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14-year diabetes incidence: the role of socio-economic status.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature139840
Source
Health Rep. 2010 Sep;21(3):19-28
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2010
Author
Nancy A Ross
Heather Gilmour
Kaberi Dasgupta
Author Affiliation
Department of Geography, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2K6, Canada. Nancy.Ross@mcgill.ca
Source
Health Rep. 2010 Sep;21(3):19-28
Date
Sep-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Algorithms
Canada - epidemiology
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - epidemiology
Family Characteristics
Female
Health Surveys
Humans
Incidence
Income
Interviews as Topic
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Pregnancy
Pregnancy in Diabetics - epidemiology
Proportional Hazards Models
Questionnaires
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
Diabetes prevalence is associated with low socioeconomic status (SES), but less is known about the relationship between SES and diabetes incidence.
Data from eight cycles of the National Population Health Survey (1994/1995 through 2008/2009) are used. A sample of 5,547 women and 6,786 men aged 18 or older who did not have diabetes in 1994/1995 was followed to determine if household income and educational attainment were associated with increased risk of diagnosis of or death from diabetes by 2008/2009. Three proportional hazards models were applied for income and for education--for men, for women and for both sexes combined. Independent variables were measured at baseline (1994/1995). Diabetes diagnosis was assessed by self-report of diagnosis by a health professional. Diabetes death was based on ICD-10 codes E10-E14.
Among people aged 18 or older in 1994/1995 who were free of diabetes, 7.2% of men and 6.3% of women had developed or died from the disease by 2008/2009. Lower-income women were more likely to develop type 2 diabetes than were those in high-income households. This association was attenuated, but not eliminated, by ethno-cultural background and obesity/overweight. Associations with lower educational attainment in unadjusted models were almost completely mediated by demographic and behavioural variables.
Social gradients in diabetes incidence cannot be explained entirely by demographic and behavioural variables.
PubMed ID
20973430 View in PubMed
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A 40-year perspective on the prevalence of depression: the Stirling County Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature199227
Source
Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2000 Mar;57(3):209-15
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2000
Author
J M Murphy
N M Laird
R R Monson
A M Sobol
A H Leighton
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston 02129-2000, USA. murphy@a1.mgh.harvard.edu
Source
Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2000 Mar;57(3):209-15
Date
Mar-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Canada - epidemiology
Depressive Disorder - epidemiology
Female
Health Surveys
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Prevalence
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales - statistics & numerical data
Psychometrics
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Abstract
According to epidemiologic studies that use recall of lifetime episodes, the prevalence of depression is increasing. This report from the Stirling County Study compares rates of current depression among representative samples of adults from a population in Atlantic Canada.
Sample sizes were 1003, 1201, and 1396 in 1952, 1970, and 1992, respectively. The depression component of the study's method, the DPAX (DP for depression and AX for anxiety), was employed. The original procedure (DPAX-1) was applied in all years. A revision (DPAX-2) was used in 1970 and 1992. The Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS) was also used in 1992.
With the DPAX-1, the overall prevalence of current depression was steady at 5% over the 2 early samples but declined in 1992 because of vernacular changes referring to dysphoria. The DPAX-2 gave a stable overall prevalence of 5% in the 2 recent samples, but indicated that women and younger people were at greater risk in 1992 than in 1970. The DIS, like the DPAX-2, found a current 1992 rate of 5% for major depressive episodes combined with dysthymia. Recalled lifetime rates using the DIS showed the same profile interpreted in other studies as suggesting an increase in depression over time.
Three samples over a 40-year period showed a stable current prevalence of depression using the DPAX methods that was comparable in 1992 with the current rates using the DIS. This casts doubt on the interpretation that depression is generally increasing. Within the overall steady rate observed in this study, historical change was a matter of redistribution by sex and age, with a higher rate among younger women being of recent origin.
Notes
Comment In: Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2000 Mar;57(3):223-410711907
Comment In: Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2000 Mar;57(3):227-810711908
PubMed ID
10711905 View in PubMed
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The 1993 General Social Survey I: alcohol use in Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature213881
Source
Can J Public Health. 1995 Nov-Dec;86(6):397-401
Publication Type
Article
Author
E W Single
J M Brewster
P. MacNeil
J. Hatcher
C. Trainor
Author Affiliation
Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse, Toronto, Ontario.
