STI rates are high for First Nations in Canada and the United States. Our objective was to understand the context, issues, and beliefs around high STI rates from a nêhiyaw (Cree) perspective. Twenty-two in-depth interviews were conducted with 25 community participants between March 1, 2011 and May 15, 2011. Interviews were conducted by community researchers and grounded in the Cree values of relationship, sharing, personal agency and relational accountability. A diverse purposive snowball sample of community members were asked why they thought STI rates were high for the community. The remainder of the interview was unstructured, and supported by the interviewer through probes and sharing in a conversational style. Modified grounded theory was used to analyze the narratives and develop a theory. The main finding from the interviews was that abuse of power in relationships causes physical, mental, emotional and spiritual wounds that disrupt the medicine wheel. Wounded individuals seek medicine to stop suffering and find healing. Many numb suffering by accessing temporary medicines (sex, drugs and alcohol) or permanent medicines (suicide). These medicines increase the risk of STIs. Some seek healing by participating in ceremony and restoring relationships with self, others, Spirit/religion, traditional knowledge and traditional teachings. These medicines decrease the risk of STIs. Younger female participants explained how casual relationships are safer than committed monogamous relationships. Resolving abuse of power in relationships should lead to improvements in STI rates and sexual health.
Canada is the second largest landmass country in the world, but has one of the lowest population densities. As of 2011, approximately 19% of the Canadian population lives in rural, or remote communities. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in rural and urban access to the Internet and device use in Canada, and to explore differences in access to broadband between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal communities in Canada. In general rural-dwellers had lower levels of Internet access and despite efforts to increase access to high speed Internet, Aboriginal communities in some regions have limited access. Future research should explore computer and health literacy in the context of rural and remote communities in Canada.
Canada began to fortify its flour and bread with vitamin B when it entered the Second World War. The decision was informed by the biology of vitamin B and therefore I suggest that the complexity of this political maneuver can best be understood by considering the specificity of the biochemistry of vitamin B. In this paper I will show that the specific biology of vitamin B allowed the Canadian government the possibility of a healthier population under wartime conditions but also allowed the government a variety of means by which to develop and organize food processing practices to this end.
Host immune selection pressure influences the development of mutations that allow for HIV escape. Mutation patterns induced in HIV by the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) are HLA-allele specific. As ethnic groups have distinct and characteristic HLA allele frequencies, we can expect divergent viral evolution within ethnicities. Here, we have sequenced and analyzed the HIV pol gene from 1248 subtype B infected, treatment-na?ve individuals in Canada. Phylogenetic analysis showed no separation between pol sequences from five self-identified ethnic groups, yet fixation index (F(ST)) values showed significant divergence between ethnicities. A total of 17 amino acid sites showed an ethnic-specific fixation pattern (0.015
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One hundred twenty-nine adenocarcinomas involving the esophagus and/or gastric cardia differed significantly from 212 cancers of the rest of the stomach as follows: male-female ratio, 6:1 versus 2:1, birth outside Canada, US or UK, 12% versus 34%; parent or sibling with gastric cancer, 5% versus 13%; previous duodenal ulcer, 23% versus 9%; chronic reflux symptoms, 25% versus 3%; hiatal hernia, 51% versus 11%. Of the 129 esophagocardia cancers, 24 involved the esophagus alone, 48 the cardia and esophagus, 33 the cardia alone or cardia and fundus, and 24 the upper stomach and lower esophagus extensively. Thirty-four were associated with Barrett's esophagus. The 72 patients with involvement of both the upper stomach and lower esophagus (48 cardia and esophagus, 24 extensive) were identical with the esophagocardia group as a whole. The 24 patients with esophageal cancer and the 34 with Barrett's epithelium were the same clinically as the whole esophagocardia group except more had chronic reflux and hiatal hernia. The 33 patients with cancer confined to the cardia or cardia and fundus resembled the whole esophagocardia group but did not have Barrett's esophagus. Adenocarcinoma of the esophagocardia region is probably a different disease from cancer of the rest of the stomach.
This article examines the emigration of orphan and deserted children from Bristol to Canada in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. This emigration was organised and financed by the local Boards of Guardians and, as such, raises important questions about the way in which state agencies cared for dependent children. The emigration of Poor Law children is explored in relation to debates about childcare, poverty, racial degeneration and imperialism. Of particular interest is the role played by women in promoting child emigration and the article considers the women's contribution to discourse and practice, both locally and nationally. The dynamics of emigration are analysed by using both British and Canadian sources and the tensions associated with pauper emigration are examined in some detail.
Ah-ayitaw isi e-ki-kiskeyihtahkik maskihkiy. They knew both sides of medicine: Cree tales of curing and cursing told by Alice Ahenakew. [Review of: Ahenakew, A. Ah-ayitaw isi e-ki-kiskeyihtahkik maskihkiy. They knew both sides of medicine: Cree tales of curing and cursing told by Alice Ahenakew. Winnipeg: U. of Manitoba Pr., 2000].