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Antibiotic use among twelve Canadian First Nations communities: a retrospective chart review of skin and soft tissue infections.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature306981
Source
BMC Infect Dis. 2020 Feb 10; 20(1):118
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Feb-10-2020
Author
Dahn Jeong
Ha Nhan Thi Nguyen
Mark Tyndall
Yoko S Schreiber
Author Affiliation
School of Epidemiology, Public Health and Preventative Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Source
BMC Infect Dis. 2020 Feb 10; 20(1):118
Date
Feb-10-2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Anti-Bacterial Agents - therapeutic use
Canada - epidemiology - ethnology
Community-Acquired Infections - drug therapy - epidemiology - ethnology
Drug Prescriptions - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Indigenous peoples
Male
Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus - isolation & purification
Middle Aged
Minority Health
Prevalence
Retrospective Studies
Soft Tissue Infections - drug therapy - epidemiology - ethnology
Staphylococcal Infections - drug therapy - epidemiology - ethnology
Staphylococcal Skin Infections - drug therapy - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
Previous publications indicated an emerging issue with community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA), particularly skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), in Indigenous communities in Canada. The objectives of this analysis were to explore the prevalence of SSTIs due to CA-MRSA and patterns of antimicrobial use in the community setting.
A retrospective chart review was conducted as part of an environmental scan to assess antibiotic prescriptions in 12 First Nations communities across five provinces in Canada including Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, and Québec. Charts were randomly selected from nursing stations and patients who had accessed care in the previous 12?months and were?=?18?years were included in the review. Data was collected from September to December, 2013 on antibiotic prescriptions, including SSTIs, clinical symptoms, diagnostic information including presence of CA-MRSA infection, and treatment.
A total of 372 charts were reviewed, 60 from Alberta, 70 from Saskatchewan, 120 from Manitoba, 100 from Ontario, and 22 from Québec. Among 372 patients, 224 (60.2%) patients had at least one antibiotic prescription in the previous 12?months and 569 prescriptions were written in total. The prevalence of SSTIs was estimated at 36.8% (137 cases of SSTIs in 372 charts reviewed). In 137 cases of SSTIs, 34 (24.8%) were purulent infections, and 55 (40.2%) were due to CA-MRSA.
This study has identified a high prevalence of antibiotic use and SSTIs due to CA-MRSA in remote and isolated Indigenous communities across Canada. This population is currently hard to reach and under-represented in standard surveillance system and randomized retrospective chart reviews can offer complimentary methodology for monitoring disease burden, treatment and prevention.
PubMed ID
32041554 View in PubMed
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Arthritis in the Canadian Aboriginal population: north-south differences in prevalence and correlates.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature138614
Source
Prev Chronic Dis. 2011 Jan;8(1):A04
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2011
Author
C. Ng
S. Chatwood
T K Young
Author Affiliation
Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Prev Chronic Dis. 2011 Jan;8(1):A04
Date
Jan-2011
Language
English
Spanish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Arthritis - epidemiology - ethnology
Canada - epidemiology - ethnology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Humans
Indians, North American
Male
Middle Aged
Odds Ratio
Prevalence
Risk factors
Young Adult
Abstract
Information on arthritis and other musculoskeletal disorders among Aboriginal people is sparse. Survey data show that arthritis and rheumatism are among the most commonly reported chronic conditions and their prevalence is higher than among non-Aboriginal people.
To describe the burden of arthritis among Aboriginal people in northern Canada and demonstrate the public health significance and social impact of the disease.
Using cross-sectional data from more than 29,000 Aboriginal people aged 15 years and over who participated in the Aboriginal Peoples Survey 2006, we assessed regional differences in the prevalence of arthritis and its association with other risk factors, co-morbidity and health care use.
The prevalence of arthritis in the three northern territories ("North") is 12.7% compared to 20.1% in the provinces ("South") and is higher among females than males in both the North and South. The prevalence among Inuit is lower than among other Aboriginal groups. Individuals with arthritis are more likely to smoke, be obese, have concurrent chronic diseases, and are less likely to be employed. Aboriginal people with arthritis utilized the health care system more often than those without the disease.
