quartiles of energy-adjusted GHGE and differences between GHGE groups regarding nutrient intakes and adherence to nutrient recommendations were explored.
Women (n 840) and men (n 627) aged 18-80 years.
Differences in nutrient intakes and adherence to nutrient recommendations between GHGE groups were generally small. The dietary intake of participants with the lowest emissions was more in line with recommendations regarding protein, carbohydrates, dietary fibre and vitamin D, but further from recommendations regarding added sugar, compared with the highest GHGE group. The overall adherence to recommendations was found to be better among participants with lower emissions compared with higher emissions. Among women, 27 % in the lowest GHGE group adhered to at least twenty-three recommendations compared with only 12 % in the highest emission group. For men, the corresponding figures were 17 and 10 %, respectively.
The study compared nutrient intakes as well as adherence to dietary recommendations for diets with different levels of GHGE from a national dietary survey. We found that participants with low-emission diets, despite higher intake of added sugar, adhered to a larger number of dietary recommendations than those with high emissions.
The Swedish Navy has operated submarines equipped with air independent propulsion for two decades. This type of submarine can stay submerged for periods far longer than other non-nuclear submarines are capable of. The air quality during longer periods of submersion has so far not been thoroughly investigated. This study presents results for a number of air quality parameters obtained during more than one week of continuous submerged operation. The measured parameters are pressure, temperature, relative humidity, oxygen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, formaldehyde and other volatile organic compounds, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter and microbiological contaminants. The measurements of airborne particles demonstrate that air pollutants typically occur at a low baseline level due to high air exchange rates and efficient air-cleaning devices. However, short-lived peaks with comparatively high concentrations occur, several of the sources for these have been identified. The concentrations of the pollutants measured in this study do not indicate a build-up of hazardous compounds during eight days of submersion. It is reasonable to assume that a substantial build-up of the investigated contaminants is not likely if the submersion period is prolonged several times, which is the case for modern submarines equipped with air independent propulsion.
Over 90% of 91 day care centers in greater Montréal, Québec exceeded 1000 ppm of CO2 during January through April 1989. Four variables were independent positive predictors of CO2 levels: the density of children in the center; presence of electric heating; absence of a ventilation system; and building age. High levels of CO2 are associated with respiratory tract and other symptoms. Clear standards and inspection policies should be established for day care center air quality.
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The availability of labile carbon (C) compounds in Arctic wetland soils is expected to increase due to thawing permafrost and increased fermentation as a result of decomposition of organic matter with warming. How microbial communities respond to this change will affect the balance of CO2 and CH4 emitted during anaerobic organic matter decomposition, and ultimately the net radiative forcing of greenhouse gas emissions from these soils. While soil water content limits aerobic respiration, the factors controlling methanogenesis and anaerobic respiration are poorly defined in suboxic Arctic soils. We conducted incubation experiments on two tundra soils from field sites on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska, with contrasting pH and geochemistry to determine the pathways of anaerobic microbial respiration and changes with increasing substrate availability upon warming. In incubation of soils from the circumneutral Teller site, the ratio of CO2 to CH4 dropped from 10 to
In the current literature, no agreement exists on estimates for aromatic amino acid (phenylalanine plus tyrosine) requirements as measured by stable-isotope techniques.
The goal of the present study was to determine the phenylalanine requirement in healthy men who were fed a diet without tyrosine by using the indicator amino acid oxidation method.
Five healthy men were assigned to receive in random order diets devoid of tyrosine and with 8 graded intakes of phenylalanine (5, 10, 15, 25, 35, 45, 60, and 70 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1)). The phenylalanine requirement was measured by the rate of 13CO2 release (F13CO2) from L-[1-(13)C]lysine oxidation.
The graded intakes of phenylalanine had no effect on lysine flux, as required for this method. The phenylalanine (ie, total aromatic amino acid) requirement, in the absence of tyrosine, was estimated to be 48 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1) by applying a two-phase linear regression crossover model to the F13CO2 data.
In the absence of tyrosine, the mean phenylalanine requirement is higher than the current FAO/WHO/UNU (1985) and Dietary Reference Intake (2002) recommendations.