Skip header and navigation

Refine By

494 records – page 1 of 50.

14-year diabetes incidence: the role of socio-economic status.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature139840
Source
Health Rep. 2010 Sep;21(3):19-28
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2010
Author
Nancy A Ross
Heather Gilmour
Kaberi Dasgupta
Author Affiliation
Department of Geography, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2K6, Canada. Nancy.Ross@mcgill.ca
Source
Health Rep. 2010 Sep;21(3):19-28
Date
Sep-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Algorithms
Canada - epidemiology
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - epidemiology
Family Characteristics
Female
Health Surveys
Humans
Incidence
Income
Interviews as Topic
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Pregnancy
Pregnancy in Diabetics - epidemiology
Proportional Hazards Models
Questionnaires
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
Diabetes prevalence is associated with low socioeconomic status (SES), but less is known about the relationship between SES and diabetes incidence.
Data from eight cycles of the National Population Health Survey (1994/1995 through 2008/2009) are used. A sample of 5,547 women and 6,786 men aged 18 or older who did not have diabetes in 1994/1995 was followed to determine if household income and educational attainment were associated with increased risk of diagnosis of or death from diabetes by 2008/2009. Three proportional hazards models were applied for income and for education--for men, for women and for both sexes combined. Independent variables were measured at baseline (1994/1995). Diabetes diagnosis was assessed by self-report of diagnosis by a health professional. Diabetes death was based on ICD-10 codes E10-E14.
Among people aged 18 or older in 1994/1995 who were free of diabetes, 7.2% of men and 6.3% of women had developed or died from the disease by 2008/2009. Lower-income women were more likely to develop type 2 diabetes than were those in high-income households. This association was attenuated, but not eliminated, by ethno-cultural background and obesity/overweight. Associations with lower educational attainment in unadjusted models were almost completely mediated by demographic and behavioural variables.
Social gradients in diabetes incidence cannot be explained entirely by demographic and behavioural variables.
PubMed ID
20973430 View in PubMed
Less detail

The 1993 General Social Survey I: alcohol use in Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature213881
Source
Can J Public Health. 1995 Nov-Dec;86(6):397-401
Publication Type
Article
Author
E W Single
J M Brewster
P. MacNeil
J. Hatcher
C. Trainor
Author Affiliation
Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse, Toronto, Ontario.
Source
Can J Public Health. 1995 Nov-Dec;86(6):397-401
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Alcohol drinking - epidemiology
Alcoholism - epidemiology - etiology
Canada - epidemiology
Female
Health Surveys
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Multivariate Analysis
Religion
Risk factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
Rates and correlates of alcohol use are reported from the 1993 General Social Survey, a household telephone survey of 10,385 Canadians carried out by Statistics Canada. Continuing a recent trend, alcohol use has declined. The portrait of the Canadian who is most likely to drink and drink heavily is that of a young adult male who is not married, relatively well-off, and rarely or never attends religious services. In a multivariate analysis of the combined impact of sociodemographic factors on drinking and drinking levels, it was found that the frequency of religious attendance and age were the strongest predictors of current drinking. Gender was the strongest predictor of volume of alcohol consumption, while religious attendance, age, marital status and employment status were also significant predictors.
PubMed ID
8932479 View in PubMed
Less detail

Aboriginal physician use in Canada: location, orientation and identity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature209126
Source
Health Econ. 1997 Mar-Apr;6(2):197-207
Publication Type
Article
Author
K B Newbold
Author Affiliation
Department of Geography, University of Illinois, Urbana 61801, USA. newbold@uiuc.edu
Source
Health Econ. 1997 Mar-Apr;6(2):197-207
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Canada - epidemiology
Female
Health Care Surveys
Health status
Humans
Indians, North American
Likelihood Functions
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Personal Health Services - utilization
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
The main objectives of this paper are to compare Aboriginal and Canadian health status and physician use and to identify the factors associated with the use of physician services. Data are drawn from the 1991 Aboriginal Peoples Survey (APS) and the 1991 General Social Survey (GSS), which are weighted random samples of the Aboriginal and total Canadian populations, respectively. The results demonstrate that Aboriginals were much less likely to use physician services, even though Aboriginals rank their health similarly to the total Canadian population. Location becomes an important aspect of both physician use and health status, with Aboriginals residing on-reserve generally having lower levels of self-assessed health and less likely to have seen a physician. While Aboriginals with the poorest health status were more likely to have seen a physician, other factors including education were found to be barriers to use of health care. Aboriginal identity and cultural orientation provided mixed results.
PubMed ID
9158971 View in PubMed
Less detail