Aboriginal-specific findings on arthritis and other chronic diseases as well as recognition of regional differences between North and South will enhance program planning and help identify new priorities in health promotion.
Notes
Cites: J Rheumatol. 2001 Oct;28(10):2315-911669175
Cites: J Rheumatol. 1993 Nov;20(11):1830-58308766
Cites: J Rheumatol. 1998 Jan;25(1):23-99458198
Cites: Epidemiology. 1999 Mar;10(2):161-610069252
Cites: Health Rep. 2009 Dec;20(4):21-920108603
Cites: Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2005 Feb;34(4):662-715692959
Cites: J Rheumatol. 2008 Jun;35(6):1145-5018412300
Cites: Arthritis Rheum. 2008 Aug 15;59(8):1128-3618668615
Cites: Semin Arthritis Rheum. 1999 Jun;28(6):368-9110406405
PubMed ID
21159216 View in PubMed
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Association of regional racial/cultural context and socioeconomic status with arthritis in the population: a multilevel analysis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature87059
Source
Arthritis Rheum. 2008 Mar 15;59(3):399-407
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-15-2008
Author
Cañizares Mayilee
Power J Denise
Perruccio Anthony V
Badley Elizabeth M
Author Affiliation
Toronto Western Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. mcanizar@uhnres.utoronto.ca
Source
Arthritis Rheum. 2008 Mar 15;59(3):399-407
Date
Mar-15-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Arthritis - epidemiology - ethnology
Asian Continental Ancestry Group
Canada - epidemiology - ethnology
Cultural Characteristics
European Continental Ancestry Group
Female
Humans
Inuits
Male
Middle Aged
Models, Theoretical
Odds Ratio
Prevalence
Social Class
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To examine the extent to which differences in individual- and regional-level socioeconomic status and racial/cultural origin account for geographic variations in the prevalence of self-reported arthritis, and to determine whether regional characteristics modify the effect of individual characteristics associated with reporting arthritis. METHODS: Analyses were based on the 2000-2001 Canadian Community Health Survey (>15 years, n = 127,513). Arthritis was self-reported as a long-term condition diagnosed by a health professional. A 2-level logistic regression model was used to identify predictors of reporting arthritis. Individual-level variables included age, sex, income, education, immigration status, racial/cultural origin, smoking, physical activity, and body mass index. Regional-level variables included the proportion of low-income families, low education, unemployment, recent immigrants, Aboriginals, and Asians. RESULTS: At the individual level, age, sex, low income, low education, Aboriginal origin, current smoking, and overweight/obesity were positively associated with reporting arthritis; recent immigration and Asian origin were negatively associated with reporting arthritis. At the regional level, percentages of low-income families and the Aboriginal population were independently associated with reporting arthritis. Regional income and racial/cultural origin moderated the effects of individual income and racial/cultural origin; low-income individuals residing in regions with a higher proportion of low-income families reported arthritis more than low-income individuals living in better-income regions. CONCLUSION: Both individual and regional factors were found to contribute to variations in the prevalence of arthritis, although significant unexplained variation remained. Further research is required to better understand the mechanisms that underlie these regional effects and to identify other contributing factors to the remaining variation.
PubMed ID
18311772 View in PubMed
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At the edges of embodiment: determinants of breastfeeding for First Nations women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature260272
Source
Breastfeed Med. 2014 May;9(4):203-14
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2014
Author
Rachel Eni
Wanda Phillips-Beck
Punam Mehta
Source
Breastfeed Med. 2014 May;9(4):203-14
Date
May-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Breast Feeding - ethnology - psychology
Canada - epidemiology - ethnology
Decision Making
Fathers - psychology
Female
Focus Groups
Health Education - organization & administration
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Health Policy
Health promotion
Humans
Indians, North American - ethnology - psychology
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Mothers - psychology
Pain
Pregnancy
Public Opinion
Self Concept
Social Support
Time Factors
Women's Health - ethnology
Abstract
In Canada, First Nations women are far less likely to breastfeed than other women. First Nations people have been subjected to massive health and social disparities and are at the lowest end of the scale on every measure of well-being. The purpose of this study is to understand the experiences, strengths, and challenges of breastfeeding for First Nations women. Central to the current research is the notion of an embodiment within indigenous women's health and, more specifically, breastfeeding perspectives.
