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Adverse drug reaction active surveillance: developing a national network in Canada's children's hospitals.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature150480
Source
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2009 Aug;18(8):713-21
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2009
Author
Bc Carleton
Rl Poole
Ma Smith
Js Leeder
R. Ghannadan
Cjd Ross
Ms Phillips
Mr Hayden
Author Affiliation
Pharmaceutical Outcomes Programme, Children's and Women's Health Centre of British Columbia, Child and Family Research Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. bcarleton@popi.ubc.ca
Source
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2009 Aug;18(8):713-21
Date
Aug-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems - organization & administration
Analgesics, Opioid - poisoning
Anthracyclines - adverse effects
Antibiotics, Antineoplastic - adverse effects
Breast Feeding
Canada - epidemiology
Case-Control Studies
Child
Child Health Services - organization & administration
Child, Preschool
Cisplatin - adverse effects
Codeine - poisoning
Drug Overdose - genetics - mortality
Female
Genetic markers
Hearing Loss - chemically induced
Heart Diseases - chemically induced
Hospitals, Pediatric - organization & administration
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
National health programs - organization & administration
Pharmacogenetics
Program Development
Time Factors
Abstract
Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) rank as the fifth leading cause of death in the western world. The nature and scope of these ADRs in children are not predictable based on post market surveillance reports that rely heavily on adult drug experience. The genotype-specific approaches to therapy in childhood (GATC) national ADR network was established to identify specific ADRs and to improve drug safety through identification of predictive genomic biomarkers of drug risk.
GATC set out to establish a national network of trained surveillance clinicians in pediatric hospitals across Canada. Surveillance clinicians identified, enrolled, and collected clinical data and biological samples from ADR cases and controls. Surveillance was targeted to three ADRs: anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity, cisplatin-induced hearing impairment, and codeine-induced mortality in breastfed infants.
The initial surveillance site was established in September 2005, with 10 sites fully operational by 2008. In 3 years, GATC enrolled 1836 ADR cases and 13188 controls. Target numbers were achieved for anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity. Modified target numbers were nearly attained for cisplatin-induced hearing impairment. Codeine-induced infant mortality in a breastfed infant was discovered by GATC investigators. A case-control study was subsequently conducted.
GATC has demonstrated a model of active and targeted surveillance that builds an important step toward the goal of personalized medicine for children. Effective communication, site-specific solutions and long-term sustainability across the network are critical to maintain participation and productivity. GATC may provide a framework of ADR surveillance that can be adapted by other countries and healthcare systems.
PubMed ID
19507171 View in PubMed
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Alcohol and other beverage use and prostate cancer risk among Canadian men.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature203798
Source
Int J Cancer. 1998 Dec 9;78(6):707-11
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-9-1998
Author
M G Jain
G T Hislop
G R Howe
J D Burch
P. Ghadirian
Author Affiliation
Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Toronto, Canada. meera.jain@utoronto.ca
Source
Int J Cancer. 1998 Dec 9;78(6):707-11
Date
Dec-9-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Alcohol Drinking
Beverages
Canada - epidemiology
Carbonated Beverages
Case-Control Studies
Coffee
Humans
Male
Odds Ratio
Prostatic Neoplasms - etiology
Risk factors
Tea
Abstract
There are very few large scale studies that have examined the association of prostate cancer with alcohol and other beverages. This relationship was examined in a case-control study conducted in 3 geographical areas of Canada [Metropolitan Toronto (Ontario), Montreal (Quebec), and Vancouver (British Columbia)] with 617 incident cases and 637 population controls. Complete history of beverage intake was assessed by a personal interview with reference to a 1-year period prior to diagnosis or interview. In age- and energy-adjusted models for all centers combined, the odds ratio (OR) for the highest quintile of total alcohol intake was 0.89. For alcoholic beverages separately, it was 0.68 for the highest tertile of beer, 1.12 for wine and 0.86 for liquor. The decreasing trend was significant for beer intake. The results were only significant for British Columbia out of all the 3 centers studied. Whereas coffee and cola intake was not associated with prostate cancer, a decrease in risk was observed with tea intake of more than 500 g per day (OR 0.70). Our results do not support a positive association between total alcohol, coffee and prostate cancer.