Source
Can J Public Health. 1995 Nov-Dec;86(6):397-401
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Alcohol drinking - epidemiology
Alcoholism - epidemiology - etiology
Canada - epidemiology
Female
Health Surveys
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Multivariate Analysis
Religion
Risk factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
Rates and correlates of alcohol use are reported from the 1993 General Social Survey, a household telephone survey of 10,385 Canadians carried out by Statistics Canada. Continuing a recent trend, alcohol use has declined. The portrait of the Canadian who is most likely to drink and drink heavily is that of a young adult male who is not married, relatively well-off, and rarely or never attends religious services. In a multivariate analysis of the combined impact of sociodemographic factors on drinking and drinking levels, it was found that the frequency of religious attendance and age were the strongest predictors of current drinking. Gender was the strongest predictor of volume of alcohol consumption, while religious attendance, age, marital status and employment status were also significant predictors.
PubMed ID
8932479 View in PubMed
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The 1993 General Social Survey II: alcohol problems in Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature213880
Source
Can J Public Health. 1995 Nov-Dec;86(6):402-7
Publication Type
Article
Author
E W Single
J M Brewster
P. MacNeil
J. Hatcher
C. Trainor
Author Affiliation
Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse, Toronto, ON.
Source
Can J Public Health. 1995 Nov-Dec;86(6):402-7
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Alcoholism - complications - epidemiology - psychology
Automobile Driving
Canada - epidemiology
Female
Health status
Health Surveys
Humans
Income
Male
Middle Aged
Multivariate Analysis
Quality of Life
Abstract
Rates and correlates of problems associated with the use of alcohol are reported from the 1993 General Social Survey in Canada. Approximately 1 in 11 drinkers (9.2%) reported that drinking has had an adverse effect on his or her social life, physical health, happiness, home life or marriage, work, or finances in the past year. The most commonly reported problems concerned physical health (5.1%), and financial position (4.7%). Approximately one in eight drinkers (12.9%) had driven a car within an hour after consuming two or more drinks in the previous year. Furthermore, more than two of every five respondents reported that they had experienced some problem due to other people's drinking. In a multivariate analysis, age, marital status, gender, religious attendance and employment status were the strongest predictors of problem drinking. The number of heavy drinking occasions is a stronger predictor of drinking problems than is overall level of consumption.
PubMed ID
8932480 View in PubMed
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Accumulation of major depressive episodes over time in a prospective study indicates that retrospectively assessed lifetime prevalence estimates are too low.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature151127
Source
BMC Psychiatry. 2009;9:19
Publication Type
Article
Date
2009
Author
Scott B Patten
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada. patten@ucalgary.ca
Source
BMC Psychiatry. 2009;9:19
Date
2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Age Factors
Age of Onset
Bias (epidemiology)
Canada - epidemiology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Depressive Disorder, Major - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Female
Health Surveys
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Mental Recall
Prevalence
Prospective Studies
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Questionnaires
Retrospective Studies
Severity of Illness Index
Sex Factors
Time Factors
Abstract
Most epidemiologic studies concerned with Major Depressive Disorder have employed cross-sectional study designs. Assessment of lifetime prevalence in such studies depends on recall of past depressive episodes. Such studies may underestimate lifetime prevalence because of incomplete recall of past episodes (recall bias). An opportunity to evaluate this issue arises with a prospective Canadian study called the National Population Health Survey (NPHS).
The NPHS is a longitudinal study that has followed a community sample representative of household residents since 1994. Follow-up interviews have been completed every two years and have incorporated the Composite International Diagnostic Interview short form for major depression. Data are currently available for seven such interview cycles spanning the time frame 1994 to 2006. In this study, cumulative prevalence was calculated by determining the proportion of respondents who had one or more major depressive episodes during this follow-up interval.