Guided by an indigenous feminist standpoint, our research study evolved through honest discussions and is informed by relevant public health literature on breastfeeding. We collected quantitative data through a survey on demographics and feeding practices, and we conducted focus groups in three Canadian provinces (British Columbia, Manitoba, and Ontario) over a period of 1 year (2010) from 65 women in seven First Nation communities.
Three overarching themes are discussed: social factors, including perceptions of self; breastfeeding environments; and intimacy, including the contribution of fathers. The main findings are that breastfeeding is conducive to bed sharing, whereas a history of residential school attendance, physical and psychological trauma, evacuations for childbirth, and teen pregnancy are obstacles to breastfeeding. Also, fathers play a pivotal role in a woman's decision to breastfeed.
Findings from this study contribute to informing public health by reconsidering simplistic health promotion and public health policies and, instead, educating First Nations communities about the complexity of factors associated with multiple breastfeeding environments.
PubMed ID
24606065 View in PubMed
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Bone density and bone area in Canadian Aboriginal women: the First Nations Bone Health Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature167601
Source
Osteoporos Int. 2006 Dec;17(12):1755-62
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2006
Author
W D Leslie
C J Metge
H A Weiler
M. Doupe
P. Wood Steiman
J D O'Neil
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine C5121, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. bleslie@sbgh.mb.ca
Source
Osteoporos Int. 2006 Dec;17(12):1755-62
Date
Dec-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Body Height - physiology
Body Weight - physiology
Bone Density - physiology
Calcaneus - anatomy & histology - physiology
Canada - epidemiology - ethnology
Cohort Studies
Female
Forearm - anatomy & histology
Humans
Indians, North American
Lumbar Vertebrae - anatomy & histology - physiology
Middle Aged
Osteoporosis - etiology - physiopathology
Pelvic Bones - anatomy & histology - physiology
Rural Health
Urban health
Abstract
Canadian Aboriginal women are at increased risk of fracture compared with the general population.
There is disproportionately reduced bone density in Aboriginal women as compared to white females of similar age.
A random age-stratified (25-39, 40-59 and 60-75) sample of Aboriginal women (n=258) and white women (n=181) was recruited. All subjects had calcaneus and distal forearm bone density measurements, and urban participants (n=397 [90.4%]) also had measurements of the lumbar spine, hip and total body.
Unadjusted measurements were similar in the two groups apart from the distal forearm which showed a significantly lower mean Z-score in the Aboriginal women (p=0.03). Aboriginal women were heavier than white women (81.0+/-18.0 kg vs. 76.0+/-18.0 kg, p=0.02). Weight was directly associated with BMD at all measurement sites (p0.2).
We identified significant site-specific differences in age-and weight-adjusted bone density for Aboriginal and white women. Larger bone area, rather than a reduction in BMC, appeared to be primarily responsible. Further work is needed to define how these differences in bone density and geometry affect indices of bone strength.