PubMed ID
9833763 View in PubMed
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Alcohol consumption and risk of benign proliferative epithelial disorders of the breast: a case-cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature197612
Source
Public Health Nutr. 1998 Sep;1(3):139-45
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1998
Author
T E Rohan
M. Jain
A B Miller
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Toronto, Canada. tom.rohan@utoronto.ca
Source
Public Health Nutr. 1998 Sep;1(3):139-45
Date
Sep-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alcohol Drinking - adverse effects - epidemiology
Breast Neoplasms - epidemiology - pathology
Canada - epidemiology
Case-Control Studies
Cohort Studies
Diet Surveys
Female
Fibrocystic Breast Disease - epidemiology - etiology - pathology
Humans
Incidence
Middle Aged
Precancerous Conditions - epidemiology - pathology
Questionnaires
Registries
Risk factors
Abstract
To study the association between alcohol consumption and risk of benign proliferative epithelial disorders (BPED) of the breast (conditions which are thought to have premalignant potential).
Case-cohort study.
The study was undertaken within the 56,537 women in the Canadian National Breast Screening Study (NBSS) who completed self-administered dietary questionnaires. (The NBSS is a randomized controlled trial of screening for breast cancer in women aged 40-59 years at recruitment.)
The study subjects were the 657 women in the dietary cohort who were diagnosed with biopsy-confirmed incident BPED. For comparative purposes, a subcohort consisting of a random sample of 5681 women was selected from the full dietary cohort. After exclusions for various reasons, the analyses were based on 557 cases and 5028 non-cases.
When compared to non-drinkers, rate ratios (95% CI) for those consuming > 0 and 10 and 20 and 30 g day(-1) were 0.35 (0.27-0.45), 0.26 (0.18-0.39), 0.29 (0.18-0.48), and 0.23 (0.13-0.40), respectively (the associated P value for the trend was 0.089). Similar findings were obtained from analyses conducted separately in the screened and control arms of the NBSS, in premenopausal and postmenopausal women, and for non-atypical and atypical forms of BPED, and there was little difference between the results for screen-detected and interval-detected BPED.
Alcohol consumption was associated with a non-dose-dependent reduction in risk of BPED.
PubMed ID
10933411 View in PubMed
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Alcohol consumption and time to recognition of pregnancy.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature168892
Source
Matern Child Health J. 2006 Nov;10(6):467-72
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2006
Author
Erika M Edwards
Martha M Werler
Author Affiliation
Data Coordinating Center, Boston University School of Public Health, 715 Albany St, 580, Boston, MA 02118, USA. eedwards@bu.edu
Source
Matern Child Health J. 2006 Nov;10(6):467-72
Date
Nov-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alcohol Drinking - adverse effects - epidemiology
Awareness
Canada - epidemiology
Case-Control Studies
Female
Fetal Development - drug effects
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Menstrual Cycle - drug effects
Pregnancy
Pregnancy, Unplanned
Pregnant Women - psychology
Proportional Hazards Models
Risk assessment
Risk-Taking
Time Factors
United States - epidemiology
Abstract
Despite warnings to abstain from alcohol, American women who are or could become pregnant still drink. This study evaluates whether women who consume alcohol are at an increased risk of recognizing pregnancy later than women who do not, adjusting for confounding factors that have been associated with alcohol consumption during pregnancy.
The sample included 863 control women from a multisite case-control study conducted from 1996 to 2002 in the United States and Canada. Telephone interviews were conducted with mothers by trained nurse interviewers who administered standardized questionnaires on demographic and reproductive factors, and pregnancy exposures.
Alcohol consumption was classified as none (42.0%), occasional (31.9%), regular (15.6%), and heavy (10.5%). Time to recognition of pregnancy was calculated as the date pregnancy was suspected minus the last menstrual period date (median: 31 days; range: 7-227 days). Unadjusted Cox proportional hazard models found that regular drinkers, but not heavy drinkers, had a significantly higher risk of recognizing pregnancy later than non-drinkers. However, this association went away after adjustment for demographic factors. Among women with unplanned pregnancies, heavy alcohol intake was associated with a 45% increased hazard ratio, compared to 0.80 for women with planned pregnancies; however, this finding was not statistically significant.
While time to pregnancy recognition did not vary among drinkers and non-drinkers, results from this study reiterate previous findings that pregnant women consume alcohol, and that drinkers share social and demographic characteristics that could be used to target public health interventions.