The annual prevalence of MDD ranged between 4% and 5% of the population during each assessment, consistent with existing literature. However, 19.7% of the population had at least one major depressive episode during follow-up. This included 24.2% of women and 14.2% of men. These estimates are nearly twice as high as the lifetime prevalence of major depressive episodes reported by cross-sectional studies during same time interval.
In this study, prospectively observed cumulative prevalence over a relatively brief interval of time exceeded lifetime prevalence estimates by a considerable extent. This supports the idea that lifetime prevalence estimates are vulnerable to recall bias and that existing estimates are too low for this reason.
Notes
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PubMed ID
19422724 View in PubMed
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Active surveillance: an essential tool in safeguarding the health and well-being of children and youth.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature162751
Source
CMAJ. 2007 Jul 17;177(2):169-71
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-17-2007
Author
Danielle Grenier
Author Affiliation
Department of Pediatrics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ont. danielleg@cps.ca
Source
CMAJ. 2007 Jul 17;177(2):169-71
Date
Jul-17-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Distribution
Canada - epidemiology
Child
Child Welfare
Child, Preschool
Female
Health Surveys
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Male
Pediatrics - standards - trends
Prognosis
Rickets - epidemiology - etiology - prevention & control
Risk factors
Severity of Illness Index
Sex Distribution
Vitamin D - administration & dosage
Vitamin D Deficiency - complications - diagnosis
Notes
Cites: Arch Dis Child. 2007 Jun;92(6):527-3317158859
Cites: CMAJ. 2006 Sep 12;175(6):587-9016966660
Cites: MMWR Recomm Rep. 2001 Jul 27;50(RR-13):1-35; quiz CE1-718634202
Cites: J Pediatr. 2007 Jul;151(1):79-84, 84.e117586195
Cites: CMAJ. 2007 Jul 17;177(2):161-617600035
Comment On: CMAJ. 2007 Jul 17;177(2):161-617600035
PubMed ID
17600036 View in PubMed
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Adiposity, adipose tissue distribution and mortality rates in the Canada Fitness Survey follow-up study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature189366
Source
Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2002 Aug;26(8):1054-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2002
Author
P T Katzmarzyk
C L Craig
C. Bouchard
Author Affiliation
School of Kinesiology and Health Science, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. katzmarz@yorku.ca
Source
Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2002 Aug;26(8):1054-9
Date
Aug-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue
Adult
Aged
Anthropometry
Body Composition
Body mass index
Canada - epidemiology
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Health Surveys
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Obesity - etiology - mortality
Proportional Hazards Models
Risk factors
Sex Distribution
Skinfold thickness
Abstract
To compare mortality rates across indicators of adiposity and relative adipose tissue distribution in the Canadian population.
The sample included 10,323 adult participants 20-69 y of age from the Canada Fitness Survey who were monitored for all-cause mortality over 13 y.
BMI, waist circumference (WC) and the sum of five skinfolds (SF5) were indicators of adiposity, and the first principal component of skinfold residuals (PC1) represented subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution. Proportional hazards regression was used to estimate relative mortality risk from mortality rates across levels of adiposity and adipose tissue distribution, controlling for the confounding effects of age, smoking status and alcohol consumption.
:Significant curvilinear (J-shaped) relationships in men and linear relationships in women were observed between BMI, WC and SF5 and all-cause mortality rates. PC1 was not related to mortality rates in either men or women. In women, the inclusion of the other indicators of adiposity and adipose tissue distribution did not significantly add to the prediction of mortality rates beyond BMI; however, combinations of BMI and both WC and SF5 produced significant models in men.
The results support the hypothesis that overall level of adiposity is an important predictor of all-cause mortality, more so than the relative distribution of subcutaneous body fat, once overall level of body fatness has been accounted for.