Access to care, health status, and health disparities in the United States and Canada: results of a cross-national population-based survey.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature169088
Source
Am J Public Health. 2006 Jul;96(7):1300-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2006
Author
Karen E Lasser
David U Himmelstein
Steffie Woolhandler
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, The Cambridge Health Alliance and Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, Mass, USA. klasser@challiance.org
Source
Am J Public Health. 2006 Jul;96(7):1300-7
Date
Jul-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Canada - epidemiology
Delivery of Health Care - economics - standards - utilization
Emigration and Immigration
Ethnic Groups
Female
Health Services Accessibility - economics - statistics & numerical data
Health services needs and demand - economics - statistics & numerical data
Health Status Indicators
Humans
Income
Life expectancy
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Multivariate Analysis
National Health Programs - economics - standards - utilization
Patient Satisfaction - ethnology
Quality of Health Care
Socioeconomic Factors
United States - epidemiology
Universal Coverage
Abstract
We compared health status, access to care, and utilization of medical services in the United States and Canada and compared disparities according to race, income, and immigrant status.
We analyzed population-based data on 3505 Canadian and 5183 US adults from the Joint Canada/US Survey of Health. Controlling for gender, age, income, race, and immigrant status, we used logistic regression to analyze country as a predictor of access to care, quality of care, and satisfaction with care and as a predictor of disparities in these measures.
In multivariate analyses, US respondents (compared with Canadians) were less likely to have a regular doctor, more likely to have unmet health needs, and more likely to forgo needed medicines. Disparities on the basis of race, income, and immigrant status were present in both countries but were more extreme in the United States.
United States residents are less able to access care than are Canadians. Universal coverage appears to reduce most disparities in access to care.
Notes
Cites: BMJ. 2000 Apr 1;320(7239):898-90210741994
Cites: Health Aff (Millwood). 1999 May-Jun;18(3):206-1610388217
Cites: Health Aff (Millwood). 2002 May-Jun;21(3):182-9112025982
Cites: Health Rep. 2002;13(2):23-3412743954
Cites: JAMA. 2004 Mar 3;291(9):1100-714996779
Cites: Health Aff (Millwood). 2004 May-Jun;23(3):89-9915160806
Cites: N Engl J Med. 2004 Sep 9;351(11):1137-4215356313
Cites: Health Aff (Millwood). 1990 Summer;9(2):185-922365256
Cites: JAMA. 1994 Aug 17;272(7):530-48046807
Cites: Am J Public Health. 1996 Apr;86(4):520-48604782
Cites: Health Rep. 1996 Spring;7(4):33-45, 37-508679956
Cites: Health Rep. 1996 Summer;8(1):25-32 (Eng); 25-33 (Fre)8844178
Cites: Stat Methods Med Res. 1996 Sep;5(3):311-298931198
Cites: Health Rep. 1996 Winter;8(3):29-38(Eng); 31-41(Fre)9085119
Cites: Am J Public Health. 1997 Jul;87(7):1156-639240106
Cites: Health Rep. 1995;7(2):25-32(Eng); 29-37(Fre)9395439
Cites: J Gen Intern Med. 1998 Feb;13(2):77-859502366
Cites: Ann Intern Med. 1998 Sep 1;129(5):406-119735069
Cites: Ann Intern Med. 1998 Sep 1;129(5):412-69735070
Cites: JAMA. 2000 Apr 26;283(16):2152-710791509
PubMed ID
16735628 View in PubMed
Less detail