PubMed ID
16763772 View in PubMed
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Alcohol drinking and renal cell carcinoma in Canadian men and women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature157674
Source
Cancer Detect Prev. 2008;32(1):7-14
Publication Type
Article
Date
2008
Author
Jinfu Hu
Yue Chen
Yang Mao
Marie Desmeules
Les Mery
Author Affiliation
Evidence and Risk Assessment Division, Centre for Chronic Disease Prevention and Control, Public Health Agency of Canada, 120 Colonnade Road, AL 6701A, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Jinfu_Hu@phac-aspc.gc.ca
Source
Cancer Detect Prev. 2008;32(1):7-14
Date
2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Alcohol drinking - epidemiology
Canada - epidemiology
Carcinoma, Renal Cell - epidemiology
Case-Control Studies
Female
Humans
Kidney Neoplasms - epidemiology
Male
Middle Aged
Odds Ratio
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Abstract
Epidemiologic studies have reported that moderate alcohol consumption is inversely associated with the risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), but sex-specific results are inconsistent. The present study examines the association between alcohol intake and the risk of RCC among men and women.
Mailed questionnaires were completed by 1138 newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed RCC cases and 5039 population controls between 1994 and 1997 in eight Canadian provinces. A food frequency questionnaire provided data on eating habits and alcohol consumption 2 years before data collection. Other information included socio-economic status, lifestyle habits, alcohol use, and diet. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were derived through unconditional logistic regression.
Total alcohol intake was inversely associated with RCC in men and in women; the OR for the highest intake group (> or =22.3 g/day among men and > or =7.9 g/day among women) versus the non-drinkers was 0.7 (95% CI, 0.5-0.9) for both sexes. Analysis of menopausal status produced ORs for the highest intake group versus the non-drinkers of 1.2 (95% CI, 0.7-2.1) among premenopausal women and 0.6 (95% CI, 0.4-0.9) among postmenopausal women. Smoking and obesity were not important effect modifiers.
Moderate alcohol consumption may be associated with a decreased risk of RCC in men and in women (mainly postmenopausal women).
PubMed ID
18420355 View in PubMed
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Alcohol, tobacco and coffee consumption and the risk of pancreatic cancer: results from the Canadian Enhanced Surveillance System case-control project. Canadian Cancer Registries Epidemiology Research Group.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature198820
Source
Eur J Cancer Prev. 2000 Feb;9(1):49-58
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2000
Author
P J Villeneuve
K C Johnson
A J Hanley
Y. Mao
Author Affiliation
Cancer Bureau, Laboratory Centre for Disease Control, Health Protection Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, Canada. pvillene@uottawa.ca
Source
Eur J Cancer Prev. 2000 Feb;9(1):49-58
Date
Feb-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Alcohol Drinking - adverse effects
Canada - epidemiology
Case-Control Studies
Coffee - adverse effects
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Pancreatic Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Population Surveillance
Risk assessment
Smoking - adverse effects
Abstract
The relationship between alcohol, tobacco and coffee consumption and pancreatic cancer was investigated using population-based case-control data obtained from eight Canadian provinces. Our findings are based on analyses performed on 583 histologically confirmed pancreatic cancer cases and 4813 controls. Questionnaire data were obtained directly from 76% of the cases. Male subjects with 35 or more cigarette pack-years had an increased risk of developing pancreatic cancer relative to never smokers (OR= 1.46, 95% CI 1.00-2.14). Similarly, women reporting at least 23 cigarette pack-years of smoking had an odds ratio of 1.84 (95% CI 1.25-2.69). For the most part, consumption of total alcohol, wine, liquor and beer was not associated with pancreatic cancer. Coffee drinking was not related to pancreatic cancer. More work is needed to clarify the role of these and other potentially modifiable risk factors as a means to reduce the incidence of this disease for which treatment results remain disappointing.
PubMed ID
10777010 View in PubMed
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Altered plasma adipokines and markers of oxidative stress suggest increased risk of cardiovascular disease in First Nation youth with obesity or type 2 diabetes mellitus.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature152924
Source
Pediatr Diabetes. 2009 Jun;10(4):269-77
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2009
Author
Danielle M Stringer
Elizabeth A C Sellers
Laura L Burr
Carla G Taylor
Author Affiliation
Department of Human Nutritional Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada.
Source
Pediatr Diabetes. 2009 Jun;10(4):269-77
Date
Jun-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipokines - blood
Adolescent
Antioxidants - analysis
Biological Markers - blood
Canada - epidemiology
Cardiovascular Diseases - blood - epidemiology - etiology
Case-Control Studies
Child
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - blood - complications - epidemiology
Humans
Inflammation Mediators - blood
Obesity - blood - complications - epidemiology
Oxidative Stress - physiology
Risk factors
Abstract
To evaluate cardiovascular disease risk in First Nation youth with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) or obesity by comparing pro- and anti-inflammatory adipokines, markers of oxidative stress and the plasma phospholipid fatty acid profile.