PubMed ID
16960648 View in PubMed
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Breast cancer in Circumpolar Inuit 1969-1988.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature4063
Source
Acta Oncol. 1996;35(5):577-80
Publication Type
Article
Date
1996
Author
A B Miller
L A Gaudette
Author Affiliation
Department of Preventive Medicine and Biostatistics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Acta Oncol. 1996;35(5):577-80
Date
1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Alaska - epidemiology - ethnology
Arctic Regions - epidemiology - ethnology
Breast Neoplasms - epidemiology - ethnology
Canada - epidemiology - ethnology
Female
Greenland - epidemiology - ethnology
Humans
Incidence
Middle Aged
Registries - statistics & numerical data
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Abstract
Breast cancer was studied over a 20-year period in Inuit populations in the Circumpolar region. A total of 193 breast cancers were observed in women. The incidence increased from 28.2 per 100 000 in 1969-1973 to 34.3 per 100 000 in 1984-1988. However, the incidence is low, about half what could be expected based on the rates in Denmark, Canada and Connecticut (USA). The low incidence could be explained by the Inuit diet and other lifestyle factors. These benefits should be preserved, in particular in the young, to maintain a low breast cancer incidence.
PubMed ID
8813064 View in PubMed
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Canadian Aboriginal women have a higher prevalence of vitamin D deficiency than non-Aboriginal women despite similar dietary vitamin D intakes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature165548
Source
J Nutr. 2007 Feb;137(2):461-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2007
Author
Hope A Weiler
William D Leslie
John Krahn
Pauline Wood Steiman
Colleen J Metge
Author Affiliation
Human Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, R3T 2N2 MB, Canada. hope.weiler@mcgill.ca
Source
J Nutr. 2007 Feb;137(2):461-5
Date
Feb-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Calcium, Dietary - administration & dosage
Canada - epidemiology - ethnology
Diet - statistics & numerical data
Diet Surveys
Female
Humans
Indians, North American - statistics & numerical data
Middle Aged
Prevalence
Vitamin D - administration & dosage - analogs & derivatives - blood
Vitamin D Deficiency - epidemiology - ethnology
Abstract
Canadian Aboriginal women have high rates of bone fractures, which is possibly due to low dietary intake of minerals or vitamin D. This study was undertaken to estimate dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D by designing a culturally appropriate dietary survey instrument and to determine whether disparities exist between Aboriginal and white women. After validation of a FFQ, 183 urban-dwelling and 26 rural-dwelling Aboriginal women and 146 urban white women completed the validated FFQ and had serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] measured. Urban Aboriginal women had lower (P=0.0004) intakes of total dietary calcium than urban white women; there was no difference in rural Aboriginal women. Only a minority of all women met the adequate intake (AI) for calcium intake. Ethnicity did not affect total vitamin D intake; however, rural Aboriginal women consumed all of their dietary vitamin D from food sources, which was more (P
PubMed ID
17237327 View in PubMed
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Cancer among Circumpolar Inuit 1969-1988. Introduction and methods.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature4065
Source
Acta Oncol. 1996;35(5):539-43
Publication Type
Article
Date
1996
Author
N H Nielsen
H H Storm
N. Christensen
L A Gaudette
A P Lanier
Author Affiliation
Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
Source
Acta Oncol. 1996;35(5):539-43
Date
1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Alaska - epidemiology - ethnology
Arctic Regions - epidemiology - ethnology
Canada - epidemiology - ethnology
Child
Child, Preschool
Female
Greenland - epidemiology - ethnology
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Inuits - statistics & numerical data
Male
Middle Aged
Neoplasms - classification - epidemiology - ethnology
Registries - statistics & numerical data
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sex Distribution
Abstract
Cancer incidence data for Circumpolar Inuit populations were developed and compiled from Greenland, Canada and Alaska from 1969 to 1988 to provide the largest possible base of data for documenting the unusual patterns of cancer previously reported for these populations. Cancer incidence and population data were transferred to the Danish Cancer Registry. Coded information from various ICD-classifications and codes for the basis of diagnosis were transformed to one format, enabling joint analysis. Standard descriptive analysis was carried out with presentation of number of cases, crude incidence rates (CR), age-standardized rates (world) (ASR), cumulative rates to age 64 years, and indirectly standardized ratios (SIR) to the populations of Connecticut (USA), Canada and Denmark. The resulting database can be used to support collaborative international research among the Inuit populations.