Active living among older Canadians: a time-use perspective over 3 decades.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature116266
Source
J Aging Phys Act. 2014 Jan;22(1):103-13
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2014
Author
Jamie E L Spinney
Hugh Millward
Author Affiliation
Dept. of Geography, Saint Mary's University, Halifax, NS, Canada.
Source
J Aging Phys Act. 2014 Jan;22(1):103-13
Date
Jan-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Activities of Daily Living
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Aging - physiology - psychology
Canada - epidemiology
Demography
Energy Metabolism
Female
Health Behavior
Humans
Independent Living - statistics & numerical data
Leisure Activities
Male
Motor Activity
Physical Exertion
Prevalence
Seasons
Socioeconomic Factors
Time Factors
Abstract
This research uses four nationally representative samples of time diary data, spanning almost 30 yr, that are fused with energy expenditure information to enumerate the median daily duration of moderate or vigorous effort activity, quantify the prevalence of Canadians age 65 yr and older who are meeting recommended daily levels of physical activity, and explore the factors affecting rates of active living. Results indicate that 41.1% of older Canadians met recommended levels of physical activity in 1992, 40.6% in 1998, 43.5% in 2005, and 39.6% in 2010. Both rates of active living and daily duration of aerobic activity exhibit significant differences among sociodemographic groups, with age, sex, activity limitation, urban-rural, and season exhibiting the most significant influences. This study illustrates the potential for time diary data to provide detailed surveillance of physical activity patterns, active aging research, and program development, as well.
PubMed ID
23416414 View in PubMed
Less detail

Acute asthma among adults presenting to the emergency department: the role of race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature183689
Source
Chest. 2003 Sep;124(3):803-12
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2003
Author
Edwin D Boudreaux
Stephen D Emond
Sunday Clark
Carlos A Camargo
Author Affiliation
Department of Emergency Medicine, Cooper Hospital, One Cooper Plaza, Camden, NJ 08103-1489, USA. boudreaux-edwin@cooperhealth.edu
Source
Chest. 2003 Sep;124(3):803-12
Date
Sep-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Adolescent
Adult
Asthma - epidemiology - ethnology
Canada - epidemiology
Cohort Studies
Emergency Service, Hospital - statistics & numerical data
Ethnic Groups - statistics & numerical data
Female
Health Services Accessibility - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Patient Admission - statistics & numerical data
Primary Health Care - statistics & numerical data
Prospective Studies
Socioeconomic Factors
United States - epidemiology
Abstract
To investigate racial/ethnic differences in acute asthma among adults presenting to the emergency department (ED), and to determine whether observed differences are attributable to socioeconomic status (SES).
Prospective cohort studies performed during 1996 to 1998 by the Multicenter Airway Research Collaboration. Using a standardized protocol, researchers provided 24-h coverage for a median duration of 2 weeks per year. Adults with acute asthma were interviewed in the ED and by telephone 2 weeks after hospital discharge.
Sixty-four North American EDs.
A total of 1,847 patients were enrolled into the study. Black and Hispanic asthma patients had a history of more hospitalizations than did whites (ever-hospitalized patients: black, 66%; Hispanic, 63%; white, 54%; p
PubMed ID
12970001 View in PubMed
Less detail

Addressing Household Food Insecurity in Canada - Position Statement and Recommendations - Dietitians of Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature288319
Source
Can J Diet Pract Res. 2016 09;77(3):159
Publication Type
Article
Date
09-2016
Source
Can J Diet Pract Res. 2016 09;77(3):159
Date
09-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada - epidemiology
Dietetics
Financing, Government
Food Supply - economics - legislation & jurisprudence - statistics & numerical data
Government Programs
Humans
Income
Mental health
Nutrition Policy
Nutritional Status
Nutritionists
Socioeconomic Factors
Vulnerable Populations
Abstract
POSITION STATEMENT It is the position of Dietitians of Canada that household food insecurity is a serious public health issue with profound effects on physical and mental health and social well-being. All households in Canada must have sufficient income for secure access to nutritious food after paying for other basic necessities. Given the alarming prevalence, severity and impact of household food insecurity in Canada, Dietitians of Canada calls for a pan-Canadian, government-led strategy to specifically reduce food insecurity at the household level, including policies that address the unique challenges of household food insecurity among Indigenous Peoples. Regular monitoring of the prevalence and severity of household food insecurity across all of Canada is required. Research must continue to address gaps in knowledge about household vulnerability to food insecurity and to evaluate the impact of policies developed to eliminate household food insecurity in Canada. Dietitians of Canada recommends: Development and implementation of a pan-Canadian government-led strategy that includes coordinated policies and programs, to ensure all households have consistent and sufficient income to be able to pay for basic needs, including food. Implementation of a federally-supported strategy to comprehensively address the additional and unique challenges related to household food insecurity among Indigenous Peoples, including assurance of food sovereignty, with access to lands and resources, for acquiring traditional/country foods, as well as improved access to more affordable and healthy store-bought/market foods in First Nation reserves and northern and remote communities. Commitment to mandatory, annual monitoring and reporting of the prevalence of marginal, moderate and severe household food insecurity in each province and territory across Canada, including among vulnerable populations, as well as regular evaluation of the impact of poverty reduction and protocols for screening within the health care system. Support for continued research to address gaps in knowledge about populations experiencing greater prevalence and severity of household food insecurity and to inform the implementation and evaluation of strategies and policies that will eliminate household food insecurity in Canada.
PubMed ID
27524631 View in PubMed
Less detail