Self-declared First Nation youth (12-15 yr) with T2DM (n = 24) as well as age-, gender-, and body mass index-matched controls (obese group; n = 19) and unmatched controls (control group; n = 34) were recruited from a pediatric diabetes clinic.
Plasma tumor necrosis factor-alpha, ultrasensitive C-reactive protein, resistin, and total antioxidant status were not different among the three groups. Plasma total leptin, soluble leptin receptor, and free leptin were significantly higher in the T2DM group than the control group (p
PubMed ID
19175895 View in PubMed
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Analysis of uveitis in a Canadian aboriginal population.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature256477
Source
Can J Ophthalmol. 2014 Apr;49(2):128-34
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2014
Author
Mili Roy
Author Affiliation
Department of Ophthalmology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada and the Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.. Electronic address: roym@cc.umanitoba.ca.
Source
Can J Ophthalmol. 2014 Apr;49(2):128-34
Date
Apr-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Age of Onset
Canada - epidemiology
Case-Control Studies
Child
Female
Humans
Indians, North American - statistics & numerical data
Inuits - statistics & numerical data
Male
Middle Aged
Prevalence
Retrospective Studies
Sex Distribution
Uveitis - diagnosis - epidemiology
Visual Acuity - physiology
Young Adult
Abstract
To compare patient demographics, uveitis characteristics, and outcomes in aboriginal First Nations (FN) versus non-aboriginal non-FN uveitis patients.
Case-control study.
Forty-three FN patients (80 eyes) and 45 control non-FN uveitis patients (69 eyes).
Retrospective chart review comparing patient demographics (age, sex, residency), disease characteristics (laterality, anatomic classifications, granulomatous and chronic inflammation, systemic associations, specific uveitis diagnoses), and disease severity-related outcomes (therapies, visual outcomes, complications) between FN versus control patients.
Mean age at disease onset was significantly younger in FN patients (30.4 years) versus control patients (40.2 years; p
Notes
Comment In: Can J Ophthalmol. 2014 Apr;49(2):11924767212
PubMed ID
24767216 View in PubMed
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An exploratory analysis of risk factors for childhood malignant germ-cell tumors: report from the Childrens Cancer Group (Canada, United States).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature215290
Source
Cancer Causes Control. 1995 May;6(3):187-98
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1995
Author
X O Shu
M E Nesbit
J D Buckley
M D Krailo
L L Robinson
Author Affiliation
Department of Pediatrics, Medical School, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, USA.
Source
Cancer Causes Control. 1995 May;6(3):187-98
Date
May-1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Birth weight
Breast Feeding
Canada - epidemiology
Case-Control Studies
Child
Child, Preschool
Environmental Exposure
Female
Germinoma - epidemiology
Gestational Age
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Infant, Premature
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications, Infectious - epidemiology
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Smoking - epidemiology
United States - epidemiology
Urinary Tract Infections - epidemiology
Abstract
A study of 105 patients with childhood malignant germ-cell tumors (MGCT) and 639 community controls was conducted utilizing a large epidemiologic database collected by the Childrens Cancer Group from 25 member institutions in the United States and Canada. This study was designed to explore the risk factors of this malignancy whose etiology remains poorly understood. A structured, self-administered questionnaire was used to collect exposure information, and data were analyzed using an unconditional logistic regression model with adjustment for relevant confounders. Consistent with the findings from studies of adult MGCT, gestational age was associated inversely with risk of MGCT, with a 70 to 75 percent reduction in risk for children born at term compared with those born pre-term. Parental, particularly maternal, self-reported exposure to chemicals or solvents (odds ratio [OR] = 4.6, 95 percent confidence interval [CI] = 1.9-11.3) and OR = 2.2, CI = 1.1-4.7 for maternal and paternal exposure, respectively) and plastic or resin fumes (OR = 12.0, CI = 1.9-75.0 [maternal] and OR = 2.5, CI = 1.0-6.5 [paternal]) were associated with elevated risk of MGCT. New findings, not reported previously, include a positive relationship of MGCT risk with birthweight and prolonged breastfeeding, an inverse association between MGCT risk and number of cigarettes smoked by the mother during pregnancy, and a 3.1-fold increased risk (CI = 1.5-6.6) associated with maternal urinary infections during index pregnancy. Although these findings need confirmation from future studies, they suggest a potential influence of in utero exposure to maternal endogenous hormones, parental environmental exposures, and maternal diseases during pregnancy in the development of childhood MGCT.
PubMed ID
7612798 View in PubMed
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335 records – page 1 of 34.