PubMed ID
12119570 View in PubMed
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Adjusting distributions of the Health Utilities Index Mark 3 utility scores of health-related quality of life.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature186345
Source
Qual Life Res. 2003 Feb;12(1):11-20
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2003
Author
Jian Sun
Author Affiliation
Institute of Health Economics, Edmonton, AB, Canada. jsun@ihe.ab.ca
Source
Qual Life Res. 2003 Feb;12(1):11-20
Date
Feb-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Canada - epidemiology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Employment
Epidemiologic Studies
Health Status Indicators
Health Surveys
Humans
Male
Quality of Life
Self-Assessment
Abstract
The Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI3) is a multi-dimensional, preference-based measure of health status and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). HUI3 scores correlate strongly with self-ratings of health status and functional disability and vary according to age, gender and occupation. In comparative studies relating to HRQoL, it is necessary to carry out adjusted comparison of the health status of the different groups. taking into account unbalanced distribution of confounding variables. This paper describes a stratification method to adjust the distributions of HUI3 scores. This method provides a graphical representation of adjusted distribution of HUI3, which can also be used to adjust other HRQoL scores. Cross-sectional data from the 1998/1999 National Population Health Survey (NPHS) in Canada were used to verify the proposed method. Male agriculture workers and male construction workers in Canada had quite different age distributions but similar HUI3 distributions. After adjusting the age distribution of the construction group to match the distribution of agriculture group, the mean HUI3 score of the former significantly decreased.
PubMed ID
12625514 View in PubMed
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Adjusting divergences between self-reported and measured height and weight in an adult Canadian population.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature107533
Source
Am J Health Behav. 2013 Nov;37(6):841-50
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2013
Author
Marguerite L Sagna
Donald Schopflocher
Kim Raine
Candace Nykiforuk
Ronald Plotnikoff
Author Affiliation
School of Public Health, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada. msagna@ualberta.ca
Source
Am J Health Behav. 2013 Nov;37(6):841-50
Date
Nov-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Algorithms
Anthropometry
Bias (epidemiology)
Body Height
Body mass index
Body Weight
Canada - epidemiology
Female
Health Surveys
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Obesity - epidemiology
Overweight - epidemiology
Prevalence
Self Report
Abstract
To develop algorithm equations that could be used to adjust self-reported height and weight to elicit better estimates of actual BMI.
Linear regression analyses were performed to generate equations that could predict actual height and weight from self-reported data collected through telephone interviews on a representative sample of Canadians aged 18 years or older.
There were systematic biases in self-reported height and weight, leading to an underestimation of BMI. The application of our calibration equations to self-reported data produced closer estimates to actual rates of overweight and obesity.
We advocate the use of our correction equation whenever dealing with self-reported height and weight from telephone surveys to avoid potential distortions in estimating obesity prevalence.
PubMed ID
24001633 View in PubMed
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Adolescent injuries in Canada: findings from the Canadian community health survey, 2000-2001.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature164771
Source
Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot. 2006 Dec;13(4):235-44
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2006
Author
Frank Mo
Michelle C Turner
Daniel Krewski
Joav Merrick
Author Affiliation
McLaughlin Centre for Population Health Risk Assessment, Institute of Population Health, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON KIN 6N5, Canada.
Source
Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot. 2006 Dec;13(4):235-44
Date
Dec-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior
Adult
Alcohol Drinking - adverse effects
Canada - epidemiology
Child
Cohort Studies
Female
Health Surveys
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Male
Seasons
Sex Distribution
Smoking - adverse effects
Socioeconomic Factors
Wounds and Injuries - epidemiology
Abstract
This article presents a description of injuries among 24312 Canadian adolescents, aged 12-24 years, based on the Canadian Community Health Survey, 2000-2001. A total of 3214 (25.6%) males and 2227 (16.5%) females reported having at least one serious injury in the past year. The leading causes of injury in adolescents were: falls; overexertion or strenuous movement; accidentally bumped, pushed or bitten; and accidentally struck or crushed by objects. The parts of the body most often affected were the ankles/feet, wrists/ hands and knees/lower legs. The most frequent locations of injuries were: sports or athletic areas; home; school, college or university areas; and the street, highway or pavement. Injuries were more often reported to have occurred during the summer months. Low socio-economic status was inversely associated with the occurrence of injury in the past year whereas risk-taking behaviour in the form of cigarette smoking and drinking alcohol was positively associated with injury occurrence.
PubMed ID
17345722 View in PubMed
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664 records – page 1 of 67.