Admission to hospital for pneumonia and influenza attributable to 2009 pandemic A/H1N1 influenza in First Nations communities in three provinces of Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature105054
Source
BMC Public Health. 2013;13:1029
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Michael E Green
Sabrina T Wong
Josée G Lavoie
Jeff Kwong
Leonard MacWilliam
Sandra Peterson
Guoyuan Liu
Alan Katz
Author Affiliation
Departments of Family Medicine and Public Health Sciences, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada. michael.green@dfm.queensu.ca.
Source
BMC Public Health. 2013;13:1029
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Canada - epidemiology
Child
Female
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Indians, North American - statistics & numerical data
Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype
Influenza, Human - epidemiology - ethnology - therapy
Male
Middle Aged
Pandemics
Pneumonia, Viral - ethnology - therapy
Risk assessment
Socioeconomic Factors
Urban Population - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
Early reports of the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic (pH1N1) indicated that a disproportionate burden of illness fell on First Nations reserve communities. In addition, the impact of the pandemic on different communities may have been influenced by differing provincial policies. We compared hospitalization rates for pneumonia and influenza (P&I) attributable to pH1N1 influenza between residents of First Nations reserve communities and the general population in three Canadian provinces.
Hospital admissions were geocoded using administrative claims data from three Canadian provincial data centres to identify residents of First Nations communities. Hospitalizations for P&I during both waves of pH1N1 were compared to the same time periods for the four previous years to establish pH1N1-attributable rates.
Residents of First Nations communities were more likely than other residents to have a pH1N1-attributable P&I hospitalization (rate ratio [RR] 2.8-9.1). Hospitalization rates for P&I were also elevated during the baseline period (RR 1.5-2.1) compared to the general population. There was an average increase of 45% over the baseline in P&I admissions for First Nations in all 3 provinces. In contrast, admissions overall increased by approximately 10% or less in British Columbia and Manitoba and by 33% in Ontario. Subgroup analysis showed no additional risk for remote or isolated First Nations compared to other First Nations communities in Ontario or Manitoba, with similar rates noted in Manitoba and a reduction in P&I admissions during the pandemic period in remote and isolated First Nations communities in Ontario.
We found an increased risk for pH1N1-related hospital admissions for First Nations communities in all 3 provinces. Interprovincial differences may be partly explained by differences in age structure and socioeconomic status. We were unable to confirm the assumption that remote communities were at higher risk for pH1N1-associated hospitalizations. The aggressive approach to influenza control in remote and isolated First Nations communities in Ontario may have played a role in limiting the impact of pH1N1 on residents of those communities.
Notes
Cites: PLoS One. 2012;7(6):e3943722761796
Cites: Am J Public Health. 2012 Aug;102(8):e51-822698024
Cites: Emerg Infect Dis. 2011 Sep;17(9):1615-2321888786
Cites: Ann Epidemiol. 2011 Aug;21(8):623-3021737049
Cites: CMAJ. 2010 Dec 14;182(18):1981-721059773
Cites: Soc Sci Med. 2010 Aug;71(4):717-2420554364
Cites: CMAJ. 2010 Mar 9;182(4):349-5520159893
Cites: CMAJ. 2010 Feb 23;182(3):257-6420093297
Cites: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2009 Dec 11;58(48):1341-420010508
Cites: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2009 Nov 13;58(44):1236-4119910911
Cites: N Engl J Med. 2009 Nov 12;361(20):1935-4419815859
Cites: Euro Surveill. 2009;14(42). pii: 1936619883543
Cites: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2009 May 8;58(17):453-819444146
Cites: Can J Public Health. 2012 Mar-Apr;103(2):90-322530528
Cites: Emerg Infect Dis. 2012 Jan;18(1):71-722257434
Cites: Can J Public Health. 2011 Sep-Oct;102(5):345-822032099
PubMed ID
24499143 View in PubMed
Less detail