PubMed ID
8813060 View in PubMed
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Cancer in Circumpolar Inuit 1969-1988. A summary.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature3545
Source
Acta Oncol. 1996;35(5):621-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
1996
Author
N H Nielsen
H H Storm
L A Gaudette
A P Lanier
Author Affiliation
Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
Source
Acta Oncol. 1996;35(5):621-8
Date
1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska - epidemiology - ethnology
Alcohol drinking - epidemiology
Arctic Regions - epidemiology - ethnology
Canada - epidemiology - ethnology
Female
Food Habits
Forecasting
Greenland - epidemiology - ethnology
Humans
Incidence
Inuits - statistics & numerical data
Male
Neoplasms - epidemiology - ethnology - genetics - prevention & control
Registries - statistics & numerical data
Reproduction
Research
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Russia - epidemiology - ethnology
Sexual Behavior
Smoking - epidemiology
Abstract
The results of an international, collaborative study of cancer in Circumpolar Inuit in Greenland, Canada, Alaska and Russia are summarized. A total of 3 255 incident cancers were diagnosed from 1969 to 1988 among 85 000-110 000 individuals. Indirect standardization (SIR) based on comparison populations in Connecticut (USA), Canada and Denmark showed excess risk of cancer of the lung, nasopharynx, salivary glands, gallbladder and extrahepatic bile ducts in both sexes, of liver and stomach cancer in men, and renal and cervical cancer in women. Low risk was observed for cancer of the bladder, breast, endometrium and prostate, and for non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Hodgkin's disease, leukaemia, multiple myeloma and melanoma. Age-standardized incidence rates (ASRs) of cancer of lung, cervix, nasopharynx and salivary glands among Inuit were among the world's highest as were rates in women of oesophageal and renal cancer. Regional differences in ASRs within the Circumpolar area were observed for cancer of the cervix, lung, colon and rectum, liver, gallbladder and breast. The differences in the Inuit cancer incidence pattern to some extent reflect known variations in lifestyle, diet and other exposures, as well as implementation of cancer control measures. Future research addressing possible individual differences are needed to evaluate environmental and genetic factors in etiology and evaluate intervention studies.
PubMed ID
8813071 View in PubMed
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Cancer of the digestive system in Circumpolar Inuit.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature3548
Source
Acta Oncol. 1996;35(5):553-70
Publication Type
Article
Date
1996
Author
H H Storm
N H Nielsen
Author Affiliation
Danish Cancer Registry, Danish Cancer Society, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Source
Acta Oncol. 1996;35(5):553-70
Date
1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska - epidemiology - ethnology
Arctic Regions - epidemiology - ethnology
Biliary Tract Neoplasms - epidemiology - ethnology
Canada - epidemiology - ethnology
Colonic Neoplasms - epidemiology - ethnology
Digestive System Neoplasms - epidemiology - ethnology
Esophageal Neoplasms - epidemiology - ethnology
Female
Greenland - epidemiology - ethnology
Humans
Incidence
Inuits - statistics & numerical data
Liver Neoplasms - epidemiology - ethnology
Male
Pancreatic Neoplasms - epidemiology - ethnology
Rectal Neoplasms - epidemiology - ethnology
Registries - statistics & numerical data
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sex Distribution
Stomach Neoplasms - epidemiology - ethnology
Abstract
Cancer of the oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon, rectum, liver, gallbladder, biliary tract and pancreas was studied in the Inuit populations of Alaska, Canada and Greenland. Indirect standardization to the populations in Canada, Connecticut (USA) and Denmark was used. High risk of oesophageal cancer was observed in both sexes with standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of up to 7. An increased risk of colon and rectum cancer occurred among Alaskan Inuit compared with the Inuit populations in Canada and Greenland, which had lower rates. Liver and gallbladder cancer rates were high, with SIRs of 1.5 to 4.1, whereas there were no differences in pancreatic cancer in the populations compared. Dietary habits, alcohol and tobacco consumption are believed to play an important role in most of the observed cancer patterns, but for liver cancer hepatitis B virus infection is also believed to have a causal role.
PubMed ID
8813062 View in PubMed
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