Adolescent injuries in Canada: findings from the Canadian community health survey, 2000-2001.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature164771
Source
Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot. 2006 Dec;13(4):235-44
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2006
Author
Frank Mo
Michelle C Turner
Daniel Krewski
Joav Merrick
Author Affiliation
McLaughlin Centre for Population Health Risk Assessment, Institute of Population Health, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON KIN 6N5, Canada.
Source
Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot. 2006 Dec;13(4):235-44
Date
Dec-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior
Adult
Alcohol Drinking - adverse effects
Canada - epidemiology
Child
Cohort Studies
Female
Health Surveys
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Male
Seasons
Sex Distribution
Smoking - adverse effects
Socioeconomic Factors
Wounds and Injuries - epidemiology
Abstract
This article presents a description of injuries among 24312 Canadian adolescents, aged 12-24 years, based on the Canadian Community Health Survey, 2000-2001. A total of 3214 (25.6%) males and 2227 (16.5%) females reported having at least one serious injury in the past year. The leading causes of injury in adolescents were: falls; overexertion or strenuous movement; accidentally bumped, pushed or bitten; and accidentally struck or crushed by objects. The parts of the body most often affected were the ankles/feet, wrists/ hands and knees/lower legs. The most frequent locations of injuries were: sports or athletic areas; home; school, college or university areas; and the street, highway or pavement. Injuries were more often reported to have occurred during the summer months. Low socio-economic status was inversely associated with the occurrence of injury in the past year whereas risk-taking behaviour in the form of cigarette smoking and drinking alcohol was positively associated with injury occurrence.
PubMed ID
17345722 View in PubMed
Less detail

Adolescent passengers of drunk drivers: a multi-level exploration into the inequities of risk and safety.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature165781
Source
Addiction. 2007 Jan;102(1):51-61
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2007
Author
Christiane Poulin
Brock Boudreau
Mark Asbridge
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Health and Epidemiology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. christiane.poulin@dal.ca
Source
Addiction. 2007 Jan;102(1):51-61
Date
Jan-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Traffic - prevention & control
Adolescent
Alcoholic Intoxication
Automobile Driving - psychology
Canada - epidemiology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Demography
Female
Humans
Male
Risk-Taking
Safety
Socioeconomic Factors
Students
Substance-Related Disorders - etiology
Abstract
This study determined the individual-, neighbourhood- and provincial-level effects of rural residence, socio-economic status (SES), substance use and driving behaviours on adolescents' riding with a drunk driver (RDD).
Multi-level study based on cross-sectional self-reported anonymous data from the Student Drug Use Survey in the Atlantic Provinces (SDUSAP) and Census Canada data, merged on the postal code of participating schools. The sample design of the SDUSAP was a single-stage cluster sample of randomly selected classes stratified by grade and region.
The Atlantic provinces of Canada.
A total of 12 990 students in junior and senior high schools, with an average age of 15 years, participated in the 2002 SDUSAP.
The outcome variable was past-year RDD. The main individual-level independent variables were SES, rural residence, substance use and driving behaviours. The school-neighbourhood independent variables were the prevalence of heavy episodic drinking, driving under the influence of alcohol, driver's licence, highest level of educational attainment and low income.
The prevalence of RDD was 23.3% in 2002. Among students in grades 9-12, lower family SES, rural residence, substance use and driving under the influence were found to be independent individual-level risk factors for RDD; having a driver's licence was found to be protective. At the provincial and school-neighbourhood levels, a high prevalence of driving under the influence of alcohol and low educational attainment were found to be independent risk factors for RDD after taking into account individual characteristics.
This study provides evidence that inequities exist in the options for adolescents to be ensured of passenger safety, and that interventions aimed at decreasing the extent to which adolescents engage in riding with a drunk driver should be based on conceptual approaches that recognize ecological factors as well as individual-level susceptibility.
Notes
Comment In: Addiction. 2007 Jan;102(1):8-1017207117
PubMed ID
17207123 View in PubMed
Less detail

494 records – page 1 of